Skip to content

Professor Andrew Watson (1942-)

MSS 0188


Biographical Note

Andrew WatsonProfessor Andrew Watson was born in Bristol, UK, in 1942. He obtained a Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Modern Chinese from the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London in 1964. In 2014, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Arts by the University of Adelaide.

Between 1965 and 1967, Andrew was employed by the Chinese government as a 'Foreign Expert' and assigned as a Lecturer in English at the Xi'an Foreign Languages Institute, Xi'an, China. After the split with the Soviet Union in 1962, the Chinese government decided to make English the first foreign language for study in China and urgently expanded its teaching in the subject. As a result, it employed a number of teachers such as Andrew to help develop its programmes. The opportunity to work in China, still a closed country at that time, enabled Andrew to deepen his knowledge of Chinese language, culture and society. The period also covered the year before the Cultural Revolution and the first year of the Red Guard movement. When all teaching stopped after June 1966, Andrew was able to travel widely in China and observed the Cultural Revolution first-hand. This range of experience provided the foundation for a life spent in Chinese studies.

Returning to the UK in April 1967, Andrew obtained a position as a researcher in the Research Department of the Foreign Office, London. The work there focussed on research on contemporary developments in China.

In 1968 he was invited to move to the University of Glasgow in Scotland as a junior lecturer to help develop a program of Chinese studies. He joined the Department of International Economic Studies and worked alongside Jack Gray and Mark Elvin in developing an M. Phil degree. It was during this time that Andrew developed a strong interest in linking language study and the social sciences. He was responsible for the Chinese language teaching, and his research interests at that time encompassed China's rural development and Chinese economic history. He wrote a book on his experiences in China, Living in China (Batsford: 1975), published translations from Japanese on traditional shipping and commerce in China, and also worked on a translation of Mao Zedong: Economic and Financial Problems (Cambridge University Press: 1980).

In 1974, Andrew was appointed as one of the founding Lecturers in Chinese in the newly-established Centre for Asian Studies at the University of Adelaide, where he continued his focus on combining language teaching and social science research. Andrew became a Senior Lecturer and was appointed Professor of Asian Studies in the Centre for Asian Studies at the University of Adelaide from 1991 to 2001. Alongside Professor Christopher Findlay, he became a co-founder and co-director of the University's Chinese Economies Research Unit, 1987-99. He was a member of the Board of the Australia China Council from 1994 to 1999, President of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia from 1995 to 1997 and a member of the Australian Research Council's Asian Studies and Social Sciences Panels from 1993 to 1996.

From 1974 to 1999, Andrew contributed widely to Centre and Faculty administration. His teaching encompassed China's economic and social history, Chinese politics, the Chinese economy and the Chinese language. He supervised the work of a number of postgraduates, graduate diploma and honours students. His research continued to focus on economic and political development in contemporary China, with a particular interest in rural development and the processes of economic reform and growth after 1978. Together with other colleagues, he obtained a number of ARC grants to work on topics in China and was a regular visitor there to conduct field work in rural areas. He lived in Beijing and Xi'an for one year in 1981 and spent a year in Hong Kong in 1987. He also did a number of consultancies for AusAID projects and other international organisations. He edited Economic Reform and Social Change in China (Routledge: 1992) and also wrote many articles and chapters in journals and books, and jointly edited a number of other books about China. The latter included Rural Enterprises in China (with C. Findlay and H. X. Wu, Macmillan: 1994), Food Security and Economic Reform: the Challenges Facing China's Grain Marketing System (with Christopher Findlay, Macmillan: 1999), and Rural Financial Markets in China (with Christopher Findlay, Cheng Enjiang and Zhu Gang, Asia Pacific Press at ANU: 2003).

In July 1999 Andrew became the Ford Foundation Representative in Beijing. His appointment reflected his fluency in Chinese, his knowledge of Chinese society and culture and his wide range of research and educational contacts in China. Andrew initially took leave from the University of Adelaide and then, in 2002, resigned in order to extend his time in Beijing until April 2008. The University appointed him as an Emeritus Professor.

The Ford Foundation program of grants in China began in the early 1980s, and its office was established in 1988. Andrew was responsible for overall management of the Foundation's grant-making in China and its Beijing office with 23 staff. The average annual grant-making budget was around US$15,000,000 and included work in the fields of legal development, educational development, governance and public policy, international relations, micro-finance, civil society development, environment and development, sexuality and reproductive health. Andrew represented the Foundation to the Chinese authorities and interacted with a large range of government agencies, research institutes, universities and social organisations. He also participated in the management of the Foundation's programmes generally. His personal areas of grant-making included international relations, microfinance, civil society development and also Asia regional grant-making in social protection and non-traditional security.

On returning to Adelaide in April 2008, Andrew was appointed as a visitor in the School of Economics for two years and from 2008 to 2010 became Senior Adviser to the AusAID-funded ‘Social Security for Migrant Workers Project', part of its China Australia Governance Program. The project involved working with the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security in Beijing on the reform and development of China's social insurance system to provide services to the 250 million rural-to-urban migrant workers. Andrew helped structure and implement research projects, managed visits and training for Chinese officials coming to Australia, and planned conferences. Following on from this project, Andrew organised a training program for Chinese officials at the University of Adelaide (2011-12) and participated in a Ford Foundation-funded study of social security for migrant workers in China (2013-15). As a result of this work after 2008, he published a number of studies in English and Chinese on social security in China.

