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Adelaide Empowerment, Creativity and Innovation: Challenging Media and Communication in the 21st Century


Citation: Author1 and Author2, (2006) 'Paper title', Empowerment, Creativity and Innovation: Challenging Media and Communication in the 21st Century (ANZCA and University of Adelaide).

Copyright for all refereed papers published in the proceedings is jointly owned by the author(s), ANZCA and the University of Adelaide.


Name of the Conference: Australian & New Zealand Communication Association International Conference, 2006: Empowerment, Creativity and Innovation: Challenging Media and Communication in the 21st Century

Date of the Conference: July 4-7, 2006

Location of the Conference
: The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Title of the Conference Publication: Empowerment, Creativity and Innovation: Challenging Media and Communication in the 21st Century

Publisher: Australia and New Zealand Communication Association and the University of Adelaide.

Place of Publication: Adelaide, Australia
ISBN: 0-86396-837-6

Name of the Publication Editor
: Chika Anyanwu

Date of Publication: © Copyright Dec 2006 ANZCA & University of Adelaide

Refereeing Details

All abstracts were subject to a double-blind peer review process for acceptance in the conference presentation, and thereafter full papers of accepted referred abstracts were also subject to a double blind peer review process for full paper publication. All papers designated as refereed (see below) were subject to double-blind, peer review involving independent external assessment, and substantive commentary on content.  All papers accepted for presentation and publication following this competitive process were published in this Conference Proceedings, published at:

This procedure was designed to satisfy the conditions required by the Australian Government’s Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) for the recognition of the papers in the Proceedings as Category E, Conference Publications: E1 – Full Written Paper – Refereed.

Refereed Full Papers
The following papers, listed in alphabetical order by first author of each paper, were accepted as refereed papers at ANZCA06, and were accordingly published in the Conference Proceedings:

Reframing Leadership Communication: Consequences for Organisational Leaders Resulting from Communication Failure: An Australian Case Study
Alexander, D M.

Examining the changing face of television current affairs programmes in New Zealand from a 'political economy' perspective.
Baker, S.

The Impact of Digital Personae on Privacy:  positive and negative rights in the case of kids at risk
Balnaves, M.
Islamic Communities and Media Activism in Australia
Balnaves, M.   

Driving the Narrative to Reconciliation:  The Tracker as Road Picture
Barber, S.   

Creative Disabilities and Vulnerable Bodies In Women In The Bush
Barber, S.    

Civil Society, Empowered or Overpowered: The Role of The Mass Media in ‘Promoting Democracy’ Worldwide
Barker, M. J.

Leadership and Abuse: News framing of the Iraqi War and Terrorism during the 2004 Federal Election.
Blood, R W. and McCallum, K.

News on the Net: A Critical Analysis of The Potential of Online Alternative Journalism to Challenge The Dominance of Mainstream News Media
Bolton, T.

‘Beyond Broadcasting’: Facing the Future of Australian Content in The Digital Audiovisual Environment
Bosland, J.

Communication trends to non-profits
Buchanan, E. and Luck E,

Nuclearity in the News Story – The Genesis of Image Nuclear News Stories
Caple, H. 

The Television New Zealand Charter: Rethinking Deregulated Broadcasting.
Cocker, A. 

Emotional Framing in Australian Journalism
Corcoran, P.

Stamping Their Ground: A Study of Public Opinion and Activists
Courtney, G. and Mehta, A.M

Challenges for public relations: working in an international framework
Fitch, K. and Surma, A.

Crosscutting Revisited: The Impact of Historical Research into Early Cinema on A Key Element of Classical Narrative Cinema
Gauthier, P.   

Mobile Television: Technology and Cultural Form
Goggin, G. 

Virtual communities of practice: A study of communication, community and organisational learning
Hanisch, J. and Churchman, D. 

 Managing Corporate Identities in a Changing Environment: A Case Study of a Public Sector Shared Services Provider
Jai Kim & Caroline Hatcher

The Chain of Command Model: A Case Study of One Organisation’s Journey to Re-Value Public Affairs
Hibbert, Z. and Hannan, M.  

Iraq’s December 2005 Election: Reporting Democratisation in The Australian and Middle Eastern Print Media
Isakhan, B. 

Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility via The Internet: Examining The Cultural Bounds of Representation
Kampf, C.  

Situated Communication: Identity and Rhetoric in The Kumeyaay Web Presence
Kampf, C.  

The Social and Cultural Integrative Role of Asian Media Productions In The New Millennium: Pan-Asian and International Co-Productions
Lim, T.  

Rhetorical Theory and Public Relations: From the Agora to the Postmodern
Mackey, S. 

Towards a New Construct for Communication During Organizational Change
Mahoney, J. 

Competition and Cooperation: Organisational Communication within the Australian Football League
Marjoribanks, T. 

Sky Channel and the Battle for Australians’ Hearts and Minds: The ACTU’s use of Media in the ‘Rights at Work’ Campaign.
Muir, K. 

Disaster Memorials as Government Communication
Nicholls, S. 

Contesting the Middle Ground: The Regulation of Objectivity in ABC Journalism
Nolan, D.

Trajectories of Broadband: The Coming, Going and Return of Broadband
O'Regan, T. and Ryan M.  

Colour My World. The Consumption Junction Meets D Digital Lifestyle
Scott Rickard  

The Pantomime Public Sphere:New Zealand Broadcasting News 1923-1962
Shellock, D. 

Tackling Abuse of Officials: Attitudes and Communication Skills of Experienced Football Referees
Simmons, P. 

Agents Of Conscience, Control And/Or Compliance: The Roles Of Australian Public Relations Practitioners In Organizational Value-Setting
Sison, Marianne D 

A Visual Social Semiotic Approach for Investigating the Effectiveness of Multimedia Text Material
Suranti Trisnawati

A Tradition of Sedition: Journalism for the Public Benefit
Sykes, J.

John Howard the Great Communicator: No, Really!
Van Onselen, P. and  Errington, W.

The Howard Government's Industrial Relations Information Campaign and the Limits to Incumbency Advantage
Van Onselen, P. and Errington, W.

Perceptions of Business Students towards Skills and Attributes for Industry: How Important is Communication?
Waller, D. S. and  Hingorani, Anurag

Problems in ‘Political’ Documentary: Michael Moore’s Fahrenheit 9/11
Williamson, D.

Increasing Transparency: Utilising Criterion-Referenced Assessment to enhance Student Learning in Public Relations
Xavier, R. and Mehta, A.M. 

Great Expectations: Understanding Undergraduate Students’ Perspectives on Public Relations Careers
Xavier, R.; Mehta, A.M.and Larkin, I.K. 

Literacy for Citizen/Consumers: A Website Case Study.
Zanker, R.

Refereed Conference Abstracts

Reframing Leadership Communication: Consequences for Organisational Leaders Resulting From Communication Failure: An Australian Case Study
Donald Alexander
The failure of organisational leaders to communicate with business analysts, key media and staff can lead to an erosion of reputation, a reduction in social capital, as well as a major fall in the value of financial capital. This can result in subsequent negative consequences for staff morale and relationships with a wide range of key publics.  A developing field of communication and management research suggests that organisational leaders must have the skills and commitment to be as effective in communicating as is their stewardship of the financial, sales, manufacturing, marketing, and human resource functions of the organisation. Research of a wide selection of management texts identified a number of core communication attributes that effective Chief Executive Officers should have as part of their set of leadership skills. Using an Australian case study, and a content analysis of two substantial public documents, a conclusion is drawn that had the Chief Executive Officer in the study been aware of the consequences of the failure to communicate with key publics such as shareholders, governments, victim organisations, communities, the media and market analysts, the outcomes for the individual and the organisation may have been different. Using Bolman and Deal’s (1997) Four Framework Model, the paper assesses if communication effectiveness as discussed in this paper fits within the authors’ framework  methodology, and if not, whether communication needs to be added as a further dimension in utilising the Model for assessing key leadership characteristics. Keywords: Leadership, communication failure, Management

Examining the changing face of television current affairs programmes in New Zealand from a 'political economy' perspective.
Sarah Baker
This paper will look at the changing face of current affairs television programmes in New Zealand from a political economy perspective. As part of that exploration it will examine the contending cultural studies position and address the claimed limitations of the political economy method.  The Political Economy approach provides a framework from which to examine key areas of change in Western and New Zealand broadcasting. Many Western governments have lessened their commitment to public service broadcasting and the political economy method is well suited to research where economic structures, social and cultural life are interconnected, and can be used to evaluate these relationships. For New Zealand broadcasting a defining event of recent years was the application of neo-liberal policies after the 1984 election, taken even further by successive governments. These changes mirrored other Western nations where broadcasting became increasingly commercial, deregulated and globalised. As debates continue about the reduction of quality current affairs programmes on New Zealand television, this paper will explore the application of a political economy approach to changes that have occurred to this television genre. Keywords: Current affairs, broadcasting, political economy

The Impact of Digital Personae on Privacy:  positive and negative rights in the case of kids at risk
Mark Balnaves
We all have a ‘digital persona’.  Visa credit card companies can construct a passive digital profile of users.  Government departments hold different profiles of different citizens in databases.  Some of these profiles are in the interests of citizens.  However, active digital personae have emerged that can go into online worlds and collect information and act on behalf of users or alternatively collection information on behalf of governments or companies.  The negative right of freedom from interference (privacy) competes with the positive right of intervention (public interest).  This paper provides a case study showing the impact of digital personae on people’s lives, in particular children at risk and the people given the task to care for them.  A suicidal 9-year old student for example may require information on him or her to be shared among different government agencies in order to provide help even when this sharing can contradict privacy concerns.  This paper reports on Midvale Primary School in Western Australia and associated government and non-government agencies that are attempting, independently of e-government initiatives, to address these problems. Keywords: igital personae; new media; privacy; digital repositories

Islamic Communities and Media Activism in Australia
Mark  Balnaves
Aljazeera is well known as an Arab television and media network that has its headquarters in Qatar.  For the U.S. Aljazeera is a ‘terrorist network’.  For Islamic communities it is now seen, ironically, as ‘U.S. controlled’.  Islamic audiences in Australia use Aljazeera and CNN media but those audiences also use emerging community media in Arab countries as an antidote to both Western and Arab press.  This paper reports on the results of an ARC study into Islamic community reactions to Australian media coverage of terrorism.  Islamic citizens in Australia are proactive in using P2P media such as blogging and in actively seeking sources of information that give alternative views on both Australian and Arab media. Keywords, Islam, Media, Activism, P2P

Driving The Narrative To Reconciliation:  The Tracker As Road Picture
Susan Barber
The road picture can be considered one of the master narratives within the Australian Film Revival, from the Mad Max trilogy to Crocodile Dundee to The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert.  Yet this genre has particular resonance in films featuring indigenous Australians.  Even the titles allude to this connection, for example, Walkabout, Backroads, Wrong Side of the Road, Rabbit Proof Fence, The Tracker.  This paper focuses on The Tracker (2002), written and directed by Rolf De Heer, set in the early l920’s during the Frontier phase.  This film features a police search for an Aboriginal fugitive accused of killing a white woman; the party is led by a reluctant yet savvy Aboriginal tracker, played by David Gulpilil.   The Tracker alludes to and draws from prior indigenous road pictures, yet it breaks new ground in narrative, character and style at a time when films such as The Tracker play a critical role in the reconciliation process.  The journey dramatized in the film has many twists and surprises, and is a deft blend of serious drama, irony and satire as it examines the psychological interplay between the Fanatic, a vicious racist, and the Tracker.   Like Walkabout (which also features Gulpilil), an Aboriginal functions as a guide for whites in unknown indigenous territory.  Similar to Wrong Side of the Road, The Tracker uses music as political activism intended to challenge the white power order.  And like Rabbit Proof Fence, The Tracker dramatizes white orchestrated searches for Aboriginal fugitives.  This paper explores three areas of innovation: 1) The multi-faceted role of the Tracker, played with finesse and intelligence by David Gulpilil. Refreshingly free of Aboriginal stereotypes, the Tracker is an astute observer, a wry commentator, a mocker, and a trickster who progressively empowers himself; 2) The landscape and the characters (captured in widescreen) which fluctuate between naturalism and surrealism, enhanced by Peter Coad’s original paintings--presented as stunning stills. 3) The sound design—songs (written by De Heer, music by Graham Tardif) sung with great feeling and power by Archie Roach to capture the collective unconscious of  Aboriginals past and present. Space permitting, I will also contextualize The Tracker with recent new directions in the indigenous road film, including Beneath Clouds and One Night the Moon. Keywords: Indigenous Road Film:  The Tracker 

Creative Disabilities and Vulnerable Bodies In Women In The Bush
Susan Barber
Picnic at Hanging Rock (l975), The Getting of Wisdom (l977) and My Brilliant Career (1979), all set at the turn of the century, are key films for three reasons.  First, with their strong, independently-minded and progressive female characters, these films challenged the male-centered ocker films made in the first part of the decade, while also providing  female counterparts to Gallipoli, Breaker Morant and Between Wars which featured historical men. Secondly, these films presented and explored the Australian bush as a complex, vibrant “character,” organic to the narrative and with strong bonds to the female protagonists.  Thirdly, these female protagonists can be considered prototypes for modern young women in films of the 80’s and 90’s. The films’ time frames all allude to Federation (l901), when Australia achieved a greater measure of independence from Britain, thus providing a context for the female protagonists who seek to break away from repressive social orders:  a British-modeled young women’s school  (Picnic, Wisdom), or marriage as the only life choice for a respectable woman (Career). Further, with their proactive females, these films  resonate in the wake of the women’s movement in the 60’s and 70’s which gave women more equal footing in Australia’s traditionally patriarchal society.
Films set in the past, or “period films,” were labeled the  “AFC genre” by Susan Dermody and Elizabeth Jacka.  The AFC, or Australian Film Commission was the new name for the  restructured and expanded former Australian Film Development Corporation (l970-75), and was the principle government funding body from l975-l981, which financed in whole or in part many of the period films.  However, the period films were criticized for featuring “bland characters” and retreating into “gentle nostalgia” (Dermody and Jacka, l988, 34).  They comment,  “The cinematography is dedicated to the glories of Australian light, landform and vegetation, often with clear traces of a romantic, even charm-school, Australian post-impressionism” (Dermody and Jacka, l988, 33). Or these films were stuck in an idealized past, as Graeme Turner implies:   “The Australia most of these films mythologized was defined by its landscape and by its colonial history rather than the complex contemporary realities of an urban, middle class post-colonial ‘multicultural’ society” (Turner, l989, 115)  While specifically referring to My Brilliant Career,  Neil Rattigan alludes to the assumed superficial quality of period films: “…teetering dangerously close to being little more than a stunningly beautiful film that gives visual pleasure but not much intellectual substance” (Rattigan, l990,  221).    However, these criticisms overlook and undervalue vibrant, dynamic and complex women--Miranda and Sara in Picnic, Laura in Wisdom and Sybylla in Career.  Further, the bush is a far more multi-dimensional entity than these writers and others have acknowledged.  Keywords: Re-evaluating Australian historical women

