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Completed Projects

APMRC projects are detailed below and have been arranged in alphabetical order by the year of completion. For GISCA projects completed before 2012, please refer to the Archived Projects webpage.

Geographic Access and Spatial Clustering of Section 90 Pharmacies – 1990 to 2014: An Exploratory Analysis (Australian Government – Department of Health)
Location has played an important role in the dissemination of government funding to section 90 pharmacies under the Rural Pharmacy Maintenance Allowance (RPMA) and other rural allowances administered by the Department of Health. The RPMA aims to facilitate, “improved access to Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) medicines and pharmacy services for people in rural and remote regions of Australia, through the provision of a support allowance which recognises the additional financial burden of maintaining a pharmacy in these areas” (RPMA Program Guidelines, July 2015).

APMRC was engaged by the Department of Health to address a series of research questions relating to the geographic access and spatial clustering of pharmacies in addition to other research questions based on the location of pharmacies across Australia. Each of the research questions proposed were based on analysis of pharmacies for three snapshot periods: 30 June 1990; 30 June 2007; and 30 June 2014. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) spatial analysis techniques were applied to consider the specific location based questions proposed by the Department. The final report is available for download, including appendix 1, appendix 2, appendix 3, appendix 4, and appendix 5.

Metro ARIA (Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN))
Accessibility measures make it possible to investigate the relationship between location and health, well-being, service utilisation, and service provision. With no standard metropolitan accessibility measure available across Australia, the Metropolitan Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (Metro ARIA) project provides valuable information for urban researchers and service planners to assess metropolitan geographic access equity.

Metro ARIA is a composite spatial index that reflects the ease or difficulty people face accessing basic services within a metropolitan context. Based on the widely used Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia Plus (ARIA+) methodology, Metro ARIA is derived from the measurement of road distances from land parcels within Australia's eight capital cities to services locations belonging to five service themes: (1) Education; (2) Health; (3) Shopping; (4) Public Transport; and (5) Financial/Postal Services. In addition to the final composite index, accessibility classifications (ranging from high to low) for each of the five service themes can be used for standalone analysis. The resulting six accessibility indices have been aligned to Statistical Area 1 census units for easy integration with Australian census datasets to inform current research and stimulate new research opportunities. Metro ARIA is one of over 1,000+ datasets currently available to urban researchers through the AURIN portal. The Metro ARIA Information Sheet offers further details.

Circular Migration in Asia, the Pacific and Australia: Empirical, Theoretical and Policy Dimensions (Australian Research Council - Discovery Project) International migration has seen two major shifts - from permanent settlement to transnationalism and from a preoccupation with brain drain to an approach in which migration can benefit development. In both discourses circular migration plays an important role. This research uses a number of unique data sets and field studies to conceptualise, measure and analyse circular migration in the Asia-Pacific-Australia migration system, provide a better empirical and theoretical understanding of the migration process and develop new approaches to migration policy in origins and destinations.

OECD Comparable and Other Selected Small Area Indicators (Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN))
This project developed a suite of indicators across a number of domains which can be used to access and measure local community socio-economic performance at the Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geographic level. More information is available from the AURIN website.

Pilot Test of a Standard Methodology for Assessing Outcomes for Migrant Workers (International Labour Organisation (ILO))
This project involved working in collaboration with the ILO to pilot test a standard methodology for assessing the outcomes of low skilled labour migration from Indonesia to South Korea. It used a mixed methods approach to assess the outcomes of low skilled labour migration from Indonesia to South Korea especially for the migrants and their employers. The project suggested improvements to the ILO Standard Methodology for Assessing Outcomes for Migrant Workers.

Relationship Between the Distribution and Provision of Public Toilets and Local Population Characteristics (Australian Urban Research Infrastructure Network (AURIN))
There are many dimensions connected to the maintenance and provision of public toilets across Australia. These include: how many there are; where they are located; and whether the pattern of distribution matches the characteristics of local populations and is equitable across areas of different socioeconomic status. This research compared the National Toilet Map data with Australian Census data for key demographic characteristics at different spatial levels.

Systematic Review of Australian Research on Older People from CALD Backgrounds to Provide & Promote Translation of Research into CALD Aged Care Practices (Federation of Ethnic Community Councils of Australia (FECCA))
The objective of this review was to identify current evidence and any gaps in research and evidence about best practice in meeting the health, well-being and social inclusion needs of CALD older people as they age. This review offered aged care providers access to information and research that enables better informed services. The outcomes of the review were a first step to identifying research needs and priorities in CALD ageing and aged care and preparing a means for pursuing a CALD ageing and aged care research agenda. The Final Report and Fact Sheets are available for download.