This collection of papers reflects Andrew Watson's range of research interests and projects. Together with a large number of books, it was donated to the Barr Smith Library in 2015.


Contents Listing

Series 1: Traditional junk shipping and commerce in China

These materials were collected in the late 1960s as part of Watson's early interest in China's economic history and the organisation of traditional shipping and commerce. A number of the readings were collected together and translated by Watson in Transport in transition: The evolution of traditional shipping in China, Translations from Japanese (Michigan Abstracts of Chinese and Japanese Works, No. 3, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1972).

1.1  Photocopy of 大观园の解剖 (Dai Kanen no Kaibō: An Analysis of the Pleasure Gardens). Part of a secret Japanese study of the social conditions in northeast China in the 1930s, with a focus on brothels, beggars, drug dealers etc. in Harbin. 295 pp.

1.2  Photocopy of 中支の民船业 (Chūshi no Minsengyō: The Common Shipping of Central China), edited by Amano Motonosuke (Mantetsu Railway 满铁调查部, 1943). A study of junk shipping in Suzhou in the 1930s, with English translations and notes on some sections by Watson. Translations formed part of Watson's 1972 book.

1.3  Photocopies and notes on junk shipping in north China, primarily in Japanese, from pre-war Japanese sources. Some of these utilised in Watson's translations noted above.

1.4  Photocopies and notes on junk shipping in south China, primarily from Japanese sources but some also from Chinese, English and French sources. All dating from late 1800s to early 1900s.

1.5  Seven rolls of microfilms:
• Japanese journal 华北航业 (North China Navigation), vols 1-12, 13-21 and 23-25; and vols 26-28 and 30-31 published in occupied China by the Japanese-run North China Navigation Company in the 1930s and 1940s recording coastal and riverine shipping and trade information. 3 rolls.
• 戎克-中国の 帆船 (Jūka - Chūgoku no Hansen: Junks - China's Sailing Ships) a Japanese study of traditional China's junks published in Shanghai in 1941 by the Central China Junk Association (中支戎克协会) 199 pp. 1 roll.
• 人民交通 (Renmin Jiaotong: People's Communication). This journal provides information on China's transport economy from the early 1950s. 1 roll.
• Kōsaka Torizō 中国交易机构の研究 (Chūgoku Kōeki Kikō no Kenkyū: Research on Trade Organizations in China) Waseda University, 1949. A study of traditional Chinese trading organisations, used by Watson in his translation book. 1 roll.
• 水运 (Water Transport) Vols 1-6. A Chinese journal devoted to reporting on China's water transport system. 1 roll.

1.6  Photocopies of collected articles and notes (primarily English and some French) from pre-war publications on junk ship design and technology.

1.7  Photocopy of "Baba Kuwataro" 支那水运论 (Shina Suiun Ron: On Water Transport in China) Tōya Bunko, Shanghai, 1936, plus notes and translated sections.

1.8  Photocopy of 清国商业纵览,第二卷 (Shinkoku Shōgyō Jūran, Daini Kan: A Review of Commerce and Trade in Qing China, Vol. 2, Tokyo, 1906), 550pp.

1.9  Bibliographical resources, including maps on traditional water transport in China, held by libraries in Japan, Taiwan, US Congress and record of articles published in Mantetsu Geppo (满铁月报).

1.10  Collection of journal articles on traditional shipping and commerce in China in both English and Chinese, dating primarily from the 1950s. Includes "The emergence of China as a sea power during the late Sung and early YÜan periods", Jung-Pang Lo, Far Eastern Quarterly, 1955 and "Riverine and coastal junks in China's commerce", Herold Wiens, Economic Geography, 1955.

1.11  Collection of journal articles and seminar papers on the role of junk transport after 1949. Mostly in English and published in the 1950s and 1960s. Includes "China's transport problem and communist planning", Rhoads Murphey, Economic Geography, 1956 and "Chinese and Soviet transport for agriculture" Holland Hunter, presented at The Economies of the Communist World seminar, 1974.

1.12  Collection of Japanese articles on traditional shipping and commerce in China published in the 1950s and 1960s; comparative articles on southeast Asian shipping; two papers on Chinese waterways in the period 1900-1945; photocopy of water transport section of Japanese book: 支那经济全书第三辑 (Shina Keizai Zensho Daisan Shū: The Book of the Chinese Economy, Vol 3, Tōya Bunko, Shanghai, 1907-1909).

1.13  Photocopies of 支那の航运(Shina no Koun: China's Water Transport) published by Tōya Kaiun Kabushiki Kaisha, 1943; Noda Seijiro, 中支那及南支那 (Chūshina oyo Nanshina: Central China and South China), Tokyo Chigaku Kyōkai, 1917; 支那水运の自然的技术的条件 (Shina Suiun no Shizenteki Gijutsuteki Jōken: The Natural and Technical Conditions of China's Water Transport), Tōya Kenkyusho, 1944; Section 2, 主要港湾概说 (Shuyō kōwan gaistesu: An outline of the major harbours), undated, no title, pp 446-479 and 第二松花江ノ水运调查资料 (Daini Songhuajiang no Suiun Chōsa Shiryō: Second Survey Materials of Water Transport on the Songhua River), Mantetsu Kabushiki Kaisha, 1917.