News On The Net: A Critical Analysis Of The Potential Of Online Alternative Journalism To Challenge The Dominance Of Mainstream News Media
Trish Bolton
Traditional media and provision of news and current affairs is  in trouble. The newspaper is perhaps in its death throes, losing both its advertisers and audience to the internet, while television is failing to supplement its ageing audience with a new generation of viewers. Accompanying this shift are concerns that traditional media is not satisfying a perceived need for a more pluralist and inclusive media sphere with anticipated changes to cross-media legislation likely to further concentrate an already immensely concentrated Australian media. While traditional news outlets are co-opting the internet to either increase or maintain their audience share, alternative media, that is ‘those media produced outside the forces of market economics and the state’ (Atton 2002: 53, Forde 2004), have a significant online presence. This has fostered claims that online news and current affairs have the potential to transform social and political communication and to enhance democracy and citizenship. Such claims revolve around the feature of audience participation, the interactivity of the medium encouraging a shift from users to producers and the diminished or absent role of gatekeeper allowing uncensored flows of information and instantaneity of transmission. It seems important and timely, given a changing social, political and media environment, to examine claims that the internet, and more specifically online alternative journalism, can contest what Nick Couldry, citing Bourdieu, argues is the power of a massively concentrated media to construct reality  (2002: 24, 29). Keywords: journalism, gatekeeping, interactivity, citizenship

Digital Television and the Mulitichannel Environment: Threatening the Future of Australian Local Content?
Jason Bosland
This paper discusses some of the practical implications that multichanneling by free-to-air commercial television broadcasters might have on the broadcasting of Australian content.  Like most features of media policy, Australian content quotas have long been the subject of criticism and debate.  Some cultural critics have sought to interrogate the very notion of promoting ‘Australian culture’, whilst others have questioned the value and efficacy of such measures as new technologies increase our access to both global content and global delivery systems.  Indeed, the looming integration of television with internet and broadband capabilities has been a particular source of speculation about the future worth of Australian content quotas. This paper suggests, however, that there is another, perhaps more immediate challenge to local content requirements – multichannel commercial television. By freeing up space on the broadcast spectrum, the introduction of digital terrestrial television has provided the technical capacity for broadcasters to multichannel. Although commercial broadcasters are currently prevented from multichanneling, an ongoing Federal Government review is focused on the possibility of allowing commercial broadcasters to offer multichannel services. While raising a host of important economic issues, one of the questions asked in the review is how local content quotas will be accommodated in the multichannel environment, especially considering Australian’s bilateral obligations under the AUSFTA. Decisions made would have the potential to change the character and quality of our broadcast content, as well as the market behaviour of commercial broadcasters and Australian content producers. This paper explores the future of Australian content regulation in light of multichanneling and emergent technologies.  Keywords: Digital Television; Multichannel; Local Content

Challenging the Medium? New Cognitions of Female Mobile Communication Technology Use
Stephanie Bröge.
Young women’s uses and attitudes towards mobile communication technology were surveyed using a multi-method approach. New data have been collected in 2005 and 2006 parallel surveying young adults New Media use in general. Qualitative and quantitative data give insight into current preferences in mobile communication use of German, New Zealand and American women. Surveys have been distributed at Leipzig University, Germany, Otago University, NZ and City University of New York, US. Particularly focus group research in Germany and the use of media diaries and exercises on social networks in New Zealand gave insight into how especially women make use of mobile phones and SMS especially. This research revealed extraordinarily high text-messaging use by New Zealand women. It was also found that overall NZ-students spend four times as much time writing and receiving SMS as German and American students. Young Kiwis also write twice as many messages on average per day. Women especially outperform men in terms of frequency and time of use. They also have a more positive attitude toward cell phones. Furthermore a special focus was given to differences in tone and voice of female versus male SMS communication. Results show similarities to other research. We found that women have a more creative way of using SMS than men and use it more socially to uphold peer networks. According to liberal feminism theory, female technology adoption is distinguished by the acquisition of skills to handle technology and the attitudes towards these technologies. It is argued that the large acceptance of mobile phones among both genders derived less from their technological features but by their simplest functions: calling and sending text-messages, both sociable activities. Our results show, the success of mobile telephones among women is strongly associated with the social gratifications obtained by this easy-to-use technology and can be seen in women’s positive attitudes towards the medium. Keywords: New media use, Gender, SMS, Mobile phone, NZ, Gerus

Communication Trends to Non Profits
Elizabeth Buchanan and Edwina Luck,
Communication is an important element in devising, disseminating and pursuing the organisational goals for all organisations (Jones et al, 2004). It involves informing target audiences about frequent, timely and relevant information to members; listening about needs and what motivates those who fund these organisations; and staff interactions, who are responsive, knowledgeable and passionate about the organisation (MacMillan et al. 2005). Surveys were sent to sporting organisations as a way of interpreting their communication strategies between citizens, administration and non-profit associations. Not surprisingly, our findings suggest that many organisations think of communication as an after-thought. We believe that Internet and mobile phone technology will be most important for the growth of communication for many NFPs over the next decade.

The Australian Style of Advertising: A Comparison Research Study With The USA And Europe
Matthew Byrne
This paper will report on the initial stages of a PhD research study into establishing if there is uniqueness to Australian Advertising. To do this a historical approach was chosen allowing a process of discovery and comparison to other markets identifying the external influences that may shape a hybrid model. It also a record of the Advertising industry in Australia for the purposes of teaching and the identification of best practices so that the industry does not continuously reinvent it self, which may point to the current malaise the industry is in. This research has uncovered distinctive styles between the US and Europe in the use of their advertising idea generation philosophies, as well as lack of evidence to the Australian philosophic style of advertising. This is particularly interesting as the Australian creative product and its creators are in high demand all over the world due to the distinctiveness of the creative product. The most important contribution of this research is to gain insight into Australian practices in idea generation philosophies and style in Australia, by establishing a historic record and a model that can be theorised into a best practice model for the Advertising industry. Keywords: Style, creativity, advertising, globalism

UKI an Understanding Communication In Advertising: A Lost Art In The Age of Globilisation
Matthew Byrne.
This paper will report on advertising practitioners modes of investigation to achieve persuasive communication and idea generation. It will also compare this practice to past and current academic literature. This research has uncovered that there are 3 distinctive modes of investigation and that they have had success in the localised environment due to an inadvertent understanding of the target market in their local environments, but fail to deliver relevant, sensitive and cut through communication when transferred into a global context. This is due to the non-theorised and undocumented nature of the industry and their Inability to look at the global market place as an industry due to ethnocentric management styles. The newly created acronym UKI is a tool to use in the global context to create relevant and persuasive advertising in a truly global context. This research also highlights the inappropriateness of global campaigns for several product categories and the need to understand local context in the development of a creative strategy. The most important contribution of this research is to gain insight into modes of investigation, the recoding of such and the creation of a new model (UKI) for structured investigation into the global mass advertising industry. There is also the opportunity to theorise best practice for future campaigns and the education of the industry at large. Keywords: ideageneration, creativity, advertising, globalism

Nuclearity In The News Story – The Genesis of Image Nuclear News Stories
Helen Caple.
Tracking the emergence of image nuclear news stories in Western broadsheet newspapers, in particular the Sydney Morning Herald, this paper investigates the evolution of the news story in the multimodal presentation of newsworthy events in today’s media - where photographs and words combine to create news stories.  Through a semiotic analysis of the use of press photographs in Western broadsheet newspapers, this paper draws on image theory presented by Barthes (1977), and that of Kress and van Leeuwen (1994), the latter of which is greatly influenced by the theory of language as social semiotic as developed by Michael Halliday (1978). Rick Iedema, Susan Feez and Peter White (1994) introduced an orbital perspective on the news story genre by describing the nucleus^satellite relationship between headline, lead and lead development in the hard news story. This structure has also been variously described as the inverted pyramid structure (Bell, 1991; Conley, 2002), and the instalment method (Van Dijk, 1988). This paper argues that the orbital structured news story can have either a verbiage or image nucleus by tracing the genesis of the image nuclear news story since the 2000 redesign of the Sydney Morning Herald. It further argues that in an increasingly commercialised media where the boundaries between entertainment and journalism are being eroded, image is being used to soften the face of hard news through its careful selection and placement on predominantly hard news pages. Keywords: Multimodality, nucleus, satellite

Self-Stylisation As Aesthetic Labour: Transitioning From Jane To John.
Jillian Clare.
This paper outlines the learning journey that I embarked on after a life-changing meeting with a young female student after she handed me a card that read: “This is to certify that Jane is attending the gender realignment clinic.” Building on the work of feminist and post-structuralist theorists this paper explores how identity is negotiated and managed in the life of a young woman transitioning from female to male. Her/his identity, in this case, is rendered “problematic, difficult and even dangerous”  (Foucault, 1991b, p.84), because it no longer ‘goes without saying’. Identity-in-transition is a shifting and ‘becoming’ assemblage that is examined, measured, checked, recorded, analysed, made and re-made, by and through embodied discourses, and both painful and pleasurable corporeal practices. What is highlighted in the transitioning process is the slipperiness of truths about a subject’s identity. These truths, then, “induce a whole series of effects in the real … [how] they inform individual behaviour, and act as grids for the perception and evaluation of things” (Foucault, 1991b, p.81). Such truths have the power to exert influence, for both better and for worse, in and on the lives of individuals.
Reading the transitioning phases of this young person, in terms of Foucault’s idea of ‘biopower’, makes it possible to understand how her/his body is made knowable in discursive ways: an identity-in-transition, and self-stylisation as aesthetic labour. Such a process necessarily foregrounds the idea that identity, gender, and sexuality are fluid, complex, and disorderly because any notion of fixity is disrupted and disordered. Pedagogy, too, is generally constituted in orderly terms, such as the familiar ‘discourse of influence’: teacher-as-knower and student-as-learner. Yet, I argue, this relationship can become a productively-disorderly relationship when the wiser pedagogical move is for the teacher to become the learner, and allow the student to become the teacher. In the case-study of a young student embarking on a journey of “identity–realignment”, this was certainly the case. Issues of education, training, and learning are significant here. Corporality was daily been trained and re-trained for her/him to learn the ways of maleness within a variety of contexts, and it was only through the knowledge of the student that I could understand what she/he was experiencing so that I could develop appropriate ways to give her/him the necessary support to excel in her/his university studies. There is an imperative here to re-think the discursive effects the encounter had in terms of the inversion of pedagogical norms and how this pedagogical relationship influenced the learning outcomes for both individuals. McWilliam has explored the notion of how certain types of interaction can be thought of as ‘good’ pedagogy and how such relationships ought to be enacted. This paper is an attempt to explore some of these important and complex issues for all involved in academic and pedagogical work. Keywords: Identity, transitioning, self-stylisation, aesthetic-labour

The Television New Zealand Charter: Rethinking Deregulated Broadcasting.
Alan Cocker.
In the decade of the 1990s New Zealand operated one of the most deregulated broadcasting environments in the world. A National-led government signalled to the Board of the public broadcaster Television New Zealand (TVNZ) in the middle of the decade that the next step was privatisation and to prepare the organisation for sale. However, an incoming Labour administration in 1999 announced a policy shift away from the neo-liberal approach of privatisation and deregulation that successive governments had pursued since 1984. Labour’s broadcasting policy acknowledged the cultural importance and democratic role of the medium and pledged not to sell TVNZ or any of its main constituent parts, TV1, TV2 and Broadcast Communications Ltd (BCL). Restructured as a Crown-owned company (CROC), TVNZ’s ‘public service’ role was outlined in a Charter which was formally implemented in March 2003. Yet this was accompanied by demands that TVNZ’s commercial strength and profitability be maintained and the value of the Government’s asset not diminished and these factors have clearly restrained the changes ushered in by the Charter. An October 2005 memorandum written by TVNZ’s then Chief Executive Ian Fraser to his Board noted that after more than two and a half years experience with the Charter TVNZ had not measured any significant increase in viewer satisfaction and had not noted any marked public conviction that the company was more of a public broadcaster than before it was introduced. This paper examines the TVNZ Charter and questions the public policy approach that assumed TVNZ could satisfy the often conflicting demands of being both a commercially successful and a chartered public service broadcaster. It argues that the TVNZ Charter is an example of flawed public policy formulation and implementation. Keywords: TVNZ, Charter, Re-regulation.