Australia's Baby Boomer Generation, Obesity and Work Patterns, Causes and Implications (Australian Research Council - Linkage Project)
Baby boomers have the highest level of obesity of any Australian age cohort and this threatens to increase chronic disease incidence thus potentially increasing health costs and reducing their capacity to maintain and/or extend their participation in the workforce. This project identified and investigated factors influencing the eating and exercise patterns of baby boomers. The study aimed to identify key intervention points and provide policy makers with evidence and guidance for targeted interventions. Some findings from the project can be accessed by clicking on the links below:

The Baby Boomer Bulge - Challenges and Opportunities

Australia's Baby Boomer Generation: Implications of Obesity and Related Chronic Disease on Economic Productivity

Enabling Rural Migrant Settlement in South Australia (Local Government Research and Development Scheme)
Selective migration programmes and initiatives have been introduced to achieve a more even population distribution and to arrest regional and rural decline characterised by labour shortages, depopulation and ageing. There are emerging trends, patterns and issues related to settlement that are not well understood, particularly among migrants with humanitarian backgrounds. It has been noted by the research team that there has been some measure of success in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia with regional migration schemes. In addition this area has seen a marked increase in un-planned, organic settlement in some towns. This project aimed to explore the patterns and drivers of settlement of migrants, particularly those with a humanitarian visa background, in rural and regional Australia and observe their experiences of settlement in these rural regions. The Enabling Rural Migrant Settlement final report is available for download.

Improving the Evidence Base on Asylum Seekers (Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC))
There is very little empirical research on the decision making process of irregular migrants in Asia or even globally. This is understandable given the inherent difficulties of identifying and approaching irregular migrants. This study adopted a mixed method multi-site approach involving qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary data collected in both Sri Lanka and Australia. It sought to collect information from irregular migrants themselves, their families and from a range of key stakeholders who influence the migration process and/or have deep knowledge of that process. One of the key elements of the study investigated the contextual influences on the migration and especially the respective roles of the migration industry and the social networks of intending migrants, especially those in Australia with the Sri Lankan community.

Indonesia as a Transit Country in Irregular Migration to Australia - Patterns, Processes and Policy Implications (Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC))
This study involved an analysis of the role played by Indonesia in irregular migration into Australia. Transiting is a key but neglected element in much irregular migration. This study utilised information from a survey of asylum seekers in transit in Indonesia together with in-depth interviews of intending asylum seekers and other stakeholders to investigate the irregular migration process. Transit locations not only play a significant role in many irregular migration processes but they also constitute an important location in which to study irregular migration because the migrants are still in the process of moving. Studying migrants at a point of transit can yield important insights into the process of irregular migration and also is a potential point of policy intervention. Transit countries have long been recognised as playing an important role in irregular migration into Europe and North America but they have been little considered in the Asia-Pacific region. The Indonesia as a Transit Country final report is available for download.

Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) 2011 (University of Adelaide)
Update the ARIA products in response to the release of 2011 Australian Census data. Provision of the ARIA+ data to the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the release of the ASGS-RA. More information including information on how to purchase an ARIA product is available from the ARIA page.

Adelaide City Council Representation Review (Adelaide City Council)
Population analysis and ward modelling to support the Adelaide City Council 2012 Representation Review.

Analysis of Blood Donation Data (Australian Red Cross Blood Service)
This project aimed to demonstrate the benefits of spatial analysis, leveraging GIS capabilities. This project utilises Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) donation data from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2012 from eight strategically selected blood donation sites across South Australia, as a pilot study. This project was intended to highlight spatial analysis approaches that could be adopted by the Blood Service to consider trends and patterns within collected donation data to inform organisational planning and decision making.

Analysis of Demographic Processes which Presently Represent Important Policy Areas in Australian Cities and Regions (National Growth Areas Alliance)
The 2006-11 period was one of unprecedented population growth in Australia - the population increased by 1.89 million or 9.2 percent compared with 1.18 million (6.1 percent) between 2001-06 (ABS, 2013). This growth brought with it a number of challenges and opportunities for Australia. However, this growth is not randomly distributed across Australia. One of the main areas to have experienced this growth is the outer metropolitan areas of Australia's mainland capital cities. This report summarises some major dimensions of recent population dynamics in the local government areas located in these zones in Australian capitals which are part of the National Growth Areas Alliance. Understanding these population dynamics within Alliance LGAs is vital as they present a number of challenges and opportunities with important policy implications. The NGAA final report is available for download.

Demographic Analysis of Charles Sturt (City of Charles Sturt)
Using an analysis of 2010 population projections for the period 2006-2026 in the Council area and the four SLAs within its boundaries and placing this profile within the context of the 30 Year Plan for Greater Adelaide.

Demographic Trends in South Australia and their Implications for Community Demands on Councils and their Capacity to Meet those Demands (Local Government Association SA)
This project identified the major contemporary and emerging demographic trends which are influencing the populations of council areas in South Australia, with the aim of spelling out the implications of these trends for South Australian councils. The project concentrated on analysing changing trends and patterns of population growth in South Australia focusing especially on changing patterns of internal and international migration.

