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2019 Program

2019 Program
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The 2018 program can also be viewed online.

Program of Events

Undergraduate Research Conference 2019
Time Mins Session
10.00am 30 Registration opens
Napier, Level 1 Foyer
10.30am 15 Welcome and Opening Remarks
Professor Philippa Levy, Pro Vice-Chancellor (Student Learning)
Napier 102
10.45am 10 Move to Parallel Sessions
Room 144 
Napier
Room 205
Napier
Room 209 
Napier
10.55am 20 Inferior quality can be boosted by quantity - Adaptive coverage-based cooperative interceptor control to counteract a superior manoeuvring attacker
Aaron Dadgar,
EMCS
Failure, Responsibility and Idealised Mothering: The Construction of Post-Natal Depression in the Discursive Fields of Biomedicine, Instagram and Feminist Theory
Alice Rose,
Faculty of Arts
Willy Brandt’s Contribution to Peace
John Swan,
Faculty of Arts
11.15am 20 Success breeds success - Cooperative Interception Strategy based on Reinforcement Learning
Rhett Hull,
ECMS
Exploring the perinatal mental health needs of African refugee women: Maternity service providers’ perspectives
Amelia Winter, FHMS
Are Political Extremists More Conspiratorial?
Sheldon Patterson,
FHMS
11.35am 20 If you want to catch the worm, you'd better be the early bird - Acceleration Only Based Control for Intercepting a Highly Maneuverable Target
Taylor Simpson,
ECMS
History and Social issues of Chinese infant formula crisis
Yee Ting Choi, Faculty of the Professions
The Permissive Consensus: How public opinion on EU integration has changed from 1986 to 2018
Robert Monterosso, Faculty of Arts
11.55am 5 Move to lunch
12.00pm 40 Lunch
Napier, Level 1 Foyer
12.40pm 20 Gender fog: An investigation into sex prevalence in cognitive decline in a juvenile rat model of chemotherapy – induced cognitive impairment.
Carolyn Mitchell,
Faculty of Sciences
Friends, Food, or “Free Egg Machines”? A Qualitative Study of Chicken Owners' Perceptions of Chickens and Chicken Meat.
Luke Macauley, FHMS
Third and Fourth Year Psychology graduates’ employment experiences post-graduation
Connie Tran,
FHMS
1.00pm 20 Preliminary study investigating the source of fatal venous thromboembolism during a Coronial post-mortem examination
April Rivers-Kennedy,
FHMS

Food waste valorization of South Australian crops and food chain by flow chemistry
Hoa Nguyen,
ECMS

The Relevance of Philosophy in the High School English Curriculum
Matthew Macinnes,
Faculty of Arts
1.20pm 20

THE FORFEITURE RULE: Historical uncertainties and modern injustices
Nicholas Munday,
Faculty of the Professions

Increasing Maximum Penalties of Animal Welfare Offences in South Australia - Has it Caused Penal Change?
Rochelle Morton,
Faculty of Sciences
The expression of a bioregional identity in Chantal Spitz's Île des rêves écrasés
Freya Davies-Ardi,
Faculty of Arts
1.40pm 20 Afternoon Tea
Napier, Level 1 Foyer
2.00pm 20 Pop Psych: The Impact of Music and Lyrics on Emotion
Nathan Jones,
FHMS
Silence and Censorship: The Politics of Asylum Seekers’ Human Rights in Australia
Alice Rose,
Faculty of Arts
Learning Random Graphs
Matthias Fresacher,
ECMS
2.20pm 20 The Games We Play: Punishing Athletes For Off-field Behaviour
Sufwan Wahabzada, Faculty of the Professions
Radical Priests: The Catholic Church and the Initiation of the Salvadorian Civil War
Alexander Beare,
Faculty of Arts
Fingerprinting Radio Transmitters using Artificial Intelligence
William Voss,
ECMS
2.40pm 20 Painting Portraits at the Eichmann Trial: Arendt, Kant, and Brecht in the Theatre of Judgment
William Cernev,
Faculty of the Professions
A Lukácsian Critique of the Marxist Theory of Base and Superstructure
Danny Wardle, Faculty of Arts
Removal of CCA compounds in treated timber using Hydrothermal Carbonisation
Melinda Nguyen,
ECMS
3.00pm 10 Move to Guest Speaker & Closing Address
3.10pm 35

Keynote Speaker
Natalie Wade
Napier 102

Judges' Deliberation 
(Judges Only)
3.45pm 15 Closing Address, Announcement of Prize Winners
Professor Philippa Levy, Pro Vice-Chancellor (Student Learning)
Napier 102
4.00pm Conference Concludes

Keynote

Natalie Wade

Natalie Wade

Natalie Wade is the Founder and Principal Lawyer of Equality Lawyers, a law firm focused on everyday legal services for people with disabilities, their families and supporters. Natalie graduated from the University of Adelaide in 2012 with a Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Commerce from the University of Adelaide. Since then, Natalie has completed a Master of Laws at the Australian National University and published in law journals including Precedent and the Alternative Law Journal on the participation of people with communication disabilities in South Australian and Commonwealth courts. Natalie’s career has always focused on the protection and promotion of disability rights in Australia. Living with a disability, Natalie has first-hand experience of the challenges and everyday discrimination faced by people with disabilities.

In 2016, Natalie was awarded South Australian Young Lawyer of the Year and Australian Young Lawyer of the Year in recognition of her work to promote the rights of people with disabilities and on the topics of children with disabilities in the child protection system during her time as solicitor on the Nyland Royal Commission. Internationally, Natalie has been heavily involved in the Every Woman, Everywhere campaign to end violence against women and girls through assisting to draft the Implementation section of the Treaty on Violence Against Women. Natalie has a unique career combining lived experience, professional passion and expert research skills to improve the lives of Australians with disabilities.

Read her keynote here.

Map

URC Map 2019

A more detailed campus map can be downloaded here.