Emotional Framing in Australian Journalism
Paul Corcoran.
This paper explores attributed emotions as an interpretative frame in news reporting in the Australian media, especially in print journalism.  To extend the conceptual metaphor of ‘framing,’ it will be argued that the story’s focus is often established through an emotional lens of shame, embarrassment, sorrow, fear or anger.  The effect is to impose meaning, intention and affect upon the actors and events in question.  Often, this imposition is artificial, undocumented and psychologically improbable.  The ‘point’ of the story becomes the attributed emotional affect.  It will be argued that this emotional frame – the ‘red-faced banker,’ the ‘embarrassed’ government minister – personalises, intensifies and simplifies the story.  Motivations and psychological complexities are reduced to rudimentary, often infantile, dispositions.  These effects will be documented by reference to news writing in Australia’s leading broadsheet newspapers. Keywords: Emotion, framing Australia, journalism

Stamping Their Ground: A Study Of Public Opinion And Activists
Gina Courtney, Amisha Mehta.
Public opinion is comprised of a complex set of social and political processes that involve individuals, groups and organisations (Hennessy, 1981; Newsom, Turk & Kruckeberg, 2004). The relationships amongst these individuals, groups and organisations are guided by an equally complex set of values and principles (Ledingham & Bruning, 1998), which serve to shield or expose the organisational decisions that influence or respond to public opinion. Whilst there is much literature about public opinion and stakeholder relationships, this paper is part of a study that examines how activist stakeholders use public opinion to condemn government decisions, and shift debate from the court of public opinion to the court room itself. This paper is built around a case study about the importation of Asian elephants. In July 2005, the Federal government approved the importation of eight endangered Asian elephants as part of a breeding program that would operate out of Taronga and Melbourne Zoos. In response, a number of animal welfare groups including the RSPCA lodged a legal challenge and forced the zoos to prove responsibility and effectiveness in caring for and breeding these elephants. This study involves an analysis of content from 68 items retrieved from print and electronic media from March to October 2005. Codes were developed from the literature to understand the nature of public opinion as well the sources of opinion. This paper will highlight the extent to which activist publics, as a united collective, will go to be heard. This study has implications for the continued understanding and management of activist and stakeholder relationships. Keywords: public opinion, stakeholders, relationships, animal welfare.

Creative Virtuality: Online Technology And The Dutch Journalistic Field
Bronwyn Cran.
This paper explores the impact of ‘creative virtuality’, or adaptive engagements with online technology, in the Dutch journalistic field, based on interviews with 18 Dutch journalistic workers conducted in the Netherlands in late 2005. This research is informed by Shields’ ideas about the ‘virtual’ (Shields, 2003), and by Bourdieu’s notion of the ‘journalistic field’ (Bourdieu, 2005), and focusses on ‘journalistic workers’, that is, journalists, editors and journalist researchers, as the primary ‘agents’ (30) of dialogic engagement with other social fields in the act of journalistic production. This paper is concerned in particular with Bourdieu’s notion of the ‘relative autonomy’ (Bourdieu, 2005: 32) of journalistic workers, and addresses the enhancements of this autonomy afforded by creative virtuality. The paper argues that creative virtuality constitutes a dialogic shift in the contemporary Dutch journalistic field, that changes not only the nature of work for the agents working within the field, but also the nature of the relationship between the Dutch journalistic field and other fields nominally outside of it. The paper documents adaptive engagements with online technology by selected members of the Dutch-Flemish Association for Investigative Journalists (VVOJ), the leading professional journalistic association in Europe. The paper documents ‘official’ (public) and ‘unofficial’ (personal) adaptive engagements, within a pluralistic, innovative and diverse media and social context. These engagements include: using Wiki software to foster dialogue about Europe within the Dutch community; using foreign internet archives for domestic research; using actual/virtual teams to research stories; balancing online and face-to-face interaction with sources; using email creatively with readers; publishing information selectively online, and building websites to archive information. The paper concludes that these engagements, and others, constitute creative virtuality, and an enhanced autonomy, for Dutch journalistic workers. Keywords: Virtual, journalistic, engagement, autonomy

Radio, sound and the Web: Developing a new medium specific practice
Anne Dunn.
The ‘old’ media of print, radio and television have long-established professional cultures that demonstrate ‘medium-specific’ features.  This paper explores the problem of how a new medium-specific production practice might develop, using the experience of ABC regional radio ‘cross media’ producers, who produce both radio and multimedia work for the Web.  The paper argues that, in order for such development to occur successfully, radio producers need more theorised understandings of the way sound may become a part of the multimedia – as opposed to the radio – environment.  The paper concludes that radio soundscapes can make good stepping-off points for the creative use of sound on the Web. Keywords: radio, sound, web, production

Challenges for public relations: working in an international framework
Kate Fitch & Anne Surma.
Western models of public relations tend to dominate the discipline, but the efficiency of such models in light of global public relations and the richness of alternative – particularly South East Asian – approaches will be interrogated in this paper. There are few scholars who take a critical approach to public relations practice, or consider the significance and practice of public relations in non-Western and developing nation contexts. Those who do tend to approach international public relations as an opportunity that offers the multinational company competitive advantage and sound image management in international markets, rather than as the potential for developing ethical and reciprocally meaningful communication practices. This paper aims to address issues of globalisation and the demands of ethical approaches and social responsibility by developing a context-sensitive orientation to the discipline. The complexities resulting from the internationalising of the field, specifically in terms of education and professional practice, will be explored and illuminated through reference to case studies in SE Asia and Australia. Key words: International public relations theory

Did ‘Media Wars’ Change Anything?  An Analysis of Australian Journalism Research And Publications, 1995-2006
Terry Flew & Jason Sternberg.
The opening session of the 1995 Journalism Education Association conference saw the first shots fired in what became known as the Media Wars, fought out between media and cultural studies and journalism educators.  The debate which continued throughout the mid-to-late 1990s was at times very heated, and culminated in a seminar and special edition of Media International Australia in 1999, and was a featured topic of discussion in leading international journals. Ten years on, how has academic research into the news media changed in Australia? Are media, communication and cultural studies scholars paying increasing attention to journalism, not only as a cultural form, but also as a profession?  Have journalism scholars broadened their definitions of what may be classified under the banner of journalism studies?  How have both fields responded to the methodological pluralism that increasingly characterises the study of mass communication? Based on a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in Australia’s leading media, communication and cultural studies and journalism journals, this paper examines research into the news media in Australia in the 10 years since the start of Media Wars.  This meta-analysis of research in Australian Journalism Review, Australian Studies in Journalism, Asia Pacific Media Educator, Media International Australia, Australian Journal of Communication and Continuum, will address issues such as the types of journalism-related topics covered, the research methods used and the types of researchers who publish in the area.  By mapping these trends, the paper hopes to not only reinvigorate debate regarding the place of media and journalism studies in tertiary education, but also point to future directions and opportunities in what promises to be a significantly different research environment for universities in the near future. Keywords: Journalism, media and cultural studies, research, journalism studies

The Paradox of ‘Coming of Age’: Deconstructing Youth Identity in Lolita and Thirteen
Fleur Gabriel.
Using a post-structuralist perspective, this paper explores the theoretical limits of approaches to youth identity that centre on the notion of ‘coming of age,’ and proposes an alternative approach to the study of youth focussing on, in particular, the filmic representation of young women.  I point to the constitutive paradoxes that underpin dominant discourses on youth and the taken-for-granted identity categories they posit through analysis of the controversial 1997 remake of Lolita and the 2003 film Thirteen according to techniques of Derridean deconstruction and Bhabha’s notion of mimicry. I contend that where the two films utilise dominant discourses, these paradoxes actually remain unseen, and the films therefore reproduce the assumption that a concept such as ‘coming of age’ is natural and self-evident.  I look at how this constitutive ambiguity, and the kinds of thinking it produces, works to perpetuate rather than resolve concern and debate over what youth conduct and content is considered appropriate for viewing by both youth and adult audiences.  By implication, an examination of the genre and marketing for Lolita and Thirteen, while quite different, points to the film industry working here as a conservative force; constraining the ways youth gets represented, and circumscribing the range of responses the films have generated.  However, by articulating the points at which youth theory comes up against its conceptual limits, and by examining the implications of this, there is an opportunity to think differently about what is most commonly and unquestioningly thought to govern and represent the ‘true’ meaning of youth.  This paper investigates how a deconstructive approach can be usefully applied to move beyond such limitations and open up the study of the on-screen depiction of young women, and ‘youth issues’ more generally, to previously ‘unthinkable’ constructive and interpretive possibilities. Keywords: Deconstruction, Youth Identity, Film

Crosscutting Revisited: The Impact Of Historical Research Into Early Cinema On A Key Element Of Classical Narrative Cinema
Philippe Gauthier.
According to traditional film histories, crosscutting is the cornerstone of the classical aesthetic in cinema. Numerous scholarly studies have been carried out on this crucial aspect of classical narrative film language. It is maintained that crosscutting’s “multiple lines of action” must take place in “widely separated locales” (Bordwell, Staiger and Thompson, 1985: 48) . The use of such ambiguous expressions as “widely separated locales” and “multiple lines of action” creates serious problems when applied to the development of alternating editing techniques in early cinema. Without new theoretical tools, it becomes very difficult to elaborate a theory to explain the development of these editing techniques, even if some traditional historians had tried to do so in the past. In addition, it is practically impossible to establish a classification schema for the various forms of alternating editing techniques, since the current typology takes into account only a small percentage of these forms, namely pseudo-alternation, parallel editing and crosscutting. In this paper, I want, first of all, to illustrate how traditional historians gave exaggerated importance to the issue of crosscutting to the detriment of rigorous historical research, leaving certain essential questions around the definition of this alternation’s configuration unraised. This historical digression will be done around the film Attack on a China Mission, made at the turn of the century by the British filmmaker James Williamson, which is often referred to as the first film to use crosscutting. Generally speaking, what will be under discussion here are the traditional historian’s orientation and the degree of his or her interest in events in the past. Afterwards, building on precisions on space and the multiple lines of action, I will attempt to clear up the confusion the actual definition of crosscutting has given rise to around this film. My ultimate goal will be to highlight the theoretical connection, despite their differences, between the paradigms “early cinema” and “institutional cinema” by demonstrating precisely how the study of crosscutting in early cinema not only made it possible to reveal the ambiguity of this key element, which had for a long time been theorised in relation to classical narrative cinema, but also will enable us to elaborate a typology which takes into account a broader range of the various forms of alternating editing techniques found in one or the other of these two paradigms. Keywords: crosscutting, early cinema, Classical Narrative Cinema, historical research

Mobile Television: Technology And Cultural Form
Gerard Goggin.
The idea of video communication over telephony has been dreamt of and developed over several decades, since at least the invention of the Picturephone in the 1960s. With third generation cellular mobiles, video calling has become possible, though not yet widely used. What has generated a great deal of industry and public attention since 2005, however, is the ‘third screen’ — namely, mobile television. Accordingly in this paper I look at the emergence and shaping of this new media mode. In the first part, I give an overview of mobile television technology, and how it is being positioned in relation to existing broadcasting and telecommunications technologies and also policy paradigms. In the second part, I provide a brief, international survey of what has been offered over mobile television in its brief time to date, and what sorts of audiences it has attracted. In the third and final part, I discuss the claims for mobile television’s potential for empowerment, innovation, and the sorts of creativity it elicits and relies upon from its consumers. Not only do these themes suggest important values that are at the heart of debates regarding what Henry Jenkins has termed ‘convergence culture’, they also point to nascent relationships between technology and cultural form that mobile television represents. Keywords: mobiles, television, technology, culture

Contrasting Definitions of Self of Migrants and Stayers
Alison Green & Mary Power
This paper examines interview and survey data from two groups: New Zealand migrants to Australia, and New Zealand residents who have chosen to stay in or return to New Zealand. Data shows that these two groups construct a positive but different sense of self. Each group sees themselves positively and constructs the other group in more negative terms. Migrants see themselves primarily as risk takers and adventurers while seeing those who have stayed behind as complacent, lacking in drive and unwilling to take risks. In contrast, stayers construct a view of themselves as more stable, satisfied and contented and migrants as restless, unable to settle and dissatisfied. Migrants explain their move to Australia in terms of its positive empowering benefits and the increased opportunities migration gives them and their families. They construct a view of Australians as refreshing, direct and more tolerant than New Zealanders. In contrast, New Zealanders happy to stay describe positive features of their country such as it being clean, green and untainted by American influences. Those who stay behind focus on the negative qualities of Australians seeing them as loud, brash and overly influenced by the United States. The data is compared with constructs of self exhibited in the larger migration literature and informed by theoretical analysis using constructs from cognitive dissonance and social identity theories.

Virtual communities of practice: A study of communication, community and organisational learning
Jo Hanisch & Deborah Churchman
Communities of practice are recognised as important to the social fabric of knowledge (Wenger, 2004), and are described as social structures which enable knowledge to be managed by practitioners. According to Wenger (2004), members of these groups share a passion for something they know how to do, and they regularly interact for the purpose of improving their discipline. More recently in the literature there has emerged the notion of virtual communities of practice, where members make use of computer-based communication technologies to share stories, knowledge and communications. The emergence of virtual communities of practice in an organisational setting raises some issues for knowledge management and the ways learning at work occurs. Virtual communities of practice appear to operate in terms of the criteria Wenger (2004) outlines, as defined boundaries seem apparent, and members of these communities can be identified through an analysis of the shared themes evident in their narratives. Members share ways of responding to issues within the organisation despite the lack of face-to-face interaction with other group members. However, little is known about the application of communities of practice theory in the virtual domain, especially in relation to informal learning. This paper explores the issues associated with knowledge management of informal learning by drawing on qualitative data from a study of multiple worksites. The findings identify the barriers to the ‘emergence’ of virtual communities of practice in a virtual context, and the issues which exist when organisations intentionally construct these communities for specific organisational purposes. These issues include difficulties in sustaining the community in the longer term. Keywords:  Communities of practice, virtual work

The Management of Diversity in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Qualitative Study
Owen Hargie & David Dickson
In Northern Ireland, de facto segregation between those with Irish/Nationalist/Catholic and those with British/Unionist/Protestant identities creates fault-lines across many of the tracts of society including housing, education and sport. Sectarianism is prevalent (Jarman, 2005) impacting on life at personal, social and institutional levels (Connolly with Maginn, 1999; Brewer, 1992). Work is an institution, however, where both ethno-politico-religious groupings rub shoulders. There has been little attempt, nevertheless, to capture the experiences of workers, managers and those with trades union responsibilities in respect of sectarianism in the workplace. Four of the largest organizations in Northern Ireland (two from the public, two from the private sector) were recruited for this qualitative study. Key research questions addressed the perceived extent and nature of sectarian harassment together with judgements of the operational effectiveness of organizational policies and procedures for dealing with grievances when they arose. The findings have practical significance. Theoretical implications are also discussed drawing upon intergroup conceptual frameworks and the management of diversity at work.

