Unit 1.1 Using EndNote: introduction
EndNote stores your references in files called libraries or databases. Either of these terms may be used in this tutorial. An EndNote library can be opened, closed, copied, moved, sent as an attachment like other files. Within a library, each reference is stored as a record containing labelled author, title and other fields. An EndNote version 9 or X library can store an unlimited number of references but EndNote recommends that not more than 100,000 be stored. An EndNote version 7 library can store up to 32,000 references or 32MB.
- Keep all your references in a single EndNote library even when they cover more than one subject. This helps avoid complications later when you are formatting bibliographies.
- Keep secure backup copies.
- EndNote 9 and X are not backwards compatible with Endnote 7. You can open an EndNote 7 library in EndNote 9 or X but you cannot open an EndNote 9 or X library in EndNote 7. Once you start using EndNote 9 or X you need to continue using it on all computers and cannot share your library with colleagues who use EndNote 7.
You can often use alternative methods (menus or keyboard commands or toolbars) to carry out EndNote operations. This tutorial normally shows menu commands and only one method.
Create a new EndNote library
- Start EndNote. A dialog box may prompt you to create a new EndNote library. Otherwise select NEW from the FILE menu.
- Save the library to a directory of your choice. EndNote on a PC will add .enl to the library's file name.
- The new library window is displayed. It shows '0 out of 0 References'.
- Units 2 and 3 of the tutorial show how to add references to the library.
- Close the library by clicking the close button.
Open an existing EndNote library
EndNote provides the sample Paleo library. You should practise with the Paleo library before creating your own.
- Start EndNote.
- An opening window may display. Select Open an existing EndNote library and the Paleo.enl library. If Paleo isn't displayed by default, browse to find it. It is normally in the SYSTEM (C:)>Program Files > EndNote > Examples directory on a PC.
- Alternatively open a library through OPEN on the FILE menu.
- Note: you can set your main EndNote library to open by default when you first start EndNote -
open the library, then choose EDIT > PREFERENCES > Libraries then Add Open Libraries.
The Paleo Library Window shows several hundred references, under author, year, and title headings. The first column shows the presence of a stored graphic using a paper clip icon.
Select and open a single reference
You can use standard arrow keys or a keyboard shortcut to move to references. For example, if your library is sorted alphabetically by author and you want to select (highlight) and open the reference with author named Sander, you can:
- use the arrow keys (or the scroll bar, Page Up, Page Down, Home and End keys as needed) to move to Sander
- or quickly type the letters san.
Double-click the highlighted reference or press ENTER to open its Reference window. You will see:
The record number (e.g. #158) is automatically assigned to each reference in an EndNote library. The number is not reused if you delete the reference. The same reference copied to a different EndNote library has a different record number.
- an identifier at the top (e.g. Sander, 1999 #158) which includes the EndNote record number (#158).
- a Reference Type (Journal Article etc)
- separate fields containing author, title, year etc.
Within a reference you can:
- move the cursor between fields: click within the field or press TAB to move forwards or [SHIFT + TAB] to move backwards.
- move between references: click Previous or Next arrows at the top.
- close and save the reference: click the standard [x] close button in the top corner.
- in Endnote X, click Hide Empty Fields to display only the fields you are using.
Link to web sites
If the URL field in an EndNote reference contains a URL for a web site, open the reference and click the URL to reach the Web site. The Internet browser can be set through EDIT > PREFERENCES > Online.
If the URL field does not contain a URL, try reaching journal articles through OpenURL. This leads to the normal Article linker window seen when linking to articles through databases.
- To setup OpenURL, choose Edit > Preferences > OpenURL.
- Click Enable OpenURL. Under OpenURL Path replace the URL with:
[the final "?" is part of the URL]
- To link to an article, open the EndNote record. From the References menu, choose OpenURL Link in Endnote 7 (or URL > OpenURL Link in EndNote X).
Select and open multiple references
EndNote lets you open up to 10 references at a time.
- To select adjacent references, click the first reference you want, hold SHIFT and click the last reference.
- To select references scattered through the window, select
the first reference, hold CTRL on a PC or Command on a Mac, and click each of the other required references.
- To select all references, choose SELECT ALL from the EDIT menu.
- To deselect one reference in a selected group, hold CTRL on a PC or Command on a Mac, and click the reference.
- To open multiple references, select a set of references then press ENTER or double click. Each Reference Window is displayed as part of a cascade.
- To close all the open references at once, use SHIFT - CTRL - W on a PC or Option - Command - W on a Mac.
Save a backup copy of a library
Keep backup copies of your EndNote Library and associated files.
In EndNote X, a .enl library and its associated .DATA folders can be saved as a compressed file for easy backup or sharing with a colleague.
- Open the EndNote library. From the FILE menu, choose SAVE A COPY and save to a location of your choice. The library copy is saved by default under a new name e.g. Paleo Copy.enl. The SAVE A COPY command also saves associated .DATA folders (containing graphics).
- Also keep copies of unformatted Word documents containing inserted EndNote citations and any personal output styles or filters you have created (see Unit 4).
- Open the EndNote library. From the FILE menu, choose Send to and then Compressed Library and save as a .enlx file.
- To restore the compressed file, open the .enlx file in EndNote X. This extracts the .enl file which can be used normally.
Copy references within or between libraries
You may want to make a copy of a reference within the same library as a convenient way of adding several similar references with minor variations (e.g. references to different sections of a book).
Or you may want to copy some references to another library.
Deletion cannot be reversed: the record is deleted immediately. Its record number is also deleted and is not reused for a new reference.
- Open the library that contains the reference(s) you need to copy. Select but do not open the reference(s) to be copied.
- From the EDIT menu select COPY to copy the selected reference(s) to the Clipboard.
- To copy to the same library, from the EDIT menu select PASTE. The reference copy is pasted after the original reference, is highlighted and is given a new record number.
- To copy to a different library, open the destination library. From the EDIT menu select PASTE. The reference copy is pasted into the destination library, is highlighted and is given a new record number.
- You can also use drag-and-drop to copy references between libraries.
- Do not delete any reference which you have used as a citation in a current Word document (as described in Unit 4). A citation inserted in your Word document must show the same record number (e.g. #23) as the corresponding reference in your EndNote Library.
- Select the reference to be deleted.
From the REFERENCES menu select DELETE REFERENCES and click OK