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What are the MELT?

These models are from one family that shares similar features.

MELT clarify for students the types of thinking they need for school, university and life. They also capture teachers' attention by informing them about how to scaffold complex learning and requiring their modification. The first MELT was the Research Skill Development (RSD) framework, first developed in 2006, and a variety of MELT flowed from that beginning 2009.

MELT shares 6 facets of thinking, these facets of thinking are frequently described as active verbs and as questions:

MELT facet verbs
MELT questions
Examples from others Drivers and
Embark and Clarify What is our purpose? Pose research question
Define problem
What is my aim?
Find and Generate What do we need? Search strategy
Data protocol
What information do I need?
Evaluate and Reflect What do we trust? Limitations and biases
What are internal inconsistencies?
Organise and Manage How do we arrange? Continuous line graph
Non-continuous bar graph
Writing structure
Time and team management
Analyse and Synthesise What does it mean? Statistical trends
Qualitative themes
Making sense
Communicate and Apply How do we relate? Title
Who is the audience?
What next?

The models that comprise the MELT family share seven broad parameters, in keeping with the six facets above and one other factor;  the amount of structure and guidance given to students.

The Models of Engaged Learning and Teaching all focus on students' thinking skills and are best used to scaffold this skill development in repeated use so that MELT may become thinking routines. Engaged teachers are vital for this process, for MELT provides broad guidelines, but educators typically change the terminology to make MELT fluid and learning active.

The family of purpose-specific MELT emerged from the RSD framework organically and over time. However, each new context frequently demands changes in terminology and other modifications.

Now, educators- and sometimes students- adapt and create their own MELT. This means that the terminology they use fits the context, and the configuration fits the purpose. For example, the pentagon configuration was made by tutors in Engineering, who designed their version- called Optimising Problem Solving (OPS) for first year Engineering students' problem solving approaches.

The MELT share the same six facets of thinking, shown in the pentagon format but also a consideration of the extent of student autonomy. The idea behind each facet can be represented by the question accompanying it. There is a seventh MELT question, which is primarily for educators:

'How much structure and guidance do student need?' This is represented in MELT with Levels of Autonomy

  • The MELT share the parameters of the RSD framework.
  • Below is the general MELT, provided to be adapted to your context.
  • Underneath that are a variety of MELT that have organically emerged over the last seven years.

General Models for Engaged Learning and Teaching (MELT)

Optimising Problem Solving (OPS) Pentagon

Work Skill Development (WSD) Framework

Clinical Reflective Skills (CRS) Development Framework

Models of Engaged Learning and Teaching

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