Abstracts

Author(s) Abstract Title
Beare, Alexander
Faculty of Arts
Radical Priests: The Catholic Church and the Initiation of the Salvadorian Civil War
Cernev, William
Faculty of the Professions
Painting Portraits at the Eichmann Trial: Arendt, Kant, and Brecht in the Theatre of Judgment
Choi, Yee Ting
Faculty of the Professions
History and Social issues of Chinese infant formula crisis
Dadgar, Aaron
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
Inferior quality can be boosted by quantity - Adaptive coverage-based cooperative interceptor control to counteract a superior manoeuvring attacker
Davies-Ardill, Freya
Faculty of Arts
The expression of a bioregional identity in Chantal Spitz's Île des rêves écrasés
Fresacher, Matthias
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
Learning Random Graphs
Hull, Rhett
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
Success breeds success - Cooperative Interception Strategy based on Reinforcement Learning
Jones, Nathan
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences
Pop Psych: The Impact of Music and Lyrics on Emotion
Macauley, Luke
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences
Friends, Food, or “Free Egg Machines”? A Qualitative Study of Chicken Owners' Perceptions of Chickens and Chicken Meat.
Macinnes, Matthew
Faculty of Arts
The Relevance of Philosophy in the High School English Curriculum
Mitchell, Carolyn
Faculty of Sciences
Gender fog: An investigation into sex prevalence in cognitive decline in a juvenile rat model of chemotherapy – induced cognitive impairment.
Monterosso, Robert
Faculty of the Professions
The Permissive Consensus: How public opinion on EU integration has changed from 1986 to 2018
Morton, Rochelle
Faculty of Sciences
Increasing Maximum Penalties of Animal Welfare Offences in South Australia - Has it Caused Penal Change?
Munday, Nicholas
Faculty of the Professions
THE FORFEITURE RULE: Historical uncertainties and modern injustices
Nguyen, Hoa
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
Food waste valorization of South Australian crops and food chain by flow chemistry
Nguyen, Melinda
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
Removal of CCA compounds in treated timber using Hydrothermal Carbonisation
Patterson, Sheldon
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences
Are Political Extremists More Conspiratorial?
Rivers-Kennedy, April
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences
Preliminary study investigating the source of fatal venous thromboembolism during a Coronial post-mortem examination
Rose, Alice
Faculty of Arts
Failure, Responsibility and Idealised Mothering: The Construction of Post-Natal Depression in the Discursive Fields of Biomedicine, Instagram and Feminist Theory
Rose, Alice
Faculty of Arts
Silence and Censorship: The Politics of Asylum Seekers’ Human Rights in Australia
Simpson, Taylor
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
If you want to catch the worm, you'd better be the early bird - Acceleration Only Based Control for Intercepting a Highly Maneuverable Target
Swan, John
Faculty of Arts
Willy Brandt’s Contribution to Peace
Tran, Connie
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences
Third and Fourth Year Psychology graduates’ employment experiences post-graduation
Voss, William
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences
Fingerprinting Radio Transmitters using Artificial Intelligence
Wahabzada, Sufwan
Faculty of the Professions
The Games We Play: Punishing Athletes For Off-field Behaviour
Wardle, Danny
Faculty of Arts
A Lukácsian Critique of the Marxist Theory of Base and Superstructure
Winter, Amelia
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

Exploring the perinatal mental health needs of African refugee women: Maternity service providers’ perspectives

Radical Priests: The Catholic Church and the Initiation of the Salvadorian Civil War

Beare, Alexander
Faculty of Arts

The El Salvadorian civil war (1979-1991) plunged the small Central American country into chaos. Surprisingly, a major target for government “death squads” were Catholic priests. Plastered across the walls of San Salvador were posters that read “be a patriot: kill a priest.” In the years preceding the El Salvadorian civil war, Catholic priests began to advocate for the country’s peasant population and speak out against violent government repression. Their ideology was largely informed by the liberationist philosophy of Vatican II. My research investigates the role that these priests and their new ideologies had in bringing together revolutionary groups and initiating the civil war. The research seeks to understand why they were such targets through a close analysis of primary sources, in particular the recorded oral testimonies of peasants that are available through the University of Washington’s Unwritten Sentences Archive. I also analysed the memoirs of Salvadorian priest, David Rodriguez, the dairies of Arch-Bishop Oscar Romero and C.I.A intelligence reports. My research found that the work of the Catholic Church in rural Salvadorian communities had a pivotal role in the initiation of the war. They used their privileged voice among peasant groups to preach an explicitly anti-government message. Similarly, the church was responsible for organising large-scale protests that brought together peasants and fringe revolutionary groups. Their advocacy against the Salvadorian government on an institutional level helped transform Archbishop Romero into a national symbol of hope. His later assassination would later signal the start of the conflict. I was able to conclude that the Salvadorian priests awoke the population to the country’s gross wealth inequality and oligarchical rule. Priests helped bring together fringe revolutionary groups with larger peasant populations that would go on to form larger organisations like the FMLN. However, priest’s roles were limited to awakening the population as they never advocated for violence.

1. The University of Washington, Center for Human Rights. 2014. Unfinished Sentences:  Addressing human rights in the wake of human tragedy . Accessed October 26, 2018. https://unfinishedsentences.org/archive/.
2. Rodriguez, David “David Rodriguez Rivera Interview,” interviewed by Peter Sanchez. 2006. (12 November). Text in Priests Under Fire: Padre, Peter Sanchez (Orlando: University Press of Florida), 261.

Painting Portraits at the Eichmann Trial: Arendt, Kant, and Brecht in the Theatre of Judgment

Cernev, William
Faculty of the Professions

Hannah Arendt’s name hit the headlines in 2017 as the election of Donald Trump saw a flourish in sales of her work, The Origins of Totalitarianism which, reportedly had to be restocked on Amazon. However, 2017 was not the first time Arendt’s name was in the spotlight. The most controversial of Arendt’s works is her 1961 report on the trial of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann. The report originally appeared as a series of articles in the New Yorker, which were collated and published as a book, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on The Banality of Evil. The book was a catalyst, sparking debate among academics and the general population.

My research adopts Arendt’s report of the Eichmann trial to explore the concept of judging. I frame Arendt’s report by reference to German philosopher Immanuel Kant, in particular his writing on aesthetic judgment. My consideration of judgment also explores Arendt’s use of theatrical themes throughout her report. Arendt adopts the words of German playwright Bertolt Brecht for the epigraph of her report, and his own theories of judging in the theatre resonate throughout Arendt’s coverage of the trial. My research finds that when we make judgments we ultimately do so in an actor-spectator framework. I apply the philosophies of Kant and Brecht to canvas an interpretation of Arendt’s harrowing, but perplexing judgment of Eichmann. My findings suggest that Arendt’s philosophy is as important today as it was when her report on the trial was first published in 1961.

History and Social issues of Chinese infant formula crisis

Choi, Yee Ting
Faculty of the Professions

Background
With the rapid development of the Chinese food industry, it became one of the leading food exporters around the world. However, Chinese credibility in terms of food security was hit by the 2008 tainted milk scandal, which involved the dilution of raw milk with melamine, a chemical substance. Although Sanlu, one of the most well-known Chinese dairy companies, was the main perpetrator in the crisis, a multitude of other stakeholders from the value chain was implicated as well. The serious crisis drew international attention as it impacted the dairy production using Chinese raw milk as the base, with the major trading partners such as the European Union, the United States and Japan. The massive rejection from local consumers and overseas investors heavily impacted the entire Chinese dairy industry and the wider Chinese economy.