‘Not Elsewhere Classified’: Popular News And The Struggle For Recognition
Stephen Harrington
Because it has little to unify it, scholarly discussions of journalism are often centred around loosely-defined terms such as ‘tabloid’ and ‘broadsheet’, ‘hard’ and ‘soft’, rather than a tangible, definable group or standard set of practices (Deuze, 2005; Hartley, 1995). Critical thinking about various forms of journalism is therefore still an important part of public reflection on the news media. This paper is a review and critique of the main scholarly approaches to thinking about journalism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, particularly in regards to broadcast television. Rather than advocating the merits of tabloid or broadsheet news, this paper will discuss the emergence of popular, alternative informational programs (e.g. The Panel, CNNNN). It will suggest that thinking about journalism in binary terms fails to reflect the full news media spectrum and fails to recognise that TV news is increasingly being produced by a range of outlets not typically falling into traditional notions of journalism. These alternative approaches may play an important role for the public, and understanding the complex ways in which journalism is viewed and used by audiences may necessitate a shift in thinking away from the currently simplistic discourses. Keywords: Television News, Journalism, Tabloidisation

Managing Corporate Identities in a Changing Environment: A Case Study of a Public Sector Shared Services Provider
Jai Kim & Caroline Hatcher
Corporate identity development, as a management strategy, has evolved from the simple visual representation of an organisation to a more complex corporate strategy over the past thirty years. There is now considerable research to suggest that effective corporate identity management results in creating a positive corporate image and simultaneously helps organisational members to align their work with the organisation’s vision and goals. The paper explores corporate identity as the planned and operational self-presentation about what the organisation is, what it does and how it does it, and how management and employees identify themselves in terms of an Actual, Ideal, Desired, Communicated and Conceived identity. The paper focuses on the management of communication about corporate identity in one newly created Queensland-based public sector shared services provider within a larger public sector organisational structure. It examines how senior managers develop a shared vision of the organisation, and through this process, seek to establish and maintain trust through their organisational leadership, initiate and then manage change processes and motivate employees.  This case study employs qualitative interviews of senior managers and staff, secondary data, including website and published reports, and participant observation to examine how the shared services provider manages its corporate identity by aligning its vision and organisational structure in a period of uncertainty about its possible future structure and operation. The findings of this pilot study, part of a larger study across a group of public sector organisations, suggest that managers and employees in this shared services provider find it difficult to juggle the complexity of multiple visions and requirements for action. This is the result of two key pressures reported by participants: the lack of a clear shared services provider identity is confusing and reduces their capacity to align their work with the organisation’s vision and goals; and secondly, that senior managers intentionally maintain a diffused corporate identity rather than build a strong identity, to prepare employees for the possibility of future organisational change. Keywords: Corporate identity, organisational communication

The Chain Of Command Model: A Case Study Of One Organisation’s Journey To Re-Value Public Affairs
Hibbert, Z. & Hannan, M
In the 21st century organisations need to be effective managers of their relationships with key stakeholders, be they customers, employees, government, media or local communities.  However, the management function charged with facilitating this process, public affairs, is often run as an auxiliary activity rather than as core business.  Even in progressive organisations where the public affairs function is valued and the public affairs specialists’ voices are heard at senior management level, there is still difficulty justifying the function’s contribution to the bottom line. A new model of public affairs has been developed by the Australian Defence Force’s Defence Public Affairs Branch that re-values the staff function of public affairs and places the responsibility for achieving public affairs objectives with line management. In the new structure all commanders must manage public affairs as a fundamental business practice in the same way they manage ammunition, personnel and their  operational objectives. The message is essentially that the management of issues, media and ultimately the reputation of the organisation, is everyone’s business. This paper follows the journey Defence Public Affairs travelled to develop the model and examines if it holds any lessons for the public affairs function in the corporate sector. Keywords: Public affairs/public relations, Issues Management, organisation effectiveness

From Despotism To Democracy: Reporting Iraq’s December 2005 Election In The Australian And Middle Eastern Print Media
Ben Isakhan.
It is only in recent times that the magnitude of Ancient Mesopotamia’s contribution to language, agriculture, modern thought and urbane society has begun to be understood. Most relevant to this study is the governance of Mesopotamia’s early city-states by a political system that Jacobsen has termed ‘Primitive Democracy’ where “…ultimate political power rested with a general assembly of all adult freemen” (Jacobsen, 1977; 128). Yet, despite this, the coverage of Iraq in the Western media since its creation at the end of the First World War and particularly since the first Gulf War, has tended towards Orientalism (Said, 1978) by trivialising this nation and thereby reinforcing the hegemony of the West over the ‘backward, barbaric’ East. This paper examines the issue further by using both quantitative and qualitative assessment methods to compare and contrast the discursive practices used to construct the Iraqi election of December 15, 2005 in  Australia’s leading daily newspapers with newspapers from the Middle East. In essence, it finds that while the Australian media posits democracy as a Western concept and asserts a discourse of US hegemony, the Middle Eastern papers are more contemplative, focusing on the impact that this election could have throughout the region. Keywords: Iraq, Democracy, Media 

Encouraging Collaboration: Using ICTs to Effectively Facilitate Business Collaboration
Joanne Jacobs.
Johnson, et al (2005) have projected that the next revolution in interactions is in terms of maximising the productivity of the most valued workers in organisational environments: knowledge workers.  Business commentators are describing this revolution as a shift away from departmental silos in organisations, and towards facilitating communication between business units. The move has spawned the launch of a series of collaboration software tools and processes, and in particular, internet mediated extra-organisational communication and collaboration tools are a growth sector.  However, there is little research as to the effectiveness of these tools in performing their core function of encouraging collaboration. Godwin-Jones (2003) has suggested that even intensively collaborative tools such as wikis are only effective when populated by users who are serious about collaborating and willing to follow group conventions and practices.  There is a clear need for research on collaborative tools, and on processes for adoption of such tools to empower knowledge workers and facilitate effective collaboration. This paper will explore varying internet-mediated methods of facilitating collaboration within and between organisations and, drawing from research on virtual communities and innovation processes, will evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies and processes in encouraging communication and collaboration. Keywords: Collaboration, Technology, Internet, Innovation

Fixing a Heritage: inscribing Middle Earth onto New Zealand
Stan Jones.
Now that the film trilogy has had its global first run, its extended DVD editions and TV showing, it has entered film/media history. In New Zealand, the media, tourism and related institutions are displaying a second phase of adapting and applying the fantasy of Middle Earth. Through the trilogy, it identifies this place as a cultural product to be acknowledged by others, who do not live here, and then goes on to offer the reader/viewer fan a further role as an agent or ‘performer’ in permanently maintaining the fantasy-as-process. That role attaches to a physical location, which is simultaneously an idea. As Hay puts it: Places are designated and mediated discursively. They become signified and signifying frames of reference for social subjects. Models and myths of places do become a basis upon which social relations are imagined, fetishized, and refashioned (albeit from particular sites and though particular technologies and modes of circulation). (Hay, 1996: 372) This study illustrates such an interaction between real and virtual places by using four main examples: Brodie’s extended Guidebook and Hobbiton, the only remaining film set, a TV documentary and the Lord of the Rings exhibition organized by the New Zealand national museum, Te Papa. The first two cater to visitors, whilst the second are for both locals and visitors. Their local perspective shows popular modes of media and media-combinations seeking to inscribe the film as phenomenon on this country. They also illustrate how local media already define place and location against a global background. This study will explore their common proposition of a ‘real’ or an ‘authentic’ virtuality as applied to New Zealand/Aotearoa. Keywords: Identity, Heritage, Performance, Location

Situated Communication: Identity And Rhetoric In The Kumeyaay Web Presence
Constance Kampf
McLuhan (1964) argues that technologies are extensions of man—with the wheel being an extension of the foot, radio an extension of the ear, and television an extension of the eye.   Extending McLuhan’s metaphor to the Internet allows for a conception of the Internet as an extension of identity.  Understanding the Internet as an extension of identity is a fruitful metaphor when identities are analyzed in rhetorical contexts.  Howard (2004) argues that “Understanding society requires that we study media embeddedness—how new communication tools are embedded in our lives and how our lives are embedded in new media.” Thus, we can understand websites through their interaction with society in offline contexts, especially in terms of rhetoric emerging from a given society.  To explore the Internet as an extension of identity, this paper examines rhetoric about Indigenous peoples infused throughout mainstream U.S. culture and online responses from indigenous people, specifically the Kumeyaay people of San Diego County in California.  Mainstream U.S. rhetoric sets up images of indigenous peoples as anchored in the past.  In response, the Kumeyaay web presence actively works to engage and diffuse the power of mainstream images of “indian-ness” through a representation of Kumeyaay culture as living in the present San Diego county area of the U.S.  This case demonstrates the connection between ideology about Native Americans and the online responses which assert Kumeyaay identity as situated in the present. Keywords: Indigenous, Identity, Internet, Rhetoric

Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility Via The Internet: Examining The Cultural Bounds Of Representation
Constance Kampf.
Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in the cultural systems highlights the connections between national institutional structures and business’ commitment to CSR and the strategies used to communicate CSR to public audiences via the Internet.  To frame CSR from a situated perspective (Matten & Moon 2005) implies a shift in understanding relations between corporations and their stakeholders from a corporate-centered model to a cultural systems perspective.  This paper describes an approach to cultural systems in which can be used to frame our understanding of implicit norms with respect to CSR, and demonstrates how these norms result in different practices of communicating CSR in the Wal-Mart and Maersk websites. Keywords: CSR Stakeholders, Internet culture

Two-Way Symmetric Public Relations Revisited: The Potential And Challenge For Public Relations Practitioners In Empowering Publics
Anne Lane.
In the field of public relations, one of the most challenging and controversial concepts of the 20th century – that of two-way symmetric public relations – remains a hot topic at the start of the new millennium. Over the last 20 years, much has been written about two-way symmetric public relations and its role in the creation, maintenance and enhancement of relationships between organisations and publics. The majority of this literature presents the concept from an abstract, academic perspective. Very little has been written from a practical point of view about how to actually ‘do’ two-way symmetric communication. Specifically there seems to have been a dearth of discussion about how the public relations practitioner can adequately represent external concerns to management in a persuasive and effective manner. As well, there have been few considerations of the reasons why this apparently altruistic public relations model might be the most useful and effective in profit-driven, commercial situations. This may in some way explain why many public relations practitioners and academics continue to problematise the two-way symmetric public relations paradigm, preferring to dismiss it as being unrealistic and impractical.
This paper considers some of the practical benefits of conducting two-way symmetric public relations in the commercial sector, reflecting on an Australian case study from the property development industry.  Using the RACE framework as a guide, the paper then draws on examples and case studies on the subject of reaching, persuading and influencing publics to see how these could be made relevant to the conduct of ‘balanced’ communication with management. How can 21st century organisational public relations practitioners present stakeholder arguments in a positive way; and ultimately perhaps even get management to incorporate elements of these arguments in organisational attitudes and behaviour? Keywords: Two-way, symmetric, public relations

Dreams of Excess and Mobility: The Media Worlds of New Zealand Children
Geoff Lealand
Building on previous extensive research on New Zealand children and their media use (Lealand 1990; Lealand & Zanker 2002),  this presentation draws on a third  phase of research, investigating the experiences of a substantial group of 8 to 14 year olds living in the North Island (Hamilton) and South Island (Christchurch) of New Zealand in 2005. In addition to conventional across-school surveying, the research describes the outcomes of a series of focus groups—which included drawing exercises which have again provided unique insights into the worlds of young media users.  The social and cultural backgrounds of these students is very diverse but there are  numerous shared experiences, especially in their use of older media (radio, print, TV) and newer media (cell-phones, Internet).  The details of their encounters with and use of such media, described in this presentation, fleshes out the rather one-dimensional information provided by market or institutional research. There is much debate, for example, around the access of children and adolescents to the Web, and the perceived dangers which lurk there.   Such debates are misdirected if they are not grounded in a well-informed sense of factors such as the technical skills of such children, and external rules (imposed by parents) and internalized rules (self-censorship). This research explores such factors, framed within the particular experiences of young New Zealanders, as they navigate through an increasingly connected world. Keywords: children; media; New Zealand

Political Communication in Singapore: ‘Spinning’ a New Discourse
Terence Lee
The Asian city-state of Singapore is well known as a tightly-managed and government-made society, yet the subject of political communication - understood broadly as mediated communication between the government and the people - has not been examined in any sustained manner. This paper fills this gap by (re)defining political communication in Singapore in the hope of understanding the relationship between the media and politics in Singapore; as well as understanding how political communication is conducted and managed in Singapore. Among other things, it will consider the Internet’s place within the structure of political communication in Singapore. It will also examine the rise of ‘spin’ in Singaporean political discourse, an approach that reinforces the application of ‘gestural politics’, or a kind of politics where political rhetoric becomes more important than its substance. Keywords: Media, Communication, Politics, Spin