Series 2: Chinese rural finance reform

During the 1990s, the acceleration of changes in the structure of the rural economy in China created an intense demand for new financial services. The existing bank and credit co-operative institutions had to change, and there were many new experiments with new local organisations such as co-operative funds (合作基金会,hezuo jijinhui). These materials were collected as part of an ARC-funded project carried out by the Chinese Economy Research Unit to study these developments. The study resulted in the publication of Rural Financial Markets in China, edited by Christopher Findlay, Andrew Watson, Cheng Enjiang and Zhu Gang, (Asia Pacific Press, The Australian National University, Canberra, 2003). Watson also donated a number of books and journals related to rural financial reform in China, including materials on the development of microfinance, a field supported by the Ford Foundation during his time in Beijing.

2.1  Chinese newspaper clippings and journal articles, 1981-mid 1990s.

2.2  Chinese research reports, 1981-mid 1990s.

2.3  Articles and newspaper reports on rural financial reform from 2003-2005. Includes "Are China's financial reforms leaving behind the poor?", Loren Brandt, Albert Park and Wang Sangui, 2003; "Micro-finance, poverty alleviation, and financial reform in China", Albert Park, Changqing Ren and Wang Sangui, 2003; "RCCS' performance and borrowing behaviors of rural households in underdeveloped areas", draft paper by Chu Baojin, 2005 and "Domestic money transfer services for migrant workers in China", Enjiang Cheng and Xu Zhong, 2005, etc.

2.4  Articles and newspaper reports on rural financial reform from 2006-2007. Includes Work Bank consultancy report "Case studies on informal finance in rural China", Feng Xingyuan, 2006 and "Attempts to implement microfinance in China", Du Xiaoshan, 2006, etc.

Note: a copy of Watson's book "Rural financial markets in China", co-authored by C. Findlay, C. Enjiang and Z. Gang has been catalogued separately for the University Collection (332.710951 F4946r) and is available for reading in Rare Books & Special Collections.

Series 3: Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in China

From 1999 until 2008, Watson managed the Ford Foundation's China grant program on NGO's, non-profits, and civil society development. This also included work on philanthropy and charities, volunteer organisations and independent chambers of commerce. Listed below is a unique collection of newspapers, research reports, surveys, draft regulations and articles related to these topics. A large number of books, conference proceedings and magazines were also received and are currently being catalogued. A list of these materials will be available shortly.

Note: Some of these reports and documents were sent to the Ford Foundation as output of grants for work on the field. The Ford Foundation reports listed below may be consulted and referenced, however, they must not be copied or reproduced in any way without the written permission of the author(s).

3.1  A number of reports produced from work sponsored by the Ford Foundation, including transcript "NGOs and the evolving international relations", by the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), 2007, 75p; final report "Development & management of NGOs", project group CICIR, 2007, 126p; survey of philanthropy by Peking University NGO Centre, 2008 and copy of China Philanthropy Times newspaper, 2006; Renmin University NGO Centre research report on government society relations, 2008; Ministry of Civil Affairs draft copy of regulations on foundation registration, 2003; research reports on Civil Society Indicators, Tsinghua NGO Centre, 2006; confidential reports on history of the NPO Network, 2001-2003 and reports on the emergence and growth of corporate philanthropy in China. Also includes report "Control by category", Kang Xiaoguang.

3.2  Various research reports, book chapters and articles on NGOs in China by leading scholars in English and Chinese, including "NGOs in China Driving Change?: A case study of the Aizhi Action Project", Albert Chen, 2003; "The non-governmental sector in China: A preliminary report", Susan Whiting, The Ford Foundation, 1989 and "A nascent civil society within a transforming environment", CIVICUS Civil Society Index Report, 2006.

3.3  Articles, mostly in Chinese, on charity and charity law issues, including "The level of donations from wealthy people in China and the reasons for changes", Deng Guosheng, undated and "If it makes business sense, they'll just do it", Nick Young, 2001-2002. Also includes original newspaper clippings and photocopies on NGOs, philanthropy and charity issues, primarily in Chinese, 1997-2007. Includes "Most Chinese enjoy more personal freedom than ever before", Tony Saich, 1997 and "NGOs to get more autonomy", Josephine Ma, 2000.

3.4  Draft, in Chinese, of "Blue Book on The Development of Civil Society in China", 2006 and various journal articles by international scholars on NGOs in China, including "Organising around women and labour in China: Uneasy shadows, uncomfortable alliances", Jude Howell, 2000 and "The rise of the community in rural China: Village politics, cultural identity...", Ben Hillman, 2004.

3.5  Articles and case studies on NGO work in China and drafts of NGO legislation, 1995-2008. Includes "Poverty reduction in a new era: Government-NGO Partnerships...", Chris Spohr, 2006; "Strengthening the cooperation between Chinese Environmental NGOs and the media", Liu Haiying, 2006 and Community Participation Action newsletters and reports, 2003-2005.

3.6  Editions of the official newspaper for civil society issues China Philanthropy Times (公益时报), published by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Sep. 2006-Mar. 2008 (some issues lacking). Issues cover the evolution of official policy towards NGOs and charities. 14cm.


Series 4: Shaanxi Province

Watson first lived in Shaanxi Province in China (1965-67) and visited it often over the years, collecting a range of books and materials, including maps. It was the site of the Yan'an Communist base area before 1949, where Mao promoted the economic and financial policies that were covered in Watson's translation of his 1942 book. Watson received research funding to work on provincial development in Shaanxi after 1978 and has donated a number of books and related reference materials on Shaanxi, including internal publications, catalogued separately for the Library collection.

4.1  Internal reports on state enterprise reform in Shaanxi in the mid-1990s and its impact on employment, and newspaper clippings and notes, primarily in Chinese, on issues for workers laid-off in the mid-1990s.