Research focus
This research investigated how the historical development of the Chinese dairy industry related to the crisis and the hidden social issues among all the stakeholders across the Chinese dairy supply chain.

Research methodology
The historical method of source criticism was used in order to achieve in-depth analysis of primarily secondary sources including news articles and literature reviews,  since primary sources from this time in China may not be reliable.

Results
The findings demonstrate that the historical process of the Chinese economic transition from subsistence to commercial, market-oriented agriculture lacked regulatory oversight by Chinese authorities. The aggressive competition between leading dairy enterprises, and a power hegemony held by the enterprises among the dairy supply chain, indirectly evoked the scandal. The decision making of consumers also was manipulated by misleading messages from leading dairy enterprises. The analysis considers three issues which impacted the development of rural agriculture causing the lack of awareness on food safety among the dairy supply chain in China. Further research will investigate how the political systems of Chinese authority and dairy enterprises lead to this uncontrollable crisis.

Inferior quality can be boosted by quantity - Adaptive coverage-based cooperative interceptor control to counteract a superior manoeuvring attacker

Dadgar, Aaron
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Intercepting ballistic attacks has always been a challenging research topic in defence science due to the unpredictable superior manoeuvrability of an attacker compared to interceptors. Current defence guidance laws normally assume adequate superiority of the interceptor, which could be problematic due to the uncertainty of this condition in real life. In order to effectively intercept a superior attacker, new guidance laws must be investigated. To offset the quality inferiority of single interceptor, we use the quantity advantages of multiple interceptors against a superior attacker. Two algorithms were implemented in this study, both utilising the maximum acceleration of the attacker in order to define its covering range at any point in time. This covering range is then matched up by deploying each interceptor to maximise the coverability. The first algorithm, called the pre-programmed covering strategy, contains no communication between the interceptors. The second algorithm, an adaptive covering strategy, allows communication between adjacent interceptors. This communication between interceptors enables optimal placement in changing engagement situations. This research found that multiple inferior interceptors can intercept superior attackers with a high success rate when the evasive manoeuvres taken by the attackers are within a certain range. The success of the new control algorithm has also been demonstrated through microdrone simulations.

The expression of a bioregional identity in Chantal Spitz's Île des rêves écrasés

Davies-Ardill, Freya
Faculty of Arts

Purpose / Rationale
Chantal Spitz, as the first Indigenous Tahitian/Mā’ohi author of a novel, makes an important contribution to the emergence of a literary tradition that seeks to restructure and rewrite the colonial history of French Polynesia. The importance of place, and the literary reterritorialization of place central to Spitz’s work, speaks not only to postcolonial but also to ecological themes and theory. I therefore found the principles of bioregionalism—with its attention to both natural topography and human interaction with place, as well as its valuing of regenerative practices that contest the cultural and ecological fragmentation often resulting from colonialism—to be a useful lens through which to examine this novel. 
  
Focus 
My Honours thesis centres around an analysis of Spitz’s novel, Île des rêves écrasés. It attempts to show how Spitz’s work conveys not only anti-colonial sentiment, but also the expression of a bioregional identity. 
 
Research Methodology / Approach
The approach was informed by a close reading of Spitz’s novel, where I focused on the various ways in which Spitz subverts language structures, vocabulary and narrative temporality to counter dominant representations of colonial history. In viewing Spitz’s novel from a bioregional perspective, I began to see her writing style and narrative content as first and foremost a condemnation of the de-sacralisation of place and cultural/environmental heritage. I divided my work into three chapters: the first with a focus on place, the second with a related focus on temporality, while the final chapter drew on the influence of orality in Polynesian writing, with particular attention to its subversive qualities. 
 
Results / Findings
My thesis, in its analysis of Mā’ohi author Chantal Spitz’s first novel, places importance on voices of resistance that are contesting the ongoing effects of (nuclear) colonialism still being felt within French Polynesia today.

Learning Random Graphs

Fresacher, Matthias
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Consider when two chemicals are mixed together. Each molecule may or may not react with another molecule. If each molecule is represented by a point, called a “node”, and a line or “edge” between two nodes represents that the two molecules have reacted, then the chemical reaction is modelled by a random graph. Other examples of random graphs include networks such as the internet, and friendship networks. 
 
A chemist might ask, which molecules have reacted? A mathematician would respond by indicating which nodes have an edge between them. The mathematician would have “learned” this random graph via an algorithm that considers a subset of all of the nodes and conducts a series of tests on the subsets to learn, bit by bit, the complete graph.  
 
This project aims to reduce the number of tests required and hence reduces the cost involved in learning the random graph. This is achieved by examining a selection of algorithms and establishing an upper bound on the number of tests required and comparing this upper bound to a theoretical lower bound on the number of tests needed. The analysis draws on techniques from group testing, which was developed in response to disease outbreaks in soldiers during WW1, and applies these group testing techniques in a random graph setting. The theoretical results are then compared to computer simulations for some example random graphs. 
 
In short, the project identifies which algorithm is the most efficient for a given problem. As such, the mathematician can recommend the most cost-effective algorithm to the chemist, who can then identify which the molecules that have reacted.

Success breeds success - Cooperative Interception Strategy based on Reinforcement Learning

Hull, Rhett
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Reinforcement learning (RL) has recently demonstrated unprecedented success in playing games such as Chess, Go and Starcraft. Based on machine learning, RL uses observations of its environment and a reward to learn how to act to achieve a predefined goal. In this research, a class of predator prey-problems are considered, where the predators are trying to capture and kill a highly agile prey, before it escapes or reaches a safe-zone.
 
In this work, the aim is to demonstrate a RL approach, which can be used to coordinate a team of slower and less agile predators, to kill superior prey before it reaches its safe-zone. Initially, a predator and prey are faced towards each other, and by making the prey perform a turn just before the predator tries to capture it, it stresses the predator's speed and agility disadvantage. The success and failure conditions of this scenario were analysed, and it was determined that a single predator cannot reliably capture an agile prey. Additionally, preliminary results from the RL approach indicates it is capable of coordinating multiple agents to effectively capture the prey in this scenario. 
 
A RL algorithm is applied to a team of predators to coordinate their actions with the goal to capture the prey. A complex set of mathematical equations derived from the kinematic (motion) limits of the predator and prey, have been developed to determine the area a single predator can cover. This allows for the defensive region against the prey to be strategically mapped and analysed in real-time.
 