The Social and Cultural Integrative Role of Asian Media Productions in the New Millennium: Pan-Asian and International Co-productions
Tania Lim
Economic integration and security alone will not be sufficient to realise the vision of an ASEAN Community or that of a larger regional East Asia in a global world. Rather, as ASEAN nation-states struggle to accomplish their nation-hood project while competing in a larger East Asian and Asia Pacific marketplace, these countries increasingly need to rely upon the less defined areas of cultural, social and lately, media cooperation. Rather, television broadcasting, film and animation productions have become the site for developing regional circuits of cultural production that are reshaping the contours of media globalization and integrating cultural markets in South East and East Asia.  This paper seeks to examine the roles that Asian Media Productions - in Television, Film and Animation - play in the social and cultural integration of Asian media and communication systems, against the backdrop of diverse societies and cultures. It will use three emergent industry trends–regional gameshows, Pan-Asian film experiments and Asian-made animation productions– to explore the impact of media and communication policies that promote creative industries, cultural marketisation of stars, and regionalisation of industries have made towards building a pan- Asian youth and audience marketplace of ideas, creativity and innovation. Global media corporations have been steadily expanding in the region by supplying imported television programs to national broadcasters, obtaining landing rights for their foreign television channels and investing in larger-scale marketing budgets and dominating screens in multi-cinema complexes. Recently, local broadcasters have moved towards format adaptation of game shows and new media applications for animation, while Asian film industries experiment with pan-Asian casting and genres that pander to geo-linguistically similar markets. These reflect the creative responses of local players to global competition. Keywords: Regional Circuits, Globalization, Marketplace

Rhetorical Theory and Public Relations: From The Agora to The Postmoderns
Steve Mackey
The employment of notions from rhetorical theory has become a trend in the analysis and teaching of public relations. This paper sets out to inform this trend by charting the long history of the rhetorical tradition. This history started with the sophistry of the ancient Athenian agora. Next came the Latinate incorporation of rhetoric into the trivium (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic or logic) - the three discursive subjects of classical liberal education. With the emergence of modernism rhetoric was eclipsed by emphasis on empirical and positivistic routes to achieving reason and understanding. But in the postmodern era it is hard to defend any data from the charge that it can only be understood through discursive processes. This paper suggests public relations scholars need to pay attention to this history in order to adapt rhetorical theory to public relations. Keywords: Rhetoric, public relations, discourse, theory

Towards A New Construct For Communication During  Organizational Change
James Mahoney
Grief, resistance and resentment are significant psychological reactions presenting in employees who have experienced major workplace change. Previous employee communication research has examined how such reactions to organizational change can be ameliorated. However, researchers have started from the premise that change directions are always set by an organization’s leadership. This paper hypothesizes a construct for employee communication that would apply before change directions are set. The paper argues that the application of the construct would enhance employee ownership of change outcomes and correspondingly reduce reactions such as grief, resistance and resentment. The construct applies public relations paradigms to a recently developed change management model based on complexity theory. Communication during a substantial restructure of a major Australian government agency, the Civil Aviation Authority, in the 1990s, is used to illustrate the construct. Keywords: Organizational restructuring; change management; complexity theory; employee communication

Competition and Cooperation: Organisational Communication Within The Australian Football League
Timothy Marjoribanks
The organisational dynamics of professional sport leagues require that, while clubs are competitive with each other on the field, clubs must engage in cooperative behaviour off the field if the league is to remain sustainable.  Communication between clubs, and between clubs and the league regulator, is critical to this cooperation, as clubs share knowledge, ideas, and resources.  At the same time, the competition underlying professional sport leagues raises tensions for these cooperative communication processes, as clubs seek to balance the collective needs of the league with their own interests (Hamil et al., 2000; Smith and Stewart, 1999). In this paper, I explore organisational communication within professional sport through a case study of the Australian Football League (AFL), focusing on how the 16 clubs that constitute the league engage with the tensions of cooperation and competition.  The case study is based on 60 semi-structured interviews conducted with senior managers at all 16 AFL clubs, and policy and organisational documents. Three key themes related to organisational communication emerged.  First, clubs understand that competition and cooperation must co-exist, and seek to establish both formal and informal cooperative communication processes.  Second, there exist important communication fault lines between clubs, with some clubs either less open to communicating with other clubs, or being more likely to communicate with a limited range of clubs.  Third, clubs perceive that they face significant obstacles in communicating with the AFL as the league regulator, with the AFL often understood to be competing with clubs rather than acting in their interests.  These themes reveal that, while cooperative communication is understood by clubs to be vital to the existence of the league, and to their own survival, critical fault lines exist whereby communication becomes a site of contested power. Keywords: Organisational communication, AFL, Sport

Producing News: Negotiating Defamation Law In Australia And The US
Timothy Marjoribanks
A central concern of news media research is to analyse processes of news production in contemporary media organisations, with these processes being vital to journalistic communication practices and content quality.  Seeking to go beyond dominant models that focus primarily on political economy, organisations, or culture (Schudson 2000), Cottle (2003) has proposed a three dimensional model of news production. He argues that news production occurs through the interaction of micro-level workplace practices, meso-level organisational cultures, and macro-contexts of regulatory, technological and competitive environments. To explore the explanatory value of this model, this paper undertakes a comparative analysis of workplace interactions between news media professionals in the regulatory context of defamation law in Australia and the US.  Defamation law provides an important means of analysing processes of news production as it can influence the production, communication and quality of news, for example by chilling media speech. Sixty journalists, editors and legal advisors at purposively sampled media organisations in Australia and the US were interviewed about news production processes and defamation law.  In addition, legal and organisational documents were analysed.  Three key findings emerged. First, Australian media professionals are more directly concerned with defamation law than their US counterparts, related to differences in regulatory regimes.  Second, in both countries, media professionals, working within a discourse of promoting professional standards and quality, actively negotiate organisational engagement with defamation law.  Third, these negotiations influence the ways in which media professionals communicate news.  Overall, the research reveals the value of an interactive model of news production, in that it requires researchers to recognise the significance of the everyday interactions of media professionals in organisational contexts, while also locating such interactions within the broader regulatory environment. Keywords: journalism; defamation; comparative; news

When Access Radio Meets the Digital Divide: Community And Access Radio Stations’ Use Of The Internet In Aotearoa New Zealand
Donald Matheson
The Internet excites many of those who run access and community radio in Aotearoa New Zealand. Digital media have the potential to meet a number of their goals, enriching community information, providing archives, allowing members of communities to continue talking after their short airtime each week, allowing communities to listen at times convenient to them and engaging a new generation of digital media users. Yet almost none of Aotearoa New Zealand’s non-profit radio stations has more than a token online presence. This paper explores, through interviews with workers in the sector, the hopes, barriers and problems access radio in Aotearoa New Zealand faces in extending itself into new media. Keywords: Access radio, community radio

Leadership and abuse – news framing of the Iraq war conflict during the 2004 Federal Election
Kerry McCallum and R Warwick Blood
This paper reports on a research project that investigated the reporting and portrayal of the Iraq War and related international events during the 2004 Federal Election. We used the Factiva database to retrieve actual newspaper items relating to the Iraq War and Guantanamo Bay across the period from 16 August 2004 to 13 October 2004. Data was gathered and analysed using grounded theory techniques and with the support of the Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Analysis was aimed at determining the discourses inherent in Australian journalists’ framing of the Iraq war conflict and identifying the significant images used to signify those discourses to the public. The research found that while the Australian media was overwhelmingly supportive of the Australian Government’s role in the Iraq conflict, the war was framed in contested ways across genre and journalistic source. Analysis identified several competing news frames used in the Australian media’s reporting of the Iraq war conflict. Those frames were typically signified by the repetition of a small number of graphic images and characteristic phrases. The war was portrayed as a source of electoral capital in the Federal Election campaign, most importantly as symbolic of strength and leadership for the Prime Minister, John Howard. The treatment of prisoners of war was also a significant topic for media discussion of the Iraq conflict, particularly images of the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal. Keywords: Iraq war; political communication; news framing; war discourses and imagery.

Advocating Communicative Confidence: Empowering Law Students To Be ‘Water-Walkers’.
Patsy McCarthy
This paper proposes that the secret to becoming a winning advocate is a confident communicator style (Norton, 1983; Moss Kanter, 2004). The paper explores strategies which may help a Law student to develop the essential communicative confidence to handle the ‘Socratic Method’ (Garner, 2000) and become a successful advocate. As so much of the Law has to do with speaking, one such strategy is to give students an understanding of the principles of Rhetoric, including the opportunity to work on the practice of their persuasive power - both verbal and non-verbal. The paper investigates a critique of the Socratic Method (Garner, 2000) which dominates the tradition of the Law in the Western World. The question of the potential of the Socratic Method to be misogynistic (Garner, 2000) is investigated to show that, although its threat is possibly increased by gender or less privileged circumstances, Socratic teaching in legal education is indeed a daunting prospect to most students. The case study used is an elective unit that prepares students for mooting and court work that is currently taught at the Queensland University of Technology. This paper outlines aspects of the teaching approach and uses feedback from students to analyse its effectiveness to overcome the fear associated with Socratic court room processes. Keywords: Law, Rhetoric, Socratic Method, Speech Communication.

More than just talk: Taking advantage of change communication.
Colleen Mills
Restructuring, modernisation, redevelopment, down-sizing, repositioning, mergers, take-overs, redundancy, redeployment, CEO succession, technology introduction, and organisational development are all organisational activities that inevitably threaten the order of organisational life and consequently the behaviour of organisational members. Existing patterns of communication are disrupted and new ones emerge. This paper explores the relationship between organisational communication and organisational change. It looks at how the relationship between organisational communication and change is typically portrayed in the literature and questions whether this captures the reality suggested by several empirical studies of change in New Zealand organisations. It explores the opportunities communication during change provide for understanding the inner workings of organisations: how change communication reveals the fabric of an organisation’s culture as well as highlighting the effectiveness of information technology and knowledge management strategies. It then discusses how managers can take advantage of this potential. The paper concludes by making recommendations for organisations embarking on a programme of planned organisational change. Keywords: Organisational communication, organisational change, change communication.

What illustrations of sign language reveal about the design of process diagrams
Marilyn Mitchell
As rich visual languages, sign languages of the deaf have great potential to provide theoretical insight into other forms of visual communication. Further, it is not just the usage of sign language that is worth researching, but also its visual illustration. As Bailey and Dolby (2002) have noted, the illustration of sign language is generally considered to be challenging, and designers have given much thought into making such illustrations clear and concise. This paper looks particularly at how techniques used in comics-style illustrations of sign language are also used in process diagrams. Examples of diagrams used in the discussion include dance steps, instructions for making paper aeroplanes, and explanations of some animal communication and cellular processes. The comparison between illustrations of sign language and process diagrams is most appropriate since both types of illustration represent movement in three-dimensional space. Visual variables of importance include object shapes, backgrounds, positions, orientations, paths of movement, speed of movement, duplication of movement, and reference points. The paper should provide deeper understanding for scientific and technical communicators and teachers of how to construct clearer diagrams for a variety of purposes. Keywords: sign language illustration, diagrams

Sky Channel And The Battle For Australians’ Hearts And Minds: The ACTU’s Use of Media In The ‘Your Rights At Work’ Campaign.
Kathie Muir
The role of new media technologies in the strengthening of democratic communication, social movement and activist campaigning and mobilising is now well understood. Eric Lee’s LabourStart website and Australia’s own Workers Online were pioneering examples of the ways the labour movement adapted such technologies for their own purposes. The ACTU’s recent ‘Your Rights at Work’ campaign against the Howard Government’s industrial relations legislation, has demonstrated a highly sophisticated and dynamic use of new and traditional media technologies to create a strong sense of (virtual) community and to mobilise opposition to the legislation. This paper examines the ACTU’s national day of community action, broadcast through Sky Channel, and other features of the ‘Your Rights at Work’ campaign to analyse the ways the ACTU has deployed electronic and alternative media, and discourses of fairness and nationalism, for mobilising the opposition of Australian community to the erosion of workers’ rights. It also examines whether new media technologies have been successfully combined with traditional labour culture and history to update the profile of unionism for C21 audiences. Keywords: activist media, campaigns, labour

Rights Culture: Content Creators and the Cultural Industries 
Simone Murray
Rights in creative content – whether textual, visual or audio – constitute the backbone of contemporary global cultural industries.  Despite their centrality to digital culture generally, debates over content rights have to date been dominated by legal scholars.  This is unfortunate, as legal discourse can be a blunt tool to examine the wider cultural, social and industrial contexts within which rights debates take place.  This paper argues that Humanities scholars must not only become familiar with the terms of rights debates in the cultural industries, but must moreover intervene in those debates. The significance of intellectual property rights in the digital economy is interlinked with global media conglomerates’ favoured strategy of ‘content streaming’ i.e. formatting specific content packages across multiple digital platforms controlled by the same media group.  This franchising of content creates economies of scale and thus drives corporate revenues while adding only modestly to production costs.  Rights owners’ desire to maximise the ‘streamability’ of their content assets has lead to a phenomenon of ‘rights drift-netting’ whereby creators are obliged to sign over rights to content in all media formats, whether currently existing or not.  Since the passage of the Moral Rights Act 2000, which enshrines creators’ rights of attribution and integrity of a work, creator lobbying has focused on testing whether this legislation will in practice enhance the bargaining power of authors, screenwriters and film-makers in negotiating with media corporations in Australia’s comparatively small cultural economy.  The recent Free Trade Agreement with the US raises further questions of whether Australia’s moral rights law will be challenged by US cultural industries.  The proposed paper thus speaks directly to the conference themes of ‘empowerment’ and ‘creativity’ in the contemporary digital economy, and explores creators’ often overlooked legal and economic roles. Keywords: Rights, Copyright, Mural Rights, Cultural Industries

Media, Market and Migration
Mohammed Musa
The process of movement of people across national boundaries is as old as human history. This process though, has intensified in the last two decades that saw the ascendancy of the market system as a global social order. Among the notable outcomes of migration are cultural de-territorialization and the development of the politics of exclusion in media images. Yet, most studies on migration mostly from anthropological perspectives tend to focus on such movement as manifestation of behaviour or decision making process. What such studies neglect though is, an analysis of the informational resources that inform migrant decision and are product of migration and, the relation of these with the market system as a social order. This paper sets out to study the role of the media in the construction of dominant images as well as public opinion about migration and migrant communities and how the market system impinge on both migration and the media institutions that produce symbolic goods about these. In doing this, the paper takes a look at the New Zealand press as an embodiment of the market system and the images they disseminate about migration and migrant communities, and stress the importance of social structure in understanding the politics of migration and migrant images in the media. 