4.2  Mimeo articles and photocopies of Chinese language materials, including Journal of Shaanxi Normal University (Social Science), on Shaanxi economic development issues and planning in the mid-1990s.

4.3  Mimeo articles and photocopies of Chinese language materials on Shaanxi economic development issues and planning in the mid-1990s. Includes multiple journals and papers on development in Ankang Prefecture.

4.4  Newspaper clippings, journal articles, book chapters and handwritten notes on employment issues in Shaanxi in the mid-1990s, including "Revolution or corporatism...", Anita Chan, 1993, "Rice bowls and job security...", Pat Howard, 1991 and "Employment and unemployment in China: Results from 10-percent sample tabulation of 1982 population census", Foreign Economic Report, no. 23, U.S. Dept. of Commerce.


Series 5: Sheep and wool production and marketing in China, with a focus on Xinjiang and including other dimensions of social and economic development there.

These materials were collected as part of a series of studies and research consultancies between the late 1980s and the 1990s. During the 1980s, rising living standards and changes in consumption in China led to a rapid growth in demand for Australian wool. The Chinese Economy Research Unit obtained funding to study the causes and effects of these developments. The intense competition for raw materials among the rapidly growing textile factories in China led to a 'wool war' as buyers competed for supplies. The results of this research were published as articles, a book and consultancy reports. Subsequently, Watson was invited to participate as an expert in the AusAID-funded project on sheep and wool production in Xinjiang in the early 1990s and contributed to the Baseline Study and to a report on local wool and meat production and marketing. The materials include some rare mimeograph copies of books by Professor Yang Tingrui and reports from the Xinjiang Academy of Animal Husbandry on nomadic herding by minority peoples in Xinjiang .

5.1  Marketing and feasibility study reports, typed and handwritten notes, memos and floppy disc on the AusAID sheep and wool project in Xinjiang between 1989 and 1993. Includes "Wool production in China" and "China Australia sheep research project", both prepared by Hassall & Assoc., 1989 & 1991; "Institutional specialist sheep and wool marketing report", Hassall & Assoc., 1992; "Baseline survey report", Hassall & Assoc., 1992; "Wool textile research and development project", Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 1989.  Also, "Fighting for the fleece: economic reform and regional conflict in China", C. Findlay, P. Mayer and A. Watson, 1990; "China's GATT re-entry and liberalisation of its wool textile industry", Lu Weiguo, 1994 and "Structural changes in the Chinese textile industry", Sun Keliang, 1994.

5.2  Materials and handwritten notes used in writing AusAID Baseline Report, including copies of maps of survey area, draft findings and conclusions and Watson's and M. Finlayson's joint revisions of baseline survey report, 1991.

5.3  Various notes, statistics and maps from the survey for the AusAID Baseline Report, including information about the demography, structure, pastures, animals and administration of farms at locations such as Fukang, Hutubi and Manasi counties and Changji City, 1989-1991.

5.4  Various reports, working papers, brochures, maps, photocopies of news clippings and presentation notes related to the AusAid project in Xinjiang. Includes "Study of Australian assistance to the Chinese wool sector", Watson and C. Findlay, 1989; "Chinese wool textile industry growth and the demand for raw wool", C. Findlay and L. Ze, 1989 and "Collective resource management in China: The raw wool industry", Watson, L. Zheng and C. Findlay, 1989.

5.5  Journal articles, newspaper clippings, internal studies and mimeos, mostly in Chinese, re sheep and wool production in China. Includes 1990 facsimile of an anonymous referee's report to G. Scott of Australia-Japan Research Centre on the manuscript "China's wool war: Challenges for economic growth and development, 1985-1998".

5.6  Papers and handwritten notes related to articles and conference presentations given on sheep and wool production, including "Foreign direct investment in Chinese wool textile industry", Weiguo Lu, 1995 and "China's raw wool industry", Watson and C. Findlay. 1995.

5.7  Draft and final copies of 1993 article "Wool production, demand and trade in China", Watson and C. Findlay, plus associated materials including wool output tables (1987-1992) supplied by researchers in Beijing.

5.8  Photocopy of book The wool industry in China: Some Chinese perspectives, John Longworth (ed.), 1990 and two Australia-Japan Research Centre reports "Wool in Northeast Asia" (2 copies), 1995 and "China's wool market: Trade and investment issues", 1995. Also includes J.W. Copland's 1986 report "The development of China's wool industry" prepared for Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research, Canberra.

5.9  Programs for two 1994 workshops: "Wool in Northeast Asia" and "China and East Asian trade policy"; program for 1994 "Australian, Indonesian and Japanese approaches towards APEC" meeting; draft papers prepared for the workshops and various notes, articles and newspaper clippings on the wool trade with China.

5.10  Correspondence, papers and workshop programs related to fiscal reform of Chinese wool industry. Includes "Wool marketing in China: A system in transition", J. Longworth; "Fiscal reform and its implication for the Chinese wool industry", author unknown; "Raw wool production and marketing in China" workshop program, all undated.