Future work involves implementing the RL algorithm in multiple predators to defeat a prey, demonstrating the successful capture in a multiple drone combat scenario and improving the algorithms robustness across multiple scenarios.

Pop Psych: The Impact of Music and Lyrics on Emotion

Jones, Nathan
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

With personal devices and streaming platforms experiencing monumental growth, we are consuming music – and its often-overlooked counterpart, lyrics – like never before. While the effects of music on emotion have been heavily researched, the added influence of lyrics is notoriously difficult to measure. Generally, negative music has been linked with decreased wellbeing and increased aggressive behaviour, but the specific contribution of lyrics remains largely unexplored. To further understand this interaction, original pop songs were written and produced to test the effect of lyrics while controlling for the effect of music. Using a 3 x 2 within-subject design, participants (N = 61) listened to songs in three categories – vitality, unease and sublimity – building on research by Zentner et al. (2008). Each category had two versions with either positive or negative lyrics. 172 words (86 positive, 86 negative) were selected from Warriner et al.’s (2013) database and incorporated into the three song pairs. The track order was counterbalanced between participants. After each song, perceived emotions were reported using the three-dimensional model (Schimmack & Grob, 2000). Participants also responded with felt levels of prosocial (or antisocial) sentiment induced by the stimuli. Intended music emotions were accurately perceived by participants. Importantly, songs with negative lyrics led to lower feelings of prosociality than songs with positive lyrics. This is the first empirical demonstration that lyrics have an effect on felt emotion above and beyond music category. These original songs address numerous barriers to effective research in this area by offering manipulated, empirically validated lyric types that control for various music elements. They have been made freely available online at . By using such stimuli in future research, along with the use of more subconscious measures, the effects of music and lyrics could be better harnessed to facilitate emotions associated with wellbeing and prosocial behaviour.
 
1. Schimmack, U. & Grob, A. (2000). Dimensional models of core affect: a quantitative comparison by means of structural equation modeling. European Journal of Personality, 14(4), 325-345. http://doi.org/10.1002/1099-0984(200007/08)14:4%3c325::AID- PER380%3e3.0.CO;2-I

2. Warriner, A.B., Kuperman, V., & Brysbaert, M. (2013). Norms of valence, arousal, and dominance for 13,915 English lemmas. Behavior Research Methods, 45(4), 1191-1207. doi:10.3758/s13428-012-0314-x

3. Zentner, M., Grandjean, D., & Scherer, K.R. (2008). Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization, classification, and measurement. Emotion, 8(4), 494-521. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.8.4.494

Friends, Food, or “Free Egg Machines”? A Qualitative Study of Chicken Owners' Perceptions of Chickens and Chicken Meat.

Macauley, Luke
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

How people who keep household chickens, and also eat chicken meat, view chickens as both companion animals and as meat products is unknown. This is because human-animal bonds research has neglected the study of relationships with domestic chickens, despite increasing rates of urban chicken ownership in Australia. Previous research shows that people may form strong attachments to their companion animals, and attribute higher intelligence to companion animals. Conversely, people tend to enjoy eating animal meat while preferring not to think about the treatment of living meat animals. This phenomenon is called the Meat Paradox, and often produces cognitive dissonance – the feeling of discomfort or distress arising from holding conflicting beliefs, or behaving in ways that conflict with personal values. People may resolve cognitive dissonance resulting from the Meat Paradox by morally disengaging from meat animals and attributing them less intelligence. However, how people view chickens is unclear as they have the potential to be both companion animals and meat products. The present study aimed to fill this gap in the research through one-on-one interviews with 10 participants who kept backyard chickens and ate chicken meat. Thematic analysis was used to generate five themes from the interview data; Chickens are pets, Chickens are meat products, Chickens are utilities, Chickens have varying levels of individuality, and Inconsistencies and changes in perceptions. Participants’ attitudes conflicted and overlapped, and could change based on individual and situational needs. The findings suggest that people can consciously attempt to control processes of empathising for, or disengaging from, animals, depending on animals’ perceived status as companions or meat products. Future research may explore the cognitive processes underlying similar conscious attempts to humanise or disengage from other humans, which has implications in social justice.

The Relevance of Philosophy in the High School English Curriculum

Macinnes, Matthew
Faculty of Arts

This presentation investigates the relevance of philosophy to the study of literature, considering methods for the exploration of philosophical themes in the high school English classroom. Two novels common to high school curricula are used as examples, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World and Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, to focus on the themes of Hedonism and Aestheticism. In this context, I concentrate on the question of whether pleasure or beauty has intrinsic value and the implications of this debate. In parallel, I present the stances taken by philosophers on these issues, from antiquity to modernity. A series of propositions is then extracted from each novel, along with counterarguments. Socratic questioning is employed to encourage students to think critically on these topics and to debate them in the classroom. Students are not led to assume a specific position, but instead asked to weigh the issues carefully and form their own conclusions. These theories are then linked with real life examples of moral dilemmas likely to be faced by students. Specifically, I raise issues that have emerged due to advancements in information technology. Examples include virtual reality, social media, and the internet. Developments in these fields have given the populace a level of freedom that has produced an environment of immense ethical complexity. Current curricula are inconsistent in addressing these issues, and do not provide a solid framework as to how they should be explored. The philosophical method I propose aims to enhance student engagement with the above texts, and to ensure that our high school English curriculum equips them with the skills needed to successfully navigate pressing, real life dilemmas.

Gender fog: An investigation into sex prevalence in cognitive decline in a juvenile rat model of chemotherapy – induced cognitive impairment.

Mitchell, Carolyn
Faculty of Sciences

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), also called “chemobrain”, is a commonly reported side-effect experienced by patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Patients demonstrate decreased cognitive performance, processing speed and short-term memory loss, which can occur during and after cessation of treatment. Australian cancer population statistics from 2015 cite 65% of cancer sufferers as male; this is in contrast to the majority of animal models used in this area which are predominately female. In addition, a lack of standardised cancer survivorship care protocols on CICI, has resulted in a significant delay in assessing this condition, thus the need for a cross-disciplinary approach between human neuroscience and applied animal behaviour is vital for progress.

The aim of this study was to investigate the brain’s inflammatory response to the chemotherapy treatments, methotrexate (MTX) and 5-Flurorouracil (5-FU), to identify sex-related differences associated with cognitive change in young rats. Cognitive decline was evidenced through behavioural changes during standard cognitive tests. It was hypothesised that administration of MTX and 5-FU would result in cognitive dysfunction up to 28 days later. 36 Sprague Dawley rats (n=12 female, n=12 male) around 21 to 28 days old, were administered  with either MTX, 5-FU or a saline control, once weekly for two weeks, before undergoing behavioural testing using the novel object test and puzzle box on days 15 to 21. At day 28, animals were humanely euthanised for tissue collection.