Disaster Memorials as Government Communication
Susan Nicholls
Disaster memorials established by government authorities are a unique form of government communication. Governments use memorials to send specific, complex and subtle messages to the communities they govern. Offering definitions of community and memorial in the context of disasters, this paper argues that governments tread a risky path in acknowledging disaster by participating in disaster memorial creation, and that they have a triple motive in this participation: to ‘do the right thing’ by their communities, to contribute to recovery, and to communicate their involvement in both the memorial process and in the disaster itself in a positive light. This paper discusses the communicative power and conflictual processes of memorial-building, using a number of disaster memorials as examples, including the World Trade Centre in New York City, the Port Arthur Massacre memorial in Tasmania, and the Canberra Bushfire Memorial. The paper also discusses disaster memorials in terms of their communicative capacity in contributing to community recovery. Extensive community consultation is seen as the way in which this can be achieved. Keywords: Government, Community, Disaster, Memorials

Contesting the Middle Ground: The Regulation of Objectivity in ABC Journalism
David Nolan
In March 2003, the Australian Broadcasting Authority finally delivered its report responding to Richard Alston's 68 complaints about coverage of the 2003 Iraq war on the ABC radio program AM.   While the report found that AM's coverage was 'of a high standard overall', it upheld six further complaints for a lack of impartiality (making 22 overall), thus providing further support to governmental claims regarding ABC 'bias'.  Drawing on both an analysis of regulatory frameworks and interviews with ABC journalists and managers, this paper theoretically and empirically engages with the question of how journalistic norms of  'objectivity' and 'impartiality' are defined in ABC journalism.  Rather than simply provide a descriptive account of formal policy definitions and processes, this research draws on this case study to investigate how norms informing journalistic practice can be seen to emerge through the interplay of political, regulatory, institutional and professional cultures, and how such norms may be seen to shift historically.  Drawing on these findings, it discusses how (and the extent to which) ABC journalism may be changing in the current environment, and the wider social and political implications of such change. Keywords: ABC, Regulation, Journalism, Objectivity

Organising Women? Work/Life Balance, Senior Executive Women, Gender Equity and Social Change.
Margaret Peters
This paper analyses selected findings of a recent Australia-wide empirical study that investigated the experiences of women in senior managerial positions and the impact of the presence of senior women executives on management cultures and gendered power structures. The ARC funded national study involved ethnographic interviews with 255 senior male and female executives in 19 Australian organisations across the public, private and higher education sectors. Drawing from these interviews, the paper signifies and analyses the impact of work intensification on senior managers arising from new corporate management structures. The paper argues that work intensification is inextricably interrelated with gendered and culturally patterned management behaviours and identities in relationship to structures of power and authority. Particular attention is paid to the linguistic framings within which men and women articulate their experiences of work intensification and shifting power relations and practices and their impact on workplace identities. The paper argues that adding to current work intensification is the gendered double helix of increasing emotional work undertaken by senior women at home an at work. With an aging senior management cohort, access to family friendly policies and flexible work place practices are viewed as having little or no impact on them individually or collectively as the culture of high visibility, long working hours, and normalisation of masculine work habits continues to be entrenched in the organisations studied. The notion of a critical mass of women at senior levels changing masculinist managerial cultures was explored by the interviewees as a possible way in which deep structure power and authority change could be effected. The paper concludes with examples of structural resistances to work intensification.

Comparing Conflict Styles in Relationships
Mary Power & Deannah Jang
Past research Reese-Weber and Kahn (2004) shows that perceptions of parental conflict resolution style are related to current conflict styles with romantic partners. Cramer (2003) demonstrated that negative conflict reduces relationship satisfaction. This study provides data to document how subjects view their own conflict styles (defined as specific types of conflict behaviour (Cosier and Ruble, 1981) together with behavioural orientations towards conflict (Thomas, 1975) in their relationships with parents and partners and relates these comparisons of past relationships with levels of satisfaction (Hendrick, 1988) in current relationships. Their perception of their own conflict style is matched with their scores on a validated measure of conflict styles (Conflict-Resolution Behaviour Questionnaire (CRBQ) Rubenstein & Feldman (1993). By comparing their own assessment of their conflict style with the results on the CRBQ we obtained a measure of the metacognitive awareness of conflict resolution styles of the participants. We then compare their relationship satisfaction with their metacognitive awareness of their own style and their assessment of their partner's style. This survey was lodged on the web on 11-9-2005 and results were down loaded on 15.12.2005. The survey was composed of 110 questions 96 of them used a Likert scale. There were 6 multiple choice and 8 open ended questions. Three hundred and sixty nine logons were registered and two hundred and eight seven began the survey with about 220 answering most questions. 67% were female and 33% male and all but two were or had been in heterosexual relationships. 51.8% were currently in a relationship and 28.2% answered the survey in relations to a recent past relationship. Relationship length ranged between 1 month and twenty four years. Just over half the subjects (51.6% were aged between 18-25 with 16.7% aged between 26-35, 13.9% aged between 36-45 ; 11.%% between 46-55 and 6.3% aged 56 or over. the parents of most subjects (74.5%) were currently married or had been before their deaths. Divorced parents were in the minority 20%. Subjects were anonymous and were influenced by a wide variety of cultural backgrounds. Similarly they listed a ranged of significant religious influences in their lives. Reports of Hendricks satisfaction scale. Most or 52.6% saw that their conflict style resembled their mothers' style and 47.4% saw that they followed their father's style. Discussion centres on measures which will highlight a metacognitive awareness (Power, 1992) of the interpersonal communication skills required to resolve conflict successfully and highlights key areas where subjects need further training. Keywords: Conflict, Interpersonal communication, Gender

Gender Differences in Style and Usage of SMS as discussed in an On- line Chat Forum
Mary Power & Louise Horstmanshof
This paper summarises data on attitudes and use of SMS from an on-line interactive group session with 150 students  who had read an academic paper and a magazine article on SMS and who were located in five separate classrooms equipped with Blackboard chat. After each question set by the authors, thirty students in each classroom posted individual responses in an instant message format to their own classroom forum viewed on their individual screens.  At the end of two to five minutes a student representative in each room summarised the general trends of discussion in that room.  These were then posted to all 5 rooms.  With these responses in view, the authors constructed further questions designed to explore knowledge, behaviours and attitudes towards SMS in the groups. Analysis of transcripts showed that there was a gender divide in the way that both men and women viewed the way that the other sex constructed messages.  In this interactive method, through comparison with other’s views, subjects became aware of how their own behaviours using this technology affected and influenced receivers. In addition, rules for the use of SMS were proposed, discussed and refined. This paper reports on the development of new research techniques in gathering qualitative data from a large number of subjects simultaneously. 

Colour My World. The Consumption Junction Meets Da Digital Lifestyle
Scott Rickard
Families are a distinct user group that is often neglected when it comes to studies of everyday culture within a digital context. We are bombarded with advertising messages that promote youth as the main consumers of digital technology and the only ones to benefit from living a digital lifestyle. They are of course, the hip cool individuals that can send text messages, wear the signature white iPod earpieces, and know how to build websites. There are however “hidden” consumers, everyday mums and dads, in other words, families, whose needs are distinctly different and yet must still be catered to by the digital marketplace. For these everyday consumers, digital appliances and their uses seem much more mundane but are in fact integral to the family unit. Family photos are seen as “trite and banal” to many individuals even the mothers that Rose (2004, 549) interviews in her study on family photography.  Yet family photos are openly displayed in public spaces within the domestic domain to build a sense of “togetherness” within the family. Rose writes that academic literature about family photographs is divided between those that “pay attention to the triviality of family snaps, and those that prefer to emphasize the intensity of emotions that they can evoke” (2004, 550). Nevertheless photographs are a key communication tool between families and exploring the current transition therefore from print to digital is integral to understanding the ways in which it might alter the intergenerational communication processes and family dynamics. Using Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Cowan theory which focuses on users and their intersection with technology, this paper identifies several key user groups from within the family and explores their needs as consumers within the current Australian digital photography marketplace. Keywords: digital photography, families

Motion Will Be Denied: The Liberal Media’s Coverage of the ‘Chicago 8’ Trial
Nick Sharman
The ‘Chicago eight’ trial was one of the first major attempts by the Federal government to use the judicial system to curtail the activities of the 60s movement in the United States. In 1969 the Nixon administration charged eight of the leading movement activists with crimes arising out of the disturbances at the Democratic convention in Chicago in 1968. The indictment for crossing state lines to incite a riot carried a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment. The government hoped that the charges would tie up the resources and leadership capabilities of the movement and that the subsequent media coverage of the trial would serve to discredit the movement and its aims. The government was assisted in these aims by Judge Julius Hoffman whose partisan rulings and deprecatory treatment of the defendants and their lawyers eventually led to the overturning of the initial convictions of the five key defendants in the case. This paper will compare the media coverage of the trial by three key liberal papers – the Washington Post, the New York Times and the Chicago Sun- Times - as a means of assessing the degree to which the government or the movement’s agenda dominated the mainstream coverage of the trial. In particular consideration will be given to the extent to which the arbitrary and vindictive nature of Judge Hoffman’s rulings and treatment of the defendants and their lawyers – as later recognised by the court of appeal rulings in the case - emerged from the newspaper coverage of the trial. Keywords: liberal media, activism

The Pantomime   Public Sphere: New Zealand Broadcasting News 1923-1962
David Shellock
It is a curious feature of New Zealand's broadcasting history, which dates back to 1921, that for forty of those years there was no independent news service. In fact, from 1937 to 1962 broadcasting news was prepared by government officials. From 1937 to 1950 it was actually prepared, each day, in the Prime Minister's office. Allied to all this was a ban on the broadcasting of controversial material that stretched from 1924 to 1954. This paper examines the period from 1937 to 1962, the lifetime of what was known as The Official News Service. In particular, it examines in detail the early part of that period, up until the late 1940's when the system was put in place. Those were the years of the first Labour Government, one of New Zealand's most significant administrations in terms of social change. Labour's idealism shaped its broadcasting policy in many ways - music, drama, community broadcasting and more. During these years the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra was set up under the auspices of the New Zealand Broadcasting Service. Yet Labour policies also showed political opportunism, even cynicism - the control of radio news, the approach to controversy. The paper asks the question: why did one of New Zealand's most idealistic and democratic governments behave in such an undemocratic way towards radio news? Drawing on the Parliamentary debates of the period, and a variety of secondary sources the paper uses a theoretical prism from the public sphere notion of Jurgen Habermas and the development theory of Denis McQuail to provide an insight into the dynamics of broadcasting in New Zealand.  This enables the paper to conclude that Labour not only failed to create a public sphere in broadcasting, but in fact created an environment that mimicked a Habermasian public sphere by creating a pantomime public sphere. And using McQuail the paper concludes that there were deeper reasons for this than political cynicism and suggests that Labour's approach to news and current affairs sprang out of its idealism, however misplaced that might have been.

Tackling Abuse of Officials: Attitudes And Communication Skills Of Experienced Football Referees
Peter Simmons
Many Australian and overseas sports bodies are experiencing difficulties retaining referees at the grass roots level, especially young referees. Abuse and aggression from players and spectators are the most commonly given reasons for referees leaving. This paper uses in depth interviews to explore the way a small sample of experienced, successful football (soccer) referees think about and deal with abuse and aggression. Experienced referees ultimately judge their own performance by the correctness of their decisions and application of the rules. Central to experienced referees’ communication is a deliberate projection of calm and confidence in themselves and their decisions. Player abuse is perceived to be driven by frustration, disappointment and partiality. Referees adapt their response according to situation. They articulated an extensive repertoire of verbal and non-verbal techniques for enhancing player acceptance of decisions, and dealing directly with player abuse and aggression. Spectators are generally considered to be partial, poorly positioned to judge, and lacking in understanding of the rules. By focusing on the game and reminding themselves of their own expertise, referees are able to ‘block out’ most spectator abuse. Some of the attitudes and skills of successful referees may be passed on to inexperienced referees through explicit teaching, practising communication skills, and performance evaluation systems. Their strategies for projecting confidence and enhancing acceptance of decisions may be transferable to other professions and situations. Keywords: Referee, Retention, Communication, Abuse

Super Size Me:  Accounting for Television Advertising In The Public Discourse On Obesity
John Sinclair, and R. Wilken
Advertising has been for some time the object of much public debate about eating disorders, such as concerns about its role in fostering body images.  More recently, attention has turned towards the degree to which advertising is implicated in what has become a bona fide public health issue throughout the world, namely obesity, especially amongst children. This is both a local issue, in that it has mobilised concerned parents’ groups in the community, and a global one, in that it raises questions about the commercialisation of food in general within global culture.  While corporations have pursued ever more intricate ways to penetrate their target markets, they also have had to respond concretely to public concerns. This paper outlines the dimensions of the debate about the social and cultural impacts attributed to advertising in the public discourse about obesity, identifying the various positions, and seeking to assess the mode and degree to which advertising plausibly can be held responsible. Keywords: Advertising, Globalisation, Obesity, Public

Agents of Conscience, Control And/Or Compliance: The Roles of Australian Public Relations Practitioners In Organizational Value-Setting
Marianne Sison
The research explored the roles enacted by 30 Australian public relations and communication practitioners of 26 large organizations in the organizational value-setting process. Using a multifocal lens comprising the systems/functionalist, rhetorical/interpretive, and critical/dialectical perspectives, the research looks at role theory as a means of understanding individual and organizational values. The research reveals three agency roles enacted by practitioners namely--agent of conscience, agent of control and an agent of compliance. This paper argues towards a practitioner role as an agent of critical conscience and discusses the implications of this role for education and industry. Keywords: public relations roles, ethics, organizational values