5.11  Set of internal publications from the Xinjiang Academy of Animal Husbandry. Inscribed by Professor Yang Tingrui, leading researcher working on nomadic minorities, and given to Watson. Includes Yang Tingrui, 游牧论 ,中国六族六畜游牧经济纲要, (Youmu Lun, Zhongguo Liu Zu Liu Xu Youmu Jingji Gangyao: On Nomadism, an outline of the nomadic economy of China's six minorities and six domesticated animals), Xinjiang Xumu Shudian, 1991, manuscript copy with corrections by the author. Xinjiang Minority People's Economic Research Association, 和静县地区经济与蒙族游牧业经济 (新疆民族经济调查研究丛书之一),The Regional Economy and Mongolian Minority Nomadic Economy of Hejing County), 1984. Xinjiang Minority People's Economic Research Association, 且末县地区经济与维吾尔族游牧业经济 (新疆民族经济调查研究丛书之二),(The Regional Economy and Uighur Minority Nomadic Economy of Qiemo County), 1984.


Series 6: Grasslands and minorities in China

The following materials cover issues of grassland management and minority policy in China. As a consultant, Watson reviewed the work of the Ford Foundation in northwest China in the period 2000-2010. These materials also relate to the earlier work on sheep and wool production, as listed in Series 5.

6.1  Report "Natural resource management and community development in western China: A review of Ford Foundation past grantmaking and future choices on expanding community rights over natural resources in China", written by Watson in 2011 for the Ford Foundation. Includes related articles from "Journal of arid land resources and environment" and a couple of 2008 issues of the newspaper "China ethnic news".

6.2  Reference materials, many in Chinese, on different dimensions of grassland management and minority policy during 2000-2010, used by Watson to write report listed in series 6.1. Includes copy of article "Ecological resettlement of Tibetan herders...", D. Fachun, undated; copy of Nomadic peoples journal special issue "Workshop on resettlement and rangeland management in China", 2011, etc.

6.3  Studies on contracting grassland management, including articles "Grassland management in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Implications for poverty alleviation and environment sustainability", Tan Shuhao et al, undated and "Grassland management and views of nature in China since 1949...", Jiang Hong, 2004.

6.4  Handwritten notes and articles on studies by researchers at Peking University re non-equilibrium models of grassland management, including "China's grassland contract policy and its impact on herder ability to benefit in inner Mongolia...", W. Li and L. Huntsinger, 2011; "Hierarchical framework for rangeland management: A case study for Inner Mongolia", Q. Zhang and W. Li, 2009 and "Property rights and grassland degradation: A study of the Xilingol pasture, Inner Mongolia, China", W. Li, S. Ali and Q. Zhang, 2006.

6.5  Copies of working papers "Undermining grassland management through centralized environmental policies in Inner Mongolia", X. Wang, 2007, "Power-construction in ecological restoration programs in Rangeland area...", Xun Lili , date unknown, and draft paper "How climate change affected the herder's livelihood in a semi-arid pastoral community", X. Wang, undated.

6.6  Copies of laws and regulations, all in Chinese, on grassland management in China, 2000-2011.

6.7  Journal articles on grassland management in China, including "The myth of community and sustainable grassland management in China", A. Wilkes, J. Tan and Mandula, 2010; "Green governmentality and pastoralism in western China...", E. Yeh, 2005; "An assessment of China's approach to grassland degradation and livelihood problems in the pastoral region", S. Waldron, C. Brown and J. Longworth, 2008, etc.

6.8  International studies on rangeland management, including "The genesis of range science, with implications for current development policies", N. Sayre and M. Fernandez-Climenez, 2003; "Taming a ‘wicked' problem: A policy overview of property rights and governance of Africa's rangelands", E. Mwangi, 2008 and "Global desertification: Building a science for dryland development", J. Reynolds et al, 2007, etc.

6.9  Articles, in Chinese, re grassland management and minorities, primarily from Journal of Chongqing Institute of Technology (Social Science). Also includes Development Research Centre survey data. 2008-2009.

6.10  Articles on resettlement and the role of local government in grassland management, including "Government, market and households in the ecological relocation process...", Xun Lili and Bao Zhiming , 2008 and "Decentralization, ecological construction, and the environment in post-reform China...", Jiang Hong , 2006. Also includes photocopies of media reports on grassland management between 2010 and 2011 and handwritten summaries of books on grasslands and minorities.


Series 7: Mao translation materials

The following materials relate to Watson's translation of Mao's early writing on economic policy, Mao Aedong: Economic and financial problems, Cambridge University Press, 1980. Translation and introduction.

7.1  Mao Zedong, 经济问题与财政问题 (Jingji Wenti yu Caizheng Wenti: Economic and Financial Problems), Xinmin Chubanshe, Hong Kong 1949 edition; 抗日战争时期解放区概况 (Kang-Ri Zhanzheng Shiqi Jiefangqu Gaikuang: An Outline of the Liberated Areas During the Anti-Japanese War), No author, Renmin Chubanshe, Beijing, 1953; 'Mao on Economic Development', a selection of Mao's unofficial papers on economic issues from the 1950s and 1960s assembled by Jack Gray; Notes on the book: 陕甘宁边区的劳动互助, (Shan-Gan-Ning Bianqu de Laodong Huzhu: Labour Mutual Aid in the Shan-Gan-Ning Border Region), Yinan Shudian Chubanshe, 1946; Xing Guang et al (eds), 抗日战争时期陕甘宁边区财政经济史稿 (Kang-Ri Zhanzheng Shiqi Shan-Gan-Ning Bianqu Caizheng Jingji Shigao: A Financial and Economic History of the Shan-Gan-Ning Border Region during the Anti-Japanese War), Xibei Daxue Chubanshe, Xi'an, 1988.


Series 8: Land reform title documents

Watson discovered the following rare set of a village's Land Reform Title Documents from 1952 at a dirt market in Beijing in the mid-1990s. They record the household ownership rights over land, buildings and other assets after they had been divided among 93 households in Yangliu Village, Changli County, Hebei Province.