It is expected that male rats undergoing chemotherapy treatment will demonstrate more subtle impairments to cognition compared with female counterparts. This study will facilitate a mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in CICI development, enabling development of targeted treatments to prevent or reduce negative cognitive outcomes for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Furthermore results will facilitate the progression of improved survivorship care protocols for patients. These outcomes will enhance the quality of life for cancer patients of both sexes.

The Permissive Consensus: How public opinion on EU integration has changed from 1986 to 2018

Monterosso, Robert
Faculty of the Professions

European leaders signed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, creating the Euro. This event is commonly seen as a watershed moment in the relations between the broader European population and the political elites of the EU. Beforehand, the citizenry paid little attention to EU politics, silently granting European political leaders the leeway to integrate European nations through what is called ‘permissive consensus’. However, after the Maastricht Treaty, the consensus began to deteriorate, with growing scepticism and heightened scrutiny. Many academics argue that this started a turn in public opinion against the EU, ultimately leading to the Brexit vote.

This paper provides a more nuanced view of the complex nature of public opinion in the EU. Despite the high-profile nature of this issue, most quantitative research studies do not take into account all the data, and thereby full developments, of the last two decades. This paper fills this gap by providing a consistent analysis of more than three decades of survey data on public opinion on the European integration process between 1986 and 2018. 
 
Public opinion polling data is used as an indicator for the strength of the permissive consensus. A quantitative, year-by-year analysis of consistent opinion polls from EU member states identifies trends in the strength and polarisation of public opinion on European integration before and after the Maastricht Treaty. The results challenge the dominant narrative of a clear, decisive turn of public opinion against the EU. Instead, this analysis suggests a more cyclical attitude, with periods of decreasing and increasing support for European integration over the time period. The findings imply that the concept of the permissive consensus requires a more nuanced interpretation and demonstrates that further research is required to fully understand the relationship between the public, political elites and European integration.

Increasing Maximum Penalties of Animal Welfare Offences in South Australia - Has it Caused Penal Change?

Morton, Rochelle
Faculty of Sciences

Animal abuse is a prevalent issue amongst society, with no indication of improving. A Parliamentary attempt to reduce animal abuse was to amend the South Australian animal welfare legislation in 2008, which saw all the maximum penalties for animal welfare offences doubled. This commitment to increased penalties arguably provides evidence of the legislature’s intent, in that Parliament aimed to ‘get tough’ on offenders in relation to penalties. Studies have speculated that the legislative intent behind the increased penalties is not being reflected in the courts. This interdisciplinary research sought to gain evidence to confirm or disprove these speculations, by quantifying the average custodial sentence and monetary fine handed down in court before and after the 2008 amendments. Furthermore, trends relating to the species of animal affected and the demographics of the offender were identified. A total of 314 RSPCA (SA) closed case files from 2006 to 2018 were converted into an electronic form. Since the amendments, the average penalties have doubled in magnitude; fines have increased from $700 to $1535, while prison sentences have increased from 37 days to 77 days. However, as a proportion of the maximum penalty, no change occurred, both datasets used only 10% of the available maximum penalties. Cases of companion animal abuse were most common (75% of all cases) in comparison to farm animal abuse and the location of the offence was found to be most prevalent in the lowest socioeconomic area of SA. These findings suggest that although the average penalties have increased, the use of maximum penalties have not changed after they were subjected to a substantial increase. Therefore, it is debatable, whether these increases to the average penalties are enough to effectively punish animal abusers or if alternative penalties, such as court mandated counselling, should be considered by the sentencing courts.

THE FORFEITURE RULE: Historical uncertainties and modern injustices

Munday, Nicholas
Faculty of the Professions

Rationale
One of SALRI’s main references this year has been investigating options to reform the Common Law forfeiture rule. The forfeiture rule operates as a matter of public policy to prevent killers from benefitting from their crime by forfeiting their right to inherit from the deceased’s estate. In South Australia, the rule has a rigid application to all homicide offences, including murder, manslaughter, and assisted suicide. Both the historical origins and the modern applications of the rule have shown it has the potential to manufacture injustice in circumstances where the offender has reduced moral culpability. The research process has consisted of detailed case analysis and literature review.

Research Focus
This research has centred on the following issues:
1. Questioning the authority of the legal basis of the forfeiture rule.

2. Considering whether subsequent case law elevated passing commentary to an inflexible status which was not originally intended.

3. Considering whether assisted suicide should be regarded as a distinct type of offending so as to be exempt from the application of the forfeiture rule.

4. Whether a legislative approach can rectify these issues.

Key Findings and Initial Conclusions
The rule’s historical development since its original expression questionable and has created a rule with an uncertain scope in regard to cases with lower moral culpability. Additionally, assisted suicide and liability for forfeiture have been addressed surprisingly infrequently in the existing case law. While the cases that deal with the assisted suicide vary significantly, the definitive approach has been that the rigid application of the forfeiture rule is the appropriate interpretation. Reform options must consider the historical uncertainties and modern injustices of the rule in such a way as to develop a rule certain of its scope, exceptions, and underlying rationale.

Food waste valorization of South Australian crops and food chain by flow chemistry

Nguyen, Hoa
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Purpose/Rationale
The oil seed industry is a key contributor to the prosperity of the South Australian agricultural sector, contributing significantly to the state’s economy. A wide range of oil-seed industrial products use low-value vegetable oils which contain high concentrations of mono-unsaturated fatty acids. However, these mono-unsaturated fatty acids have the potential to be used in other production processes to yield higher-price chemicals.

Research question/Focus
In this project South Australian canola and olive oil will be used as bio-feedstock for the manufacturing of 1-decene, a highly demanded intermediate chemical for the synthesis of industrial lubricants. 1 -decene is formed by the reaction between plant oils and ethylene gas with the presence of Ruthenium catalyst.

Research methodology/Approach
A micro-flow reactor will be used to create a condition in which pressurized gas permeates through a membrane and reacts with the solutions. By investigating the interactive effects of temperature, pressure, feed stream flow rate and residence time on the product’s yield, the optimal operating conditions will be determined. The product quality will be further analysed and identified using gas chromatography instrument. The project is expected to deliver a documented process to produce 1-decene from olive oil and canola oil, using flow-chemistry techniques. 