A Tradition of Sedition: Journalism for the Public Benefit
Jolyon Sykes
The public’s right to know has become a mantra, repeated so often that communications commentators have come to believe it is so fundamental to a functioning democracy that it over-rides all other considerations. The principles espoused by John Milton in his Areopagitica, published in 1644 have been expanded from their original context – advocating the widespread distribution of knowledge and understanding – to justifying blatant invasions of privacy and the subsequent publication of defamatory material. Likewise, the principles formalized in the First Amendment to the US Constitution are used to justify baseless speculation, distortion and selective reporting, commentary and opinion. This paper will provide an historical genealogy of journalism in the public benefit since the establishment of a mass media by the use of moveable type to the end of the eighteenth century, establishing a context for the main arguments in favour of press freedom and thereby illuminating the limits which that same context places upon journalism practice. I hope that this genealogy will make some aspects of journalists’ professional practice a little clearer but I will not attempt to criticize or benchmark current practice at this stage. Understanding the context of their unwritten contract with society, or professional covenant, could provide journalists with a firmer basis for resisting newsroom pressure to intrude on a source, to engage in damaging speculation, or to interpret facts to suit preconceived news frames, when there is no public benefit justification. Keywords: Journalism, Professionalism, Public benefit

Canberra’s Community Update:  A Model For Disaster Recovery Communication
Jolyon Sykes
Within a few weeks of the Canberra bushfire disaster of 18th January 2003, the ACT Bushfire Recovery Task Force began to publish Community Update. Its purpose was to keep the community informed about the task force’s activities and to publicise the various forms of support and advice that it would provide to people affected by the disaster. Published by the task force’s Communications Group, Community Update was a major component of the ACT Government’s bushfire recovery effort and continued as a weekly publication for fifty-nine issues, the last one appearing in June 2004. Its second issue included details of the task force, its membership and mission statement and explained that the role of the Community and Expert Reference Group (CERG) was to support the work of the task force and to provide a channel for the community to raise and discuss issues on the bushfire recovery process through the Bushfire Recovery Centre. Readers of Community Update were also invited to provide feedback and to submit articles for publication. The channel provided for reader and community feedback appears at first glance to be tenuous. Feedback would be filtered or prioritised by the Recovery Centre, the CERG, and the Communications Group before passing to Community Update for publication. One aim of my current research project is to establish the actual role and effectiveness of Community Update in reflecting the views of those affected by the disaster, balanced by a strong editorial imperative to publish information that the task force believed important. This paper will analyse the content of Community Update over its life, examine issues of editorial control and responsibility, and relate these to the published literature on community recovery after a disaster. Keywords: Canberra, disaster, recovery, community.

A Visual Social Semiotic Approach For Investigating The Effectiveness Of Multimedia Text Material 
Suranti Trisnawati
This paper seeks to examine interactions between users and visual elements of multimedia content, by employing a visual social semiotic approach to supplement usability criteria in exploring the effectiveness of multimedia texts. The effectiveness of multimedia content is frequently measured by criteria of technical usability. Content is comprised of, for instance, words, (still and moving) images, and sound. Words and images, as essential content, can be categorised into visual elements, whereas sound can be viewed as an audio element. Nielsen’s Designing Web Usability (2000) is valuable for examining the effectiveness of these elements. Within usability, legibility, as related to typeface and layout, is relevant for examining the textual elements, and usability of images, as related to image reduction due to download times for users’ convenience is useful for investigating the images in the text. However, interactions between users and images have rarely been explored. This is an important omission since this interaction may reveal the meanings of the images, which in turn relate to the effectiveness of the images. A visual social semiotic approach (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996), which provides a method for investigating how viewers interact with texts, has been used to explore the interaction between viewers and images in the context of printed documents. This approach is appropriate for the images in the context of multimedia text. This approach is also valuable for examining the interaction between the user and the words, as a visual element, in addition to applying criteria to words. Therefore, a combination of usability and visual social semiotic approaches will contribute to discussions regarding the complexity of interactions between the user and the multimedia text, as a form of new media. Investigating the effectiveness of multimedia content is thus better enabled through this combined approach. Key words: visual social semiotics, usability studies, effectiveness, multimedia text

The Howard Government's Industrial Relations Information Campaign And The Limits To Incumbency Advantage.
Peter van Onselen & Wayne Errington
The concept of the permanent campaign was recently reviewed by American political scientists Norman Ornstein and Thomas Mann (2000). At the 2005 ANZCA conference we discussed the extent to which the permanent campaign had come to Australia, using communications strategies at the 2004 federal election as a case study. This paper analyses the Howard government’s $55m information campaign to sell its new industrial relations (IR) reforms. The expensive advertising campaign permeated across newspapers, television channels, radio stations and even internet sites. It was widely criticised by media professionals and academics alike. The IR information campaign was an example of permanent campaigning. However, it also revealed the limitations of incumbency advantage. Public anger over the plethora of taxpayer funded IR advertisements was symptomatic of declining public trust in politicians not to partake in overtly partisan activities. It also indicated that governments may have a limited shelf life incumbency cannot bridge, at which point the detail of policy really does matter. This paper also illustrates that the ACTU scare campaign against the IR reforms raised awareness of an inherently unpopular issue by comparing published opinion polls before and after the advertising campaigns. Keywords: Australia, Industrial Relations, Campaigning

John Howard the Great Communicator: No Really!
Peter van Onselen & Wayne Errington,
The rough and tumble of John Howard’s public school education left him with an electorally appealing ordinariness in a party renowned for a born to rule attitude. Howard was not brought up with the sense of noblesse oblige of an establishment figure such as Fraser. This background made it more likely for him to accept uncritically the rhetoric of economic liberalism – self-reliance, markets and rising tides. It also helped shape his approach to political rhetoric. Howard’s rhetoric, while not especially inspirational, is well crafted. It has assisted in cultivating his image of ordinariness. Once classified as a poor public speaker, Howard has grown in the prime ministership to present a carefully nuanced image. This paper identifies why Howard’s rhetoric is successful; thorough preparation for an ‘on message’ delivery of information, his adept handling of interviews, and his ability to present a compassionate persona in times of tragedy, such as following the Port Arthur shootings and Bali bombings. Howard’s political rhetoric is compared with modern Australian leaders such as Gough Whitlam and Paul Keating. While Labor has a penchant for stirring speeches, Howard has a record of electorally appealing prose. Keywords: Howard, Communication, Politics, Australia

Perceptions Of Business Students Towards Skills And Attributes For Industry: How Important Is Communication?
David S. Waller and Anurag Hingorani
As business academics try to ensure that students gain a solid understanding of the theory which is applicable to various business situations, while maintaining “academic standards”, there is criticism that Universities teach theory that is irrelevant to business practice, do not equip future employees with skills that are applicable to jobs in the marketplace, and ignore the various stakeholders. This study analyses the results of a survey of an important stakeholder, undergraduate and postgraduate business students, to determine what skills and attributes they perceive would be important for their future work. It was found that Oral Communication was perceived as the most important skill, while as a factor Communication was ranked third after Collaboration and Problem-solving skills. From these results a number of factors emerged which can assist business academics in understanding the expectations of students. Keywords: Communication, education, business, skills

Are We There Yet? - Going Digital in 2008 and the Adoption and Diffusion of Digital TV in Australia since January 1, 2001
Niranjala (Nina) Weerakkody
This paper will trace the history of the adoption of digital TV in Australia and its diffusion, since free-to-air broadcasters were formally allowed to adopt the technology on January 1, 2001 and Pay TV in March, 2004. As the initially suggested 2008 deadline for discontinuing the analog TV signal draws near, it becomes useful to examine how the diffusion of digital TV has progressed in Australia, so far. It will also examine why it is necessary for Australia to adopt digital TV and improve its adoption, currently considered ‘slow’ in comparison to other new communication technologies such as DVD players. Using a qualitative analysis of the themes of opinions expressed in 87 submissions made by various stakeholders, to the ‘Inquiry into the uptake up digital television in Australia’ by the House of Representatives in the Australian Parliament; depth interviews with current adopters of digital TV via set-top boxes (that convert the analog signal to digital) or the digital Pay TV services such as Foxtel digital; interviews with experts and other stakeholders on the subject; and two focus groups with those who have not adopted digital TV so far, this paper will examine what aspects of the technology appear to have encouraged consumers to adopt the technology and be satisfied with it, what improvements they suggest and what appear to be the current disincentives and future incentives for current non-adopters to adopt digital television. These data will be supplemented by a comprehensive examination of the existing scholarly, trade, and popular literature, written on digital TV in Australia. Keywords:  Digital TV in Australia, Adoption and Diffusion of Digital TV, Digital TV, Methodological triangulation

The Paradox Of Connection: What Pulls The Plug On Household ICTs?
Jocelyn Williams
Drawing on recent research and commentary suggesting there are risks in assuming communication technologies shape social behaviour in predictable ways, this paper argues that an uncritical reliance on the internet as an empowering tool is to be avoided, and proposes a typology of internet transience among new users in marginalised household contexts that will be of interest to policy makers. Recent research in New Zealand has brought to light a number of ‘drag’ forces at work in communities seen to be most in need of digital media and communication tools for individual self-advancement, as well as for neighbourhood and community regeneration.  Factors such as family transience, financial uncertainty, fluid household composition, and even the sheer ordinariness (Herring, 2005) of media products that compete with one another for attention, all contribute to an ‘unplugged’ or ‘disconnected’ outcome – the opposite of what is intended in community empowerment through internet at home schemes. This paper concludes by recommending two strategies to optimise success where the internet is introduced specifically as a means of triggering community regeneration.  First, comprehensive planning should address likely disconnecting forces from the beginning, and the success with which they are being counteracted should be monitored.  Second, evidence suggests active participation by the local community is desirable in planning and implementation, because it is most likely to lead to sustainable empowerment, creativity and innovation, whereas unclear ‘ownership’ of the process in a more top-down approach is likely to lead to a dissipation of momentum. Keywords: Community, Empowerment, Sustainability, Participation

Problems In ‘Political’ Documentary: Michael Moore’s Fahrenheit 9/11
Dugald Williamson
The controversy over Michael Moore’s Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) reflects a number of unresolved issues about the film’s form and function as a ‘political’ documentary. Many supporters see the film as a courageous documentary exposing the lie that America’s invasion of Iraq was necessary because Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction. They welcome its depiction of the consequences of his actions for American soldiers, their families, the Iraqi people, and the cause of democracy generally. From this viewpoint, the film is empowering; it strikes a blow for free speech by counteracting the bias of mainstream media that have supported Bush’s deceptive rhetoric. Detractors have argued that the film is poorly researched, bends facts and recycles conspiracy theories about Bush’s rise to power and the war in Iraq. They say that it uses cheap editing tricks to distort the words and actions of those it criticises, and exploits the loss and despair of marginalised people to whom it merely appears to give a voice. On this view, the film is propaganda: it damages the cause of democratic debate that it purports to serve, encouraging easy, emotive responses and discouraging more rational consideration of events and their causes. The paper argues that to understand this controversy and the notion of empowerment that Fahrenheit 9/11 represents, it is necessary to consider two interrelated processes at work in the construction of the film. The film appropriates documentary forms in a way that enables it to synthesise a range of sources for representing the post 9/11 situation that Moore addresses. However, it uses the documentary forms in a way that reduces their ability to gain a purchase on the complex political realities with which it attempts to deal critically. The overall effect is that the film offers a more limited framework for understanding urgent political issues than Moore and advocates of the film acknowledge.

Great Expectations: Understanding Undergraduate Students’ Perspectives on Public Relations Careers
Xavier, R.; Mehta, A.M.and Larkin, I.K.
International research suggests that student expectations differ from the realities of courses and careers in public relations (Bowen, 2003; Storto, 1990). Bowen’s (2003) ‘I thought it would be more glamorous’ study confirmed that students expected to be trained in publicity and public appearances moreso than skills desired by employers such as critical thinking and business skills, and showed limited understanding of non-media specialities in public relations. This limited understanding of public relations has been attributed to the portrayal of public relations in entertainment and by journalists in media articles (Spicer, 1993). Although the gap between perception and reality is not unique to public relations, it has the potential to affect the continued development of public relations as a management function. The employability of graduates must also be considered, especially in light of significant gaps found between desired and actual outcomes of entry level graduates in the opinions of practitioners and educators (Neff, Walker, Smith & Creedon, 1999). This study explores the Australian perspective through a survey of more than 350 undergraduate students to identify their preferences for positions and workplace environments. The survey was administered in a first year public relations principles unit across four consecutive semesters in 2004 and 2005. The findings are significant to the development of teaching and learning approaches to engage public relations students and to prepare them for the diversity of careers in public relations.
Keywords: public relations, students, career expectations

Increasing Transparency: Utilising Criterion-Referenced Assessment to enhance Student Learning in Public Relations
Xavier, R. and Mehta, A.M.
The central role of assessment in the learning and teaching environment is well recognised. Educators face growing demands to improve student understanding of and performance in assessment items (Marginson, 1997; Rust, Price & O’Donovan, 2003). At an institutional level, a number of universities have responded to these demands by reviewing assessment paradigms in order to better demonstrate transparency and accountability in the setting and marking of assessment items (Neil, Wadley & Phinn, 1999; Rust et al, 2003). One of the paradigms being adopted by universities is criterion-referenced assessment (CRA). CRA involves designing assessment tasks in line with subject goals, identifying skills to be demonstrated within an assessment task, assigning relative weights to, and describing each relative skill/criterion (Carlson, MacDonald, Gorely, Hanrahan, & Burgess-Limerick, 2000).
CRA has a number of advantages including the ability for students to target their performance against pre-determined standards and be judged as an individual rather than against a normative performance (Neil et al, 1999). A United Kingdom study of CRA showed significant improvement in performance by motivated students (O’Donovan, Price & Rust, 2001; Rust et al, 2003). However, other educators suggest that CRA limits student experimentation, creativity and originality (Hay, 1995).
With the goals of increasing transparency and encouraging assessment for learning, CRA was introduced into an undergraduate introductory public relations unit with an enrolment of 290 students. Student research was undertaken to explore the success of the new assessment paradigm and to identify how students used the CRA approach to enhance their learning. The findings of this study show strong use of and support for CRA, with students using the assessment processes to identify their strengths and weaknesses and develop techniques to improve their performance in future assessment tasks.
Keywords: public relations, students, assessment 

Email as an affective technology
Susan Yell
In the workplace, email has become a medium which is almost as ‘natural’ as speech, and has become the ‘default medium’ for performing many communication tasks. It has a flexible and ambiguous status between speech and writing, formality and informality, task-oriented communication and communication oriented towards the negotiation of relationships. Yet it also commonly experienced as a medium with unpredictable affective consequences. Drawing on work on affect and the emotions (Massumi 1996, Gilbert 2004, Brennan 2004) and the linguistics of tenor (Poynton 1990), this paper will propose a model for accounting for affect within email communication practices. I will analyse examples of email practice in order to illustrate the strategies and resources users deploy in their efforts to ‘manage’ affect, focussing on tone, emotionality and social distance.  Keywords: affect, tenor, electronic mail, communication literacies.