8.1  河北省土地房产所有证第三联(村存), (Hebei-sheng Tudi Fangchan Suoyouzheng, Disan Lian [Cun Cun]: Hebei Province Land and Housing Ownership Certificates, Third Round (Village Copy). Record Number 9983, 25 December 1952. Fifth District, Changli County (昌黎县), Yangliu Village (杨柳庄).

Series 9: Agricultural economy reform in China

During the 1980s and 1990s, the Chinese Economy Research Unit embarked on a series of studies of the reform and development of the Chinese agricultural economy.  These projects were jointly developed by Christopher Findlay and Watson and many of them focussed on the reform of agricultural markets.  One study examined fruit and vegetable marketing reform.  Under the planned economy, fruit and vegetable production and marketing was  controlled through the state's supply and marketing cooperatives.  Once free markets were introduced in the early 1980s, local markets for farmers selling their produce spread rapidly across the countryside and in cities.  These eventually generated a hierarchy of markets and wholesale markets.  Part of this research contributed to an AusAID feasibility study of a project to support the development of wholesale markets.  Other studies included work on wool production and marketing (see Series 5), forestry, grain markets, and dairy markets.

9.1  Collection of articles from Chinese journals and newspapers on fruit and vegetable marketing; some English language articles on systems research for agricultural marketing; and some English-language articles on China's marketing system.

9.2  Collection of articles from Chinese journals on fruit and vegetable marketing reform, and a draft paper by Watson.

9.3  AusAID Feasibility Study Report on a possible project on Fruit and Vegetable Wholesale Marketing with materials collected from Chinese sources on proposals for such a project.

9.4  Collection of weekly and/or monthly product price data for selected major fruit and vegetable markets across China assembled in Chinese press and journal reports for the years 1985-1988 and 1990-1994.

9.5  A collection of Chinese articles, newspaper clippings and discussion papers on the reform of agricultural development policy, 1980-1997.

9.6  A collection of materials in Chinese and English on the reform of the forestry and timber industry in China 1978-1991, including a working paper by Watson on 'Forestry Production and Marketing in China' and a copy of an Appraisal Report on the AusAID Eucalypt Technical Research and Development Centre Project in Guangdong (dated April 1989), together with a desk review of that report done by Watson.

9.7  Draft report on China's Market for Dairy Products by Findlay and Watson, 1995, together with collections of materials in Chinese, notes and statistical reports on milk and dairy production, processing and marketing from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s.

9.8  In 1999, the Chinese Economy Research Unit completed a program of research on grain production and marketing reform in China and published Christopher Findlay and Andrew Watson (eds), Food Security and Economic Reform: the Challenges Facing China’s Grain Marketing System, (London: Macmillan), 1999, 266 pp.  Apart from field work in China, materials  collected for this study included:

  • 9.8.1 reports, newspaper clippings and notes on the development of wholesale grain markets during the early 1990s;
  • 9.8.2 reports, articles and notes on grain production and marketing in China 1978-89;
  • 9.8.3 reports, articles and notes on grain production and marketing in China 1989-91.

9.9  Collection of articles and reports on rural development policy from 1999-2006.

9.10  Articles and newspaper reports on village governance issues from 1999-2007.

9.11  Articles and newspaper reports on rural taxation and farmers' financial burdens from 1999-2007.

Series 10: The growth of township and village enterprises in China

A major outcome of China's rural reforms launched after 1978 was the emergence and growth of small, local, non-agricultural enterprises in the Chinese countryside collectively known as township and villages enterprises (TVEs).  These enterprises absorbed China's abundant rural labour into labour-intensive processing and manufacturing.  They became a significant driver of structural economic change.  The Chinese Economy Research Unit produced a book on the issues: Christopher Findlay, Andrew Watson and Harry Wu (eds), Rural Enterprises in China, (London: Macmillan, 1994), 226 pp, and published a number of studies, including a report for the ADB.

10.1  Collection of English language studies of the role of small and medium enterprises in economic development.

10.2  Collection of reports, articles and notes in Chinese and English on TVE development early 1980s to early 1990s.

10.3  Collection of reports, articles and notes in Chinese and English on TVE development early to mid 1990s.

10.4  Set of articles and reports on rural enterprise financing and development from 1999-2000.

Series 11: Rural land ownership

With the introduction of land contracting after 1978, the issue of property rights over rural land in China became complicated. The laws stated that rural land was owned collectively by the villages and that the only transfer of land ownership could take place when the state purchased the land at a price determined by the original land use. On the other hand, the farmers had land use rights, those rights could be inherited, and they could also be contracted to others or transferred. As urban development accelerated, the transfer and development of rural land became a major source of revenue for developers and local governments. This led to many conflicts and also to debates over the nature of property rights, the need to protect farmers' interests and the possibility of privatizing rural land ownership. Given the significance of the issue for the rural economy, this collection of materials related to a range of topics studied by the Chinese Economy Research Unit.

11.1  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 1983-1991.

11.2  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 1992-1993.

11.3  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 1994.

11.4  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 1995.

11.5  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 1996.

11.6  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 1997-1999.

11.7  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2000-2003.

11.8  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2004.

11.9  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2005.

11.10  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2006.

11.11  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2007.

11.12  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2008.

11.13  Collection of Chinese journal articles, internal essays and newspaper reports on land ownership and transfers, 2009.