Significance
The results of this research could contribute to the development of a South Australian industry supplying renewable resources for agriculture. The project may also inform the design of new manufacturing processes in which Australian chemical plants produce valuable chemicals from low-cost agricultural products.

Removal of CCA compounds in treated timber using Hydrothermal Carbonisation

Nguyen, Melinda
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

CCA (chromated copper arsenate) is a chemical compound consisting of copper, chromium and arsenic and is one of the most popular and effective substances for the chemical preservation of wood. The problem of toxic CCA compounds leaching from used wood into the environment and its disposal in landfills has always been a huge concern. In addition, the effect on humans of arsenic, copper and chromate derivatives can lead to sensitisation, poisoning and cancer. A lot of research has been conducted on the topic of removing wood preservatives, however, there is an urgency to find an alternative method and the methodology must be both effective and environmentally friendly. 
 
This research aims to remove CCA from timber samples using Hydrothermal Carbonisation, a process used for converting biomass into solid carbonaceous products. With Hydrothermal Carbonisation, no chemical waste, toxic gases or by-products are produced, however, little research has been conducted into its use on CCA treated wood. 
 
Experiments in this research are performed at three different reaction temperatures (T = 200, 225, 250°C), three residence times (θ = 30, 60, 120 mins) and two different particle size ranges (s = 300-500 micron, 500-1600 micron) maintaining the ratio of material to solvent (M/S) at 0.2 in the reactor. The concentration of CCA in sample is measured both before and after each experiment for comparison. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) is the selected method for analysing the composition of the solid products. From these results, mass balance calculations can be performed.  
 
This research is expected to provide relationships between temperature, residence times, particle sizes and the mass reduction of the starting material into solid hydrochar (char made by hydrothermal carbonisation process), also provide a relationship between the above parameters and the efficiency of CCA species extraction from the starting material. Understanding the effects of these parameters on the product properties will result in definitive conclusions of set (or sets) of optimal reaction conditions to achieve the most efficient extraction, mass reduction or both.

Are Political Extremists More Conspiratorial?

Patterson, Sheldon
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

Introduction 
Political extremists have caused many of the world’s greatest catastrophes. While they differ in their ideological perspective, they share psychological characteristics. It has been proposed that one of these characteristics is a predisposition to believe in conspiracies. This finding is important to corroborate because conspiracies facilitate the dehumanisation of outgroup members. Conspiracies about Jews facilitated the holocaust under fascism while conspiracies about capitalists facilitated the forced labour camps under communism.
 
Objectives 
Are political extremists more likely to believe in conspiracy theories? If so, is this because of underlying personality traits? Do extremists of different ideologies believe in different kinds of conspiracies? Would the political left believe in capitalist conspiracies and the political right believe in government conspiracies?
 
Methods 
Measures of political beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, and personality traits will be given to a demographically representative sample. Participant data will be tested for correlations and underlying factors.

Results 
It is expected that political extremists will be more likely to endorse conspiracies than political moderates. Furthermore, political extremists will possess more of the psychological characteristics associated with belief in conspiracies. It is also expected the political left will tend to believe in corporate conspiracies whereas the political right will tend to believe in government conspiracies.

Conclusion 
This research may provide further evidence that our beliefs do not purely reflect our deliberative and rational thinking. Rather, our thinking may be influenced by cognitive distortions that result from psychological predispositions.

Preliminary study investigating the source of fatal venous thromboembolism during a Coronial post-mortem examination

Rivers-Kennedy, April
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

When blood clots in the deep veins of the leg the condition is termed deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A thrombus may travel with the circulation through the veins to the lungs and block pulmonary vessels, in an event called pulmonary embolism (PE). It has been estimated that 17000 DVT and PE events occur per year in Australia1. Some of these events cause sudden death and are encountered at Coronial forensic autopsy.

In a 2014 Coronial inquest2, it was recommended that the source of the fatal venous thromboembolus should be investigated. The post-mortem examination in such cases can be complex and involve extensive dissection. However, it is unclear how often this is justified as the rate of finding DVT in a PE death has not been determined for the South Australian Coronial autopsy population. 

It is hypothesised that the method and extent of dissection will influence how often the source of DVT is identified, and that certain predisposing factors may also increase the likelihood of locating DVT.

The aim of this research is to assess the frequency of identifying DVT at post-mortem examination in cases of PE, and to determine what factors influence finding the origin of the fatal PE. Forensic Science SA autopsy reports were reviewed where the cause of death included PE or DVT. Statistical analyses were performed on case report data, including: age, BMI, pathologist performing the autopsy, leg dissection method, DVT location and previous surgery or hospital admissions.

Determining the incidence of finding DVT at a particular site when death has occurred from PE may allow recommendations regarding dissection techniques in autopsy protocol. Findings from this research may assist forensic pathologists to investigate deaths from venous thromboembolic events, and justify the need for further dissection when searching for the source of DVT in cases of fatal PE. 
 
References 
1. Ho WK, Hankey GJ & Eikelboom JW (2008). The incidence of venous thromboembolism: a prospective, community-based study in Perth, Western Australia. Med J Aust 189, 144-147.  

2. Deputy State Coroner of South Australia, Inquest into the deaths of Philip Byrne and Jacqueline Weaver. Inquest Number 6/2014 (0314/2012 & 1796/2012). 2014: Adelaide, South Australia.

Failure, Responsibility and Idealised Mothering:  The Construction of Post-Natal Depression in the Discursive Fields of Biomedicine, Instagram and Feminist Theory

Rose, Alice
Faculty of Arts

Motherhood is a major transition for many women; a site where biology, gender and culture meet. Suicide is a leading cause of death for new mothers and postnatal depression prevalence rates remain static (COPE 2017).  To address this serious problem, a deeper and broader understanding of why motherhood increases the risk of mental illness is required.  This project aimed to expose the subjective nature of knowledge about post-natal-depression (PND) and its relationship to gender.  Unlike biological sex, gender is a social construct reflecting cultural values; it organises many aspects of western life including motherhood.  To investigate common understandings of PND, three relevant fields of information were identified: biomedicine, social media, and feminist theory.  A discourse analysis, the analysis of text and images, was conducted in each of these fields to identify common and contradictory themes, and the role gender plays within each.  Biological essentialism and cultural values which normalise heterosexuality were found to shape the ways that PND is constituted in both medical and social-media discourse.   Key themes included failure, responsibility, and idealised-mothering.  While biomedicine presents itself as objective, gendered ideologies are woven into the fabric of its discourse: from the research questions it asks, to assumptions made about mother love and care. Instagram’s gendered discourse promotes idealised femininity, premised on notions of self-sacrifice and personal accountability for PND prevention and recovery.  In contrast, feminist theory sees PND as a construct used to subjugate and silence women: homogenising the experience of motherhood.   Feminist discourse offers important insights into the assumptions of motherhood that are both perpetuated and taken for granted in other discursive fields.  By ignoring social and cultural factors demonstrated to negatively affect the well-being of new mothers, biomedicine effectively creates barriers to useful resources.  Only by considering all understandings of PND can opportunities for prevention and intervention be maximised.

