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Pressurised Flames and Sprays

Use of one or more of the different target flames is encouraged as those use ethylene as fuel, which sooting chemistry is currently better known than that of other fuels. Preference is given to those flames on top of the site. Second priority for validating soot models in the "Pressurised Flames and Spray" session have the well characterized laminar flames below "other flames".

Please note that most data sets are maintained from ISF 2 at modified order, while the initial data set named “swirled pressurized” got replaced by a more comprehensive one.

The Pressurised Flames and Sprays section has now been incorporated under Laminar and Turbulent. Please see the relevant Call for Contributions section on the Data page.

  • ISF-3 Target Flame 2Laminar Diffusion Pressurised

    Highest preference in this flame series has the 4 bar case with most comprehensive data available.


    KAUST Diffusion Pressurized
    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions (no soot) thus links to Laminar Flames session.

    Flow and Operating Conditions:
    • Pressure range for soot volume fraction and particle size: 4 - 16 atm
    • Pressure range for temperature: 1 - 4 atm
    • Pressure range for species: 1 - 16 atm
    • Fuel Mass Flow: 1.37 mg/s ethylene, 6.41 mg/s nitrogen
    • Co-flow Mass Flow for fv, D63, and dp: 1.25, 2.51, 4.01, 4.42 g/s air at 4, 8, 12, and 16 atm, respectively
    • Co-flow Mass Flow for temperature and species: 1.25 g/s for 1-8 atm, 1.32 g/s for 12 and 16 atm
    Dimensions for soot volume fraction and particle size:

    Fuel tube ID is 4.0 mm. The 6.1 mm OD is tapered from 5 mm below fuel nozzle exit to the tip. A 100 ppi carbon foam 8 mm in length is placed inside the fuel nozzle 8 mm below the nozzle tip. The co-flow diameter is 50 mm and contains a honeycomb with 1 mm channels that ends 5 mm below fuel nozzle tip.

    Dimensions for temperature and species:

    Fuel tube ID is 4.0 mm. The 6.35 mm OD is tapered from 5 mm below fuel nozzle exit to the tip. Steel wool is placed inside the fuel nozzle 8 mm below the nozzle tip. The co-flow contains a 100 ppi aluminum foam which ends 5 mm below the fuel nozzle tip. For 1-8 atm, the co-flow diameter is 50 mm, and for 12 and 16 atm, the co-flow diameter is 25 mm.

    Measurements:
    • Soot volume fraction (fv) and particle size (D63 and dp) by line of sight attenuation and scattering. Df = 1.7, kf = 2.4.
    • Temperature by thermocouple measurement, species by gas extraction via quartz probe and GC analysis
    Reference for soot, temperature and species:

    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.11.004

    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.148

    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.02.034

    Contact:
    Prof. Willam Roberts

    Soot Volume fraction Measurement

    Temperature Measurement by Thermocouple(K)

    Species

    Particle Size

    Velocity

  • ISF-3 Target Flame 3Laminar Premixed Pressurised 1


    Image: Duisburg Premixed Pressurised

    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions (no soot), thus links to Laminar Flames session.

    Flow and Operating Conditions

    Pressure Range: 0.1 - 3.0 MPa

    Dimensions:

    Three concentric burner plates (sintered material) for stabilizing a laminar sooting flame in the center shielded by an annular non-sooting rich flame and an air coflow. The housing and the flanges are water cooled. Multiple optical ports allow the application of various optical diagnostics techniques.

    • Diameter of inner burner: 20 mm
    • Diameter of fresh gas tube: 22 mm
    • Diameter of surrounding burner: 26 × 56 mm
    • Diameter of coflow: 60 × 86 mm
    • Detailed 3D-CAD files are available!
    • Visible flame heights: ~ 1 mm
    • Visible sooting exhaust gas height: > 40 mm fixed equivalence ratio of ɸ=2.1
    Measurements:
    • Laser Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII)CMD, fv
    • Excitation @ 1064 nm, Detection @ 550/694 nm
    • Laser Extinction @ 785 nm fv
    • Particle Sampling & TEM Evaluation CMD
    • Spectrally resolved black body radiation Tgas

    Locations:
    All diagnostics have been applied at 15 mm HAB for 18 different pressures, several additional measurement locations have been studied in addition with some of the diagnostics

    Note: LII signal suffers from attenuation, thus fv determined by LII deviates from that by extinction, being the more reliable measure for increased pressure/soot concentrations

    Fuel:
    • Ethylene (C2H4) for sooting flames
    • non-sooting flames with Ethylene, Methane, Propene
    • other gaseous fuels are possible
    References:

    M. Hofmann, B.F. Kock, T. Dreier, H. Jander, C. Schulz: Appl. Phys. B 90, 629 (2008)

    Data is available on request from the email addresses below:
    Prof. Dr. Christof Schulz
    Dr. Thomas Dreier
  • ISF-3 Target Flame 4Laminar Premixed Pressurised 2


    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions, thus links to Laminar Flames session.