Examining Disability Service Need (Novita Children's Services)
Mapping and statistical analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics census data and Novita client data.

General Practitioner Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (GPARIA): Rural Retention Project (Department of Health and Ageing)
This project was designed to assist the Department for Health and Ageing in recognising and retaining long serving general practitioners (GPs) in rural and remote communities so that a reasonable level of access to medical care in Australia could be maintained. This resulted in the development of the General Practitioner Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (GPARIA).The methodology that was used to develop the index was based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). More information is available from the GPARIA information page.

Impact of Climate Change on Disadvantaged Groups: Issues and Interventions (National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility - NCCARF)
This study investigated the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of disadvantaged groups to the adverse impacts of climate change and identified interventions which can enhance resilience and counteract these effects in South Australia. Working with the South Australian Social Inclusion Unit, this study incorporated detailed mixed method studies of three local government areas in S.A. which are expected to experience significant climate change impacts over the next half century and which represent differing environmental and human settings. Working with key stakeholders, the project generated a set of specific policy and program recommendations. More information is available from the Climate Change Project page.

Mobile Populations in Australia, (National Seachange Taskforce Inc)
The project explored the problems that coastal LGAs throughout Australia have in estimating the size of mobile populations within their areas, and the future potential impact of baby boomers seeking a sea change. The final report, entitled Time and tide: moving towards an understanding of temporal population changes in coastal Australia is available for download.

Population Mobility in Australia's Regions (Regional Australia Institute)
The overall aim of the project was to provide a summary analysis of major trends in population dynamics in Australian regions and to initiate a discussion of implications stemming from these trends and the development of policy approaches that may address some of these implications. Disaggregating elements of population change at the local area level is crucial to understanding the dynamics of population change and mobility and for projecting future variations in the size and composition of the local communities and regions. Accordingly, this study built on an established methodology to drill down into the complexities of population dynamics at the local area level across Australia over the 2006-2011 periods and developed a typology of population change in specified areas of regional Australia.APMRC Policy and Research Briefings 3 to 6 relate to this project.

State-based Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia Plus Plus (SARIA++) 2011 (NSW Department for Education and Communities)
Updating of the SARIA++ index utilising 2011 Australian Census data, for New South Wales.

Demographic Profile of the Copper Coast (District Council of the Copper Coast)
This project developed a demographic profile of the Copper Coast Local Government Area through a survey of residents and holiday home owners.

Linking Rural Older People to Community through Technology (Department of Health and Ageing)
This multi-phase project aimed to explore access and connection to the wider community for older Australians in rural and remote locations through the use of new communication technologies. This project included the collection of preliminary data through surveys with older people living in the community (n=860) and community aged care service providers (n=130), and in depth interviews with 201 older people. This was followed by two pilot projects, one with older community members over 12 months using laptop computers and Apple iPads in 2011 and the second with community aged care service providers using iPads to enable streamlined service provision in rural and remote areas in late 2011 and early 2012. Results from the study showed that given opportunity, training and support older people will use ICTs to increase frequency of contact with family and friend ties and make new social connections.

There is a potential demand by this older cohort for simpler, age specific designs in new technologies and appropriate training, with the second pilot study suggesting that community aged care providers may be the ideal conduit for introduction and support with new forms of ICTs for older people. The project was successfully completed in August 2012. The Linking Rural Older People final report is available for download.

New Information and Communication Technologies and the Elderly: Practice, Problems and Potential (Australian Research Council - Linkage Project) Accessing services, isolation and loneliness are significant problems for older Australians and compromise their wellbeing. This study investigated the extent to which older people currently use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their daily lives and identified the barriers to greater take up of ICT, which could enhance their access to networks and services.

Patterns of Intergenerational Transfers of Time and Money in Australia (National Seniors Australia)
This research was based primarily on a quantitative national computer-assisted telephone interviewing survey of over 600 Australians aged 50 years and over conducted in 2011, exploring the nature of transfers of time and money between family generations. It also included qualitative data from in-depth follow-up interviews with a subset of survey participants conducted in 2012.

This project examined the dimensions and range of contributions made by older people to younger generations, exploring: motivations for transfers; flows of time and money transfers and if they are substituted for each other; what transfers are used for; their timing and value; and implications for service provisions, welfare and the balance of public-private support. The Intergenerational Transfers of Time and Money final report is available for download.

South Australian National Football League (SANFL)
Population modelling and support to the SANFL Boundary Commission for the remodelling of club recruitment zones, utilising GIS technology.

Survey of Baby Boomers (South Australian Active Ageing Research Cluster)
This project used a CATI survey of 1,204 South Australian baby boomers to document current circumstances in labour force participation, health, housing, leisure activities, internet use, use of local government services, caring, volunteer work and use of different types of transport. The Survey Results are available for download.


Hugo Centre for Migration and Population Research

School of Social Sciences
Faculty of Arts
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The University of Adelaide
South Australia 5005


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