References
1. COPE (2017). Australian perinatal mental health guideline evidence review.  COPE: Centre of Perinatal Excellence, ABN: 50 203 962 931

Silence and Censorship: The Politics of Asylum Seekers’ Human Rights in Australia

Rose, Alice
Faculty of Arts

The UN Declaration of Human Rights was intended to provide protections to all humans.  However, as this presentation will demonstrate, rights are far from inalienable when individuals are separated from their citizenship.  Despite the relatively small number of refugees seeking asylum in Australia by boat, increasingly punitive policies are infringing on the basic human rights of those the Declaration was intended to protect.  Australia’s policies relating to asylum seekers, which do not align with human rights standards, are justified through political rhetoric and censorship.  A discourse analysis, examining talk and text, of mainstream media since 2000 found clear patterns in the way Australian politicians construct asylum seekers. Various discursive strategies are successfully used to construct asylum seekers in the public imagination.  Repeated narratives include threat, deviance, burden, refoulment as compassion, and militarisation. A key finding of this research was that how citizens come to understand asylum seekers is guided not only by what politicians say, but by what they do not say. Reporting on “border protection” and detention centres is highly restricted, leaving the media largely complicit allowing political messages to pass through unquestioned.  By heavily regulating media access and criminalising the sharing of information, the government maintains distance between asylum seekers and human rights.  Censorship laws leave the government free to construct asylum seekers in ways which both position itself as a protector of its citizens and justify its punitive policies of exception.  Subtle but repetitive discursive silences, described as the repeated avoidance of relevant topics, in particular human rights, are regularly employed to help to disassociate asylum seekers with these ideas and reinforce others.  In these ways, the government has created a realm of perceived exception to the general hospitality of human rights.  Using censorship along with these narratives allows public support for the policies to continue.

If you want to catch the worm, you'd better be the early bird - Acceleration Only Based Control for Intercepting a Highly Maneuverable Target

Simpson, Taylor
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Ballistic targets (threats) can be difficult to intercept due to their nature of being highly maneuverable compared to an intercepting agent. A highly maneuverable threat could potentially have velocities of five to ten times greater than that of the intercepting agent, with the ability to accelerate laterally at a rate, of again, five to ten times greater than the agent. As such, advanced guidance and control strategies are required to enable an inferior agent to successfully intercept this threat. Current, widely used techniques involve calculating and responding to positional trajectories. This tends to be computationally intensive, causing substantial delays, and inefficiencies within the guidance and control schemes. Thus, a highly responsive control system is required for the agent to allow for optimal performance. The development of this control system has been based around acceleration only commands which allow for a highly agile agent. Acceleration based control has been achieved through the development of an acceleration algorithm that utilises an agent's instantaneous velocity, angular position and angular velocity to determine its current acceleration. Thereafter, a kinematic (motion) controller was developed to accept and react to these acceleration commands, with its performance being simulated. A series of feedback mechanisms are then used to continuously allow for modulated control of the acceleration by altering variables such as the pitch and roll angles and angular velocities. From this work, a more efficient kinematic controller has been implemented based solely on acceleration commands. Simulations on a quadrotor (drone) have shown this kinematic controller is effective and faster than traditional methods, with potential to enable a better ballistic shield defence system for protecting high value assets. Areas of future research include integrating the kinematic controller into a physical system (quadrotor) to test its performance with sensor noise and time lag.

Willy Brandt’s Contribution to Peace

Swan, John
Faculty of Arts

Creating enduring peace in post conflict and divided societies is a global challenge. In 1971 the Chancellor of West Germany, Willy Brandt, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for advancing peace in a divided Europe.  His contributions to peace included his involvement in the Nazi resistance, his implementation of the innovative Ostpolitik foreign policy, and his leadership of Germany in reconciling with victims of the Nazi regime. Ostpolitik, Brandt’s greatest legacy, was a policy that diffused military tensions and encouraged economic, social and political relationships between East and West Germany. Despite strong resistance to the policy both domestically and internationally, it nevertheless achieved its goal of normalising diplomatic relations between East and West Germany. The research investigated Brandt's contribution to the eventual reunification of Germany. 
 
Different perspectives of Brandt’s decision making from both during and after his life were compared. Sources included material from the Norwegian Nobel Committee, interviews of Brandt and his critics, books written by Brandt, and academic literature. The research found that critiques of Brandt’s leadership have generally become more positive over time. Today leaders of opposing states often resort to entrenching division with hostile rhetoric, trade restrictions, migration restrictions and diplomatic isolation. Many states invest and trade heavily in arms with the belief that this will lead to increased security and economic prosperity. Brandt warned against this approach, particularly when developed states engage in an arms race over tackling global poverty and environmental issues, which are themselves increasingly sources of conflict. Brandt’s model of gradual rapprochement under Ostpolitik provides a useful foreign policy framework for leaders and governments in divided countries and regions seeking to diffuse conflict. The Korean Peninsula and Middle East are just two divided regions where leaders should reconsider the importance of dialogue and cooperation.

Third and Fourth Year Psychology graduates’ employment experiences post-graduation

Tran, Connie
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

Rationale 
A Bachelor’s degree in Psychology is considered one of the most popular undergraduate degrees undertaken among students enrolled at university. To progress further into the field of psychology, students are required to complete postgraduate study. While some may pursue this in the form of a Masters or PhD degree, many decide against this route but instead choose to directly enter the workforce. Previous studies have suggested that undergraduate psychology degrees provide limited preparation for students who enter the workforce. However, minimal research has looked into exploring the extent of the usefulness of the degree. 
 
Research Question 
This study assessed how past graduates perceive that the undergraduate degree has prepared them for employment. 

Research Methodology 
Graduates from the Bachelor of Psychology degree who were currently employed and have not undertaken any further study were interviewed. Open-ended interviews explored graduates’ perceptions of the usefulness of their degree relative to their current employment. Twelve graduates who had ceased studies in Psychology after a Bachelor or Honours degree were interviewed. Year of graduation varied between 2010 to 2018. A qualitative form of analysis, thematic analysis, identified the main themes in transcribed data pertaining to perceptions around how their studies prepared them for the workforce.  
 