Media and National Transformation In The Philippines: Paradigms And Praxis
Eduardo R. Zafra
The role of media in bringing about transformations in the socio-cultural, political and economic spheres of a country has been debated and applied since after World War II. Third World countries in Asia, Africa, Central and Latin America have "benefited" from First World development aids in an effort at uplifting mainly their economic conditions. Its success and failure vary from country to country. Experience had it that development efforts' main focus was on the economic aspect of a country with the assumption that social, cultural, and political development would then ensue. Thus, economic theories, perspectives, approaches, and strategies had been used to solve the country's development problems. However, the problems persisted and even burgeoned into a gargantuan one. Empirical studies utilizing both quantitative and qualitative theories and methods have not been successful either to solve them. Scholars, theoreticians, development planners, policymakers and implementing agencies have been dumbfounded with the negative outcomes. They contend that development could be attained, not on a piecemeal method, but holistically by considering all factors simultaneously. With inchoate approaches, past practices treat development problems separately and independent of each other without unity and cohesion at all. Expectedly, the effects were dismal and the country remained wallowing in poverty and chaos. Given this, social scientists have adopted a more holistic approach using psychological, sociological, economic, political, socio-cultural, and communication perspectives to approach the problem. However, using communication and media perspectives and strategies have so far yielded unimpressive results. Thus, the problem of development is far from over. More than 50 years of development efforts has not provided the country a respite from its development woes. Research and development literatures have even painted a pessimistic picture where the country's development efforts go to waste because the desired outcomes have not been fully achieved. This paper aims to: 1) examine the status, problems, and issues affecting the development efforts, paradigms and approaches in the Philippines; 2) describe the media's participation and utilization in its development and transformation efforts; 3) identify the factors that impede its development efforts; and 4) discuss the government's responses to these development issues and problems. This paper would hopefully shed light on these development problems and their approaches that could be of great value to other developing countries whose cultural affinity and proximity with the Philippines are apparent. Keywords: Media/ National Transformation

MEDIASCAPE (NZ): The launch
Ruth Zanker
This is paper describes the rationale and research behind the construction of  ‘MEDIASCAPE’, a web-based NZ media clearinghouse initiated by the NZ Broadcasting school. The paper will discuss the challenges faced by the researchers and designers as they worked with limited funding and a range of sponsor expectations within a mixed state and self-regulatory media environment. The site is currently at ‘proof of concept stage’ and will launch in February 2006. The website has been modestly sponsored (for a foundation period of three years) by the Broadcasting Standards Authority, the statutory regulator of television and radio programming, the Advertising Standards Authority, the self-regulatory body comprising all media, advertisers and communication agencies and The Families Commission, a recent addition to the political landscape that advocates for families. MEDIASCAPE is an attempt to connect up the elements in the ad hoc, uncoordinated media and advertising environment in New Zealand in order to provide a one-stop-shop of resources and relevant information for families, students, young people, policy makers, researchers and those working in the media industry. It includes information on the various codes and standards, media literacy tips for users and current research on media use and issues. One of the objectives for the website is to enable New Zealanders to make informed decisions about their media use. As an example of the confusing regulatory environment: television programming is regulated by a statutory body. Television advertising is policed by a self-regulatory organization. Films, games, the internet live in a twilight zone of classifications…some national censorship classifications, some self-regulatory advisories. It seemed to make sense for there to be one place where information and opinion about local media, and issues related to local media, could be found. Just how well it will have accomplished these goals on modest budgets from its disparate sponsors will be discussed in the paper. It launches in February 2006. Keywords:  Media literacy informed citizenship


The following list of speakers is offered as proof of the international significance of this conference:


First name
Surname Institutions
Julia Ahrens University of Lueneburg Germany
Donald Alexander Charles Sturt University
Chika Anyanwu University of Adelaide
Sarah Baker Auckland University of Technology
Mark Balnaves Edith Cowan University
Susan Barber Loyola Marymount University USA
James Barker Waikato University NZ
Michael Barker Griffith University
Simon Behenna University of SA
Trish Bolton Swinburne University
Jason Bosland Centre for Media & Communication Law Victoria
Stephanie Broege University of Otago NZ
Liz Buchanan Equestrian QLD & School of AMPR - QUT
Matthew Byrne UTS NSW
Helen Caple University of Sydney
Joy Chia University of SA
Deborah Churchman University of South Australia
Ann Clancy Dept of Premier & Cabinet
Jillian Clare QUT Creative Industries Faculty
Alan Cocker Auckland University of Technology
Paul Corcoran University of Adelaide
Gina Courtney Queensland University of Technology
Bronwyn Cran Victoria University
Anne Dunn University of Sydney
Anna Everett University of California Santa Barbara USA
Kate Fitch Murdoch University
Terry Flew Queensland University of Technology
Fleur Gabriel Monash University
Michael Galvin University of South Australia
Philippe Gauthier Université de Montréal Canada
Gerard Goggin University of Sydney
Ali Green Bond University
Kerry Green University of South Australia
Owen Hargie University of Ulster Ireland
Stephen Harrington QUT
Caroline Hatcher BGSB - Queensland University of Technology
Zoe Hibbert Charles Sturt University
Peter Higgs ARC Centre for Creative Industries & Innovation
Louise Horstmanshof Bond University
Sal Humphreys QUT Creative Industries
Benjamin Isakhan Griffith University
Joanne Jacobs ACID, BGSB
Jan Jenson Auckland University of Technology
Stan Jones Screen and Media Studies, University of Waikato NZ
Constance Kampf Aarhus School of Business Denmark
Andrew Kenyon University of Melbourne
Sukhmani Khorana University of Adelaide
Jai Kim  
Marsha Kinder University of Southern California USA
Lawrie Kirk Murray-Darling Basin Commission
Anne Lane  
Ingrid Larkin Queensland University of Technology
Geoff Lealand Screen & Media Studies University of Waikato NZ
Terence Lee Murdoch University
Tania Lim Independent Student
Clare Lloyd University of Newcastle
Edwina Luck QUT
Susan Luckman University of South Australia
Steve Mackey Deakin University
James Mahoney University of Canberra
Tim Marjoribanks University of Melbourne
Donald Matheson University of Canterbury
Kerry McCallum University of Canberra
Patricia McCarthy Queensland University of Technology
Amisha Mehta Queensland University of Technology
Colleen Mills Dept of Management University of Canterbury NZ
Marilyn Mitchell Bond University
Kathie Muir University of Adelaide
Simone Murray Monash University
Mohammed Musa University of Canterbury NZ
Frances Nelson Auckland University of Technology
Susan Nicholls University of Canberra
David Nolan University of Melbourne
Tom O’Regan University of Queensland
John O’Sullivan Christchurch College of Education NZ
Margaret Peters University of South Australia
Mary Power Bond University
Scott Rickard Monash University - NCAS
Gina Ann Sebastian Curtin University WA
Nick Sharman University of Melbourne
David Shellock University of Canterbury NZ
Peter Simmons Charles Sturt University
John Sinclair University of Melbourne
Marianne Sison RMIT University
Mia Stephens University of SA
Anne Surma Murdoch University WA
Leigh Sutton DECS South Australia
Jolyon Sykes University of Canberra
John Tebbutt La Trobe University
Peter Thurmer Hamilton College Adelaide
Suranti Trisnawati Faculty of Arts, University of Southern Queensland
Peter van Onselen Edith Cowan University WA
David Waller University of Technology Sydney
Nina Weerakkody Deakin University
Jocelyn Williams Unitec Institute of Technology NZ
Dugald Williamson University of New England
Susan Yell HUMCASS, Monash University
Eduardo Zafra University of the East Philippines
Ruth Zanker The New Zealand Broadcasting School


The conference program is available on the conference website at:

List of Reviewers  

Jacqui Ewart,  Warwick Blood,  Terry Flew, Sussan Nicholls, Sue Yell, Steve Maras, Steve Mackay, Simone Murray, Ruth Zanker, Ruth Vasey,  Phil Butters, Patrick Crogan, Nina Weerqakoddy, Nicholas Jose, Michael Meadows,  Mary Power, Mark Balnaves, Lisa Mcdonald, Krishna Sen, Kim Johnston,  Kerry Green, Kathy Greenfield, Kate Fitch, Kate Boyd, Karen Orr vered,  Julianne Stewart, Joy McEntee, Joy Chia, John Tebbutt, Jocelyn Williams,  Joanne Jacobs, Ian Richards, Hilary Radner, Helen Wilson, Helen Borland, Heather Kerr,  Geoff Lealand, Gail Philips,  Dugald Williamson, Dorothy Driver, Donald Matheson, Di Schwerdt, Deborah Churchman, Colleen Mills, Christina Spurgeon, Chika Anyanwu, Cheryl Cockburn Wootten, Caroline Hatcher, Bernard McKenna, Barry Burgan,  Anne Dunn, Andrew Kenyon,  Amisha Patel, Amanda Nettelbeck, Alison Kuiper. 


Many people have contributed in various ways and at various stages and time to make this conference a reality. I am forever indebted to you all. It is always difficult in such circumstances to acknowledge people individually for fear of offending those you forget to mention. I am therefore saying to all who have contributed in anyway towards this conference, thank you very much.  There are however some, who have gone the extra mile through their generosity of time, knowledge, friendship and support, our conference organising team: Joy Chia, Kerry Green, Kathryn Bowd, Deborah Churchman and Ian Richards from the University of South Australia, Karen Orr Vered and Ruth Vasey from Flinders university, you are a great people to work with.

I would like to thank the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Adelaide for their support and in particular our Executive Dean, Professor Michael Innes for his encouragements, and Mandy Treagus, our sub Dean IT for her support on email access and my colleagues who helped review some of the papers. As media and communication professionals we know that some people control how and when our intended messages get to their destination, therefore to the wonderful team from the Marketing and Strategic Communications Office of the University of Adelaide, in particular Pue-San Ng, John Edge, Greg Zweck and Candy Gibson, who ensured that the conference website and media related activities of this conference got to the world, thank you for your support, friendship and hard work. To the Audio Visual and Information Technology Services of the University of Adelaide, especially Irene O’Daly and her team, Danielle Hopkins and her team, Geraint Draheim and Damien Poirier, thank you for making our voices heard.  To my research officers Craig Faulkner and Emily Heylen for your wonderful assistance in making the Creative Industries Panel a reality as well as the final upload of the proceeding thank you.

So many people worked behind the scene to ensure that we got the best keynote speakers for this conference and I will like to acknowledge the generosity of the School of Management, the University of South Australia, for sponsoring Jim Barker’s airfare from NZ, and the Screen Studies Department of Flinders University, for sponsoring Marsha Kinder’s airfare. The Black Studies Centre of the University of California, Santa Barbara, for sponsoring Prof. Everett thank you very much. The calibre of keynote speakers we have would also not have been possible if not for the generosity of the speakers themselves who donated their time, money and friendship to share their knowledge with us at no charge. I will like to thank Professor Tom O’Regan and Associate Prof. Andrew Kenyon for making this conference despite their busy schedules and limited funding.
It is always very difficult to make a choice when there are many options. It was therefore a great pleasure to share a taste of South Australia’s wines with you from a winery known by its striking individuality at the Maclaren since 1912. I will therefore like to thank d’Arenberg wines for sponsoring our taste of South Australia wines and for the conference dinner wines.

Every conference has its own uniqueness and challenges but history is always the greatest teacher whenever we care to look back in time, so to those who have gone through ANZCA conference journeys before me and were very generous with their experience, especially Mary Powers, Caroline Hatcher and Colleen Mills, thanks for sharing and caring, and to Steve Maras, thanks for your historical research on ANZCA, although you will miss it this year I will drink on your behalf.

I will also like to acknowledge the wonderful zeal and sense of professionalism with which my 2005 video production students: Mu Young, Monica Erlich, Ben Duval, Jana Ohlendorf, August Bohem, and Alice Bonnin, took the task of producing the promotional video used for our ANZCA bid in Christchurch. Thank you folks. To my current students who, despite being placed at the bottom of the urgency pile at the moment, volunteered to help, I am really grateful for your understanding especially to Nick Rusk, Claire Fromm, Kiara Vida, Anna Sveldberg, Lisa Ireland, Alyson Mitchell, Yasna Rujevic, Lauren Barker, Anastasia Mouratidis, Stephanie Mountzouris, Sally Haines, Melissa Vanderhaak and Thomas Major for volunteering to serve at this conference and make life easy for me.

A conference is never a conference without delegates. Thank you for having the courage to go through all the rigours and sometimes heartaches of review processes and last minute changes. Most importantly, thank you for coming to Adelaide despite the alluring world cup in Germany. It is not often that one finds a conference management company that becomes almost a part of your family. I want to say to Rob Bullfield and his team at Sapro Conference Management, thank you for being patient with us and for being there always.

Finally and most importantly, the quality of our conference would not have been maintained without the intellectual generosity of the above reviewers. It is hard enough that we have students to supervise and exams to mark, but adding the extra burden of reviewing papers which always has ‘URGENT PLEASE’ written in front of it, is not the dream job of any academic. To all the reviewers of the 2006 ANZCA conference, I want to thank you from the heart. Thank you for being part of Adelaide history.

Chika Anyanwu
Discipline of Media University of Adelaide
ANZCA 2006 Conference Convenor