Series 12: Papers, posters and unofficial publications collected during the Cultural Revolution

During the first year of the Cultural Revolution, Watson was working in Xi'an. He collected a number of Red Guard papers and posters, and a number of collections of unofficial publications of speeches and articles by Mao Zedong.

12.1  Collection of about 40 copies of Red Guard newspapers, mainly from Beijing and including some from Xi'an, Tianjin and Shanghai; and about 20 Red Guard flyers (cyclostyled sheets that were distributed in the streets), all dating from 1966 and 1967.  These are examples of the type of materials circulating informally in China at that time.

12.2  Miscellaneous materials on developments during the Cultural Revolution:

  • Chronology of Events November 1965 to September 1968, together with a listing of the membership of Revolutionary Committees in each province.  Current Background (American Consulate General Hong Kong, No. 863, 1 October 1968.
  • Collection of Documents about the Cultural Revolution issued by Party and central government authorities. Current Background (American Consulate General Hong Kong, No. 852, 6 May 1968.
  • Booklet of caricatures of the 'Gang of Four', Guangxi Daily, undated, 12 pp.
  • Booklet of caricatures of Lin Biao and Confucius, Guangxi Renmin Chubanshe, 1974, 28 pp.

12.3  Collections of unofficial publications of speeches and writings by Mao Zedong and other leaders.  These collections were assembled from unofficial sources by Red Guard groups and widely circulated.  Many shared similar titles:

  • Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui (Long Live Mao Zedong Thought). April 1967.  This includes 17 pieces dating from 1956 to 1967, in Chinese.
  • Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui (Long Live Mao Zedong Thought). April 1967.  This includes 61 pieces dating from 1934 to 1966, in Chinese.
  • Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui (Long Live Mao Zedong Thought). August 1969, 716 pp.
  • Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui (Long Live Mao Zedong Thought). 1967, 279 pp.
  • Chairman Mao on Revolution in Education, (pieces dated from 1927 to 1967), 20 pp. Current Background (American Consulate General Hong Kong, No. 888, 22 August 1969, in English.
  • Long Live Mao Zedong Thought, speeches and writings 1929-1966, 80 pp.  Current Background (American Consulate General Hong Kong, No. 891, 8 October 1969, in English.
  • Long Live Mao Zedong Thought, speeches and writings 1956-1967, 52 pp.  Current Background (American Consulate General Hong Kong, No. 892, 21 October 1969, in English.
  • Jing Qing Tongzhi Jianghua Xuanbian (Selected Speeches by Comrade Jiang Qing),  1966-1967, Shanghai, Renmin Chubanshe, 1968, internal distribution only, 82 pp, in Chinese.
  • Zhongyang Shouzhang Zhongyao Jianghua (Important Speeches by Central Leaders), speeches by various leaders including Lin Biao, Zhou Enlai, Kang Sheng, Yao Wenyuan Jiang Qing and Chen Boda at rallies in Beijing in March 1968, produced by Red Guards of Renmin University, April 1968, 96pp, in Chinese.

Series 13: Pension reforms for rural-to-urban migrant workers in China

From 2008 to 2011, Watson was engaged by AusAID to manage a project on the development of old-age insurance schemes for rural-to-urban migrant workers in China.  The project involved research on the migrant workers and their needs, on the reform and development of the pension system in China, on the Australian experience in public policy for old-age retirement incomes, and on the options for reform in China.  The results were presented at conferences in China and published in journals and books.  This collection brings together research reports, newspaper clippings and field notes related to that project.

13.1  Papers, news clippings and reports on old-age pension reform and the implications for migrant workers, including: "Current pension and its reform in the transition China", Yuan-Zhu Ding, 2002; "The new rural social pension insurance programme of Baoji City", Zhang Wenjuan & Tang Dan, 2008, and "Reforming pensions to ensure equitable and adequate retirement incomes in China, Xuejin Zuo, c2014, plus many other articles dating from 1999-2014.  (2 folders)

13.2  Studies of healthcare reforms and migrant workers, including: "Ageing and health-care expenditure in urban China", Xin Meng and Christine Yeo, 2005; "Elder parent health and the migration decision of adult children: Evidence from rural China", John Giles and Ren Mu, 2005, and "Housing and health care deprivations of migrant populations in China: A report to the Asia Development Bank, Xiulan Zhang and Go Ying, 2007, etc., dating from 2003-2007. (1 folder)

13.3  Collected papers, news cuttings, reports and articles on the development of migrant labour in China, including: "The settlement intention of China's floating population in the cities..." Yu Zhu and Wenzhe Chen, 2009; "Beyond large-city-centred urbanisation: In situ transformation of rural areas in Fujian Provence", Yu Zhu, 2002; "China's 'tidal wave' of migrant labour: What can we learn from Mexican undocumented migration to the United States?", Kenneth Roberts, 1997; "Towards a more civil society: Mingong and expanding social space in reform-era China", Ling Li, 2001; "The human tide sweeps into cities", David Lague, 2003; "China migration country study", Huang Ping and Frank Pieke, 2003; "Population, migration and the Lewis Turning Point in China", Kam Wing Chan, undated; "Background of China's urbanization: Speed, size and institutional characteristics", Du Yang, 2006, etc., dating from 1992-2009. (3 folders)

13.4  Government policy documents on experiments with developing an old-age pension system for migrant workers, such as "The reform and development of employment injury insurance in China, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, undated, plus many others in Chinese dating from 2004-2008. (1 folder)

13.5  Report on the progress of an EU aid project for migrant workers: "Appraising the patterns of social security for migrant workers at present stage in China", Autumn 2008. (1 folder)

13.6  Documents and field work notes from provincial governments on local age pension policies for migrant workers.  Papers date from 2008-2014 and are from Zhejiang, Shaanxi, Fujian, Ningbo, Beijing, Henan, Hunan, Guangdong and Wuxi. (2 folders)

Series 14: China field notes

China field notes from 1971-1998 (arranged chronologically)

14.1  Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding, Tour of China, 3-27 April 1971. Self-binding portfolio of typed tour notes. Includes information about people met and places visited, such as: The Peasant Institute in Canton; Sha-chiao People's Commune on the Canton Delta; Kwangtung Teacher's College; Shanghai Machine Tools Plant; Sian Art and Handicraft Factory, and many others.