    Flow and Operating Conditions

    Pressure Range: 0.1 – 0.5 MPa

    Dimensions:

    The central, sooting flame (ethylene/air) was stabi¬lized above a water-cooled sintered bronze matrix. This flame is surrounded by a non-sooting “shielding flame” of methane/air (varying ɸ). The flames were surrounded by an air coflow. The diameters of the central matrix, shielding matrix, and coflow duct were 41.3 mm, 61.3 mm, and 150 mm, respectively.

    Conditions:

    Pressure: 3 bar
    ɸ = 2.3 (C/O=0.766)
    ɸ = 2.5 (C/O=0.834)

    Pressure: 3 bar
    ɸ = 2.05 (C/O=0.683)
    ɸ = 2.4 (C/O=0.8)

    Measurements:
    • Laser Induced Incandescence
    • Shifted vibrational CARS

    Fuel: Ethylene (C2H4) / air mixture for central flame.

    Flame details

    Experimental data

    References:

    M.S. Tsurikov et al., Comb. Sci. Technol. 177 (2005) 1835-1862

  • ISF-3 Other Flame 1Pressurised Laminar Diffusion C2H6
    Flow And Operating Conditions:
    • Pressure Range: 0.2 - 3.34 MPa
    • Fuel (Ethylene) Mass Flow: 0.00052 g/s
    • Co-flow Mass Flow: 0.12g/s for 0.2-2.53MPa, 0.24g/s for 3.04-3.34MPa
    • Visible Flame Heights: ~ 10 mm
    Dimensions:
    Fuel tube exit is tapered for a distance of 5 mm on both sides. There is sintered foam in the tube prior to the start of the taper.
    • Starting Inner Fuel Tube Diameter: 2.29 mm
    • Exit Inner Fuel Tube Diameter : 3.06 mm
    • Starting Outer Fuel Tube Diameter: 4.76 mm
    • Exit Outer Fuel Tube Diameter: 3.06 mm

    There is sintered foam in the air tube at a distance of 14.7 mm below the exit plane of the fuel tube.

    • Air Tube Inner Diameter : 25 mm

    Reference for complete burner geometry:
    P. Mandatori, Soot formation in ethane-air coflow laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressures, Master's thesis, University of Toronto,
    Toronto, Canada (2006).

    Measurements:
    Soot volume fraction and temperature by spectral soot emission (SSE) diagnostics.

    Temperature Data

    Soot Volume Fraction Data

    Reference:
    Mandatori et al. (2011), Proc. Combust. Inst, 33:577-584

    Contact: Professor Ömer Gülder

  • ISF-3 Other Flame 2Pressurised Laminar Diffusion CH4



    Image: Methane-Air  Gülder

    Flow and Operating Conditions:
    • Pressure Range: 1.0 - 6 MPa
    • Fuel (CH4) Mass Flow: 0.00055 g/s
    • Co-flow Mass Flow: 0.4 g/s for lower pressures, 0.8g/s for higher pressures
    • Fuel Temperature: 294 +/- 3K
    • Air Temperature: 294 +/- 3K
    • Visible Flame Heights: ~ 9 mm

    Dimensions:
    Fuel tube exit is tapered for a distance of 5 mm on both sides. There is sintered foam in the tube prior to the start of the taper.

    • Starting Inner Fuel Tube Diameter: 2.29 mm
    • Exit Inner Fuel Tube Diameter: 3.06 mm
    • Starting Outer Fuel Tube Diameter: 4.76 mm
    • Exit Outer Fuel Tube Diameter: 3.06 mm

    There is sintered foam in the air tube at a distance of 14.7 mm below the exit plane of the fuel tube.

    • Air Tube Inner Diameter: 25 mm

    Reference for complete burner geometry:
    P. Mandatori, Soot formation in ethane-air coflow laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressures, Master's thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (2006)

    Measurements:
    Soot volume fraction and temperature by spectral soot emission (SSE) diagnostics

    Download the data file

    References:
    • D.R. Snelling et al. AIAA Journal, Vol. 40, No. 9, September 2002
    • H.I. Joo et al. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 32, 2009, pages 769-775
    • M.R.J. Charest et al., Combustion and Flame, Vol. 158, 2011, pages 860-875
    Contact: Professor Ömer Gülder

Return to the Data page.

Centre for Energy Technology
Address

The University of Adelaide
SA 5005 Australia

Contact

Professor Gus Nathan
Director, Centre for Energy Technology
Tel: +61 8 8313 5822
Fax: +61 8 8313 1495
Email: imer@adelaide.edu.au