Findings 
Overall, the preliminary findings showed that the undergraduate degree succeeds in providing graduates with a strong theoretical basis, but lacks ample opportunity to develop practical skills and client interaction. Graduates also reported difficulty with “selling themselves” in regard to the broad range of skills developed through study. Reports of imposter syndrome amongst graduates were also common. Suggestions for strengthening work readiness for graduates will be offered, based on the data.

Fingerprinting Radio Transmitters using Artificial Intelligence

Voss, William
Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Radio frequency (RF) transmitters, such as mobile phones or hand held radios, are now ubiquitous. For the military, radio transmitters are a crucial strategic tool to provide wireless communication between, for example, troops, vehicles, planes and ships.

Variations between radio transmitters introduce unique imperfections in the transmitted signals, an RF fingerprint. If this RF fingerprint can be extracted from received signals, it is possible to identify and track the associated radio transmitter. RF fingerprinting has both military and civilian applications. Traditionally, the RF fingerprint is extracted by algorithms based on statistical signal processing principles.

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are an artificial intelligence framework that are loosely modelled on animal brains. CNNs are often used for image recognition or speech processing as they excel at pattern recognition. For example, CNNs are used in software that controls self-driving cars. An emerging body of research exists on their use in RF fingerprinting. Potential advantages over traditional techniques include better performance, less computational expense, and less effort developing custom estimation techniques for each new application.

Our research developed CNNs for extracting an RF fingerprint. The networks were trained using the university’s Phoenix supercomputer service. Traditional estimation techniques were also implemented to provide a benchmark to the CNN results.

CNN prediction outperformed the traditional estimation techniques across various aspects. In particular, the CNN prediction was able to cope with a randomly distorted signal much better. This research could ultimately lead to better detection of hostile transmitters, keeping troops safer in war zones.

The Games We Play: Punishing Athletes For Off-field Behaviour

Wahabzada, Sufwan
Faculty of the Professions

Research Question 
Should employment contracts in professional sport include regulation of players’ off-field behaviour? 
 
In May this year, Rugby Australia tore up Israel Folau’s contract for comments the high-profile player made on social media. The comments allegedly reflected Folau’s religious beliefs and scorned, amongst others, homosexuals and atheists. Rugby Australia considered Folau’s actions to breach clauses in the Players’ Code of Conduct. Folau is just one of many athletes punished for off-field indiscretions in recent times; which raises the question of whether the law should interfere with their private lives. 
 
This put a spotlight on the need to look at what these clauses were and how they were being enforced. The policies existent in morals clauses, which restrict the ability of athletes to use their social media platforms freely, are vague and unclear. This issue is vexing as two athletes may have identical conduct but receive punishments that are irreconcilable with each other. This makes every offbeat post by an athlete a roll of the dice on the future of their career. 
 
Diving further into these policies a darker picture is painted, one of human rights abuses. Athletes in Australia frequently experience human rights violations in two ways. Firstly, their right to privacy is removed through a contractual obligations. Secondly, they are forced to forgo their right to silence and testify against themselves. These policies are despicable and go too far in regulating athletes’ off field conduct as they are default positions. Counter-measures during probation could be considered reasonable but to have these conditions placed on athletes who have done no wrong is reprehensible. 
 
Findings 
When evaluating all the interests involved in professional sport, it is logical for sporting organisations to include morals clauses to protect their public image. However, the ambiguity of these terms and their selective enforcement is clearly problematic. Firm guidance and proactive reforms are critical.

A Lukácsian Critique of the Marxist Theory of Base and Superstructure

Wardle, Danny
Faculty of Arts

Marxist scholars utilise the theory of base and superstructure to explain social and historical change. According to Karl Marx, the 'base' of human society is the economy. What economic resources exist in any given society and how those resources are produced and distributed ultimately shapes all other aspects of society. Our legal system, culture etc. make up the 'superstructure'. Change in the superstructure is fundamentally explained by change in the economic base. The purpose of my research was to explore the issues faced by this theory and to develop an alternative account of social change. 
 
Base-superstructure theory is often derided as a flawed attempt to reduce the complex phenomena of social change to economic forces. In contrast, its supporters claim that it has great explanatory power. Many people view the base-superstructure paradigm as a fundamental part of Marxist theory. However, I discovered that Marx's initial formulation of base-superstructure theory was brief and contradictory. I distinguished between 'strong' and 'weak' interpretations of base-superstructure theory. In the strong interpretation, the superstructure is absolutely determined by the economic base. This interpretation fails to account for situations where economic development has gone backwards. It also allows little room for political agency, which is an unacceptable consequence for Marxists who support revolution. The weak interpretation allows for a reciprocal relationship between base and superstructure, but risks undermining the value of the theory itself. 
 
I developed an alternative theory inspired by György Lukács’ analysis of the ‘social totality’. All human societies are governed by an internal logic, which gets expressed in different spheres of society in different ways. For example, federal parliament is governed by the logic of capitalism while having its own history, ideology and purpose. To persuade base-superstructure theorists, I argued that this alternative theory is perfectly compatible with Marxism.

Exploring the perinatal mental health needs of African refugee women: Maternity service providers’ perspectives

Winter, Amelia
Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

Purpose/Rationale
Postnatal depression is a major public health concern globally. In Australia, women with a refugee background from the African continent face a unique set of challenges during the perinatal period. While approximately 10% of women worldwide experience postnatal depression, this can be as high as 40% in women with a refugee background. However, there is no evidence concerning the impact of models of maternity care on perinatal mental health for this group of women. This study provides insights into the perspectives of maternity providers caring for this group of women.

Research question/focus
This study aims to map the current perinatal mental health care provision to women with a refugee background. In addition, this study aims to provide evidence concerning the specific mental health needs of women from Africa with a refugee background during pregnancy and in the 12 months post-birth. The research aims to identify barriers to service provision in an Australian context.

Research methodology/approach
Interviews are being conducted with South Australian maternity care providers including midwives, obstetricians and general practitioners. Using the six steps of the qualitative Thematic Analysis approach, interview data is being analysed for themes relating to the current provision of maternity care.

Results/findings
While the data is not yet finalised, it is expected this research will identify the specific barriers women from Africa with a refugee background face when accessing maternity care. It is expected that language and cultural factors will need to be understood in order to provide culturally-competent care and improve mental health outcomes.

Conclusions
It is hoped this research will provide an evidence base that leads to further research developing a best practice model of maternity care provision. Such a model of care is necessary to reduce the negative mental health outcomes for this group of women in the perinatal period.

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