14.2  La Trobe University teachers and students tour of China, 10-27 May 1976.  Brown paper folder of typed and handwritten notes of experiences and places visited, such as Kirin Comprehensive university; Shenyang Traditional Medical College; Central Institute for National Minorities; The Great Wall of China; Kwangchow Teachers' College, etc. Includes an itinerary and lists of tour group members.

14.3  China tour, mostly through Kweilin, Shanghai and Soochow city, 7-21 December 1977.  Photocopies of typed notes on places visited, including: Kwangchow PingPong Ball Factory; Blue Lion Power Station; Kweilin Red Guard Primary School; Shanghai Machine Tool Plant; Fudan University; Hungkou District People's Court; Soochow Silk Embroidery Research Institute; Tungpeiwang People's Commune, and others.

14.4  WEA tour of China, September 1978.  Photocopies of typed notes on places visited, including: Guangxi Teacher Training College; Hunan Silk Embroidery Factory; Shaoshan Irrigation District: Wuhan University; Wuhan Iron and Steel Company; Renhe Commune, and others.

14.5  Documentation related to a rural survey conducted in the northern Chinese province of Hebei, near Beijing, in Nov-Dec 1979. Includes application for initial support to the Australasian Research Grants Committee "Rural development planning and people's communes in China..."; proposed itinerary for the rural survey; correspondence related to the project, and typewritten reports of interviews held and places visited. (3 folders)

14.6  Field notes and completed survey forms re Wugong Commune, Hebei, 1979

14.7  Field notes and completed survey forms re Shandong Province rural survey, 1979. (3 folders)

14.8  Field notes and completed survey forms re Xiyou Commune, Shandong, 1979

14.9  Folders and notebooks of field notes re Shaanxi, Hubei (Sep-Oct 1981) and Fenghuo Village (1983, 1987, 1988) 

14.10  Handwritten field notes, "Significant points from 1984 survey", taken during 1984 visit to Hubei, Beijing, Hebei and Shandong,

14.11  Completed questionnaires for rural households in China village survey, Ling County, Shandong Province, August 1987.  Includes Watson's printed report on the visit from 14 April - 2 May 1987. (2 folders)

14.12  Ling County survey notes and background materials on Dezhou Prefecture, mostly from August 1987.  Includes "Impressions of Ling County, Dezhou Prefecture, Shandong Province", August 1987; "Notes on Ling County from a presentation by Liu Yuquan, Deputy Magistrate on 18 August 1987"; Ling County statistical data; brochures on Dezhou and Dezhou Prefecture; map of the area; typewritten notes "The general situation of Dezhou Prefecture"; "Shandong: Lingxian background notes", plus notes and statistical data from the household survey, Lingxian, Shandong, 1984.

14.13  Completed questionnaires for August 1987 households survey in Beijing (Huairou County and Fanggezhuang) and Shandong (Ling County). (2 folders)

14.14  Beijing rural marketing interviews, August 1988.  Includes printed notes on Agricultural Bank of China; Industrial and Commercial Bureau, Beijing; Prices Bureau, Beijing, and Development Institute, Rural Development Centre, Beijing.

14.15  Shaanxi Province (Yulin) wool survey documents, August-September 1988.  Includes notes from an interview at Yulin Animal Husbandry Bureau; Hengshan County notes; Wan Jia Yan Village and Ma Huang Liang Township notes; No.1 Wool Processing Factory notes; Cashmere Carding Factory notes; No.2 Fine Wool Factory notes, and Yulin Carpet Factory notes.  Also, statistical data on Yulin animal products, grain acreage, etc.

14.16  Shandong (Ling County) township and village enterprise survey notes, September 1988.  Includes interviews with Zhou Jingqing, Deputy Head of Prices Bureau; Li Guo Dong, Head of Production Dept., Ling County Rural Enterprise Bureau; Zhang Tiejun, Head of Rural Credit Dept. of the Agricultural Bank of China; Cui Tianjun, Ling Xian Financial Bureau, among others.

14.17  Shandong (Ling County) field work notes, from research visit to China 14-30 September 1989.  Contents include "Agricultural policy developments in Beijing", "Two views of current macro issues" and "Rural enterprise in Ling County".

14.18  Documentation related to AusAID Xinjiang sheep and wool project, including "Design mission", November 1989; "Baseline survey", September-October 1991, and "Marketing survey", July 1992.

14.19  Records of interviews for the AusAID vegetable marketing project, November 1990.

14.20  Printed document "CAS/State Planning Commission: Natural Resources Survey Commission", 25 May 1991.

14.21  China grain marketing survey reports, March 1993, August 1994 and June 1994.  Also, undated article "Grain purchases and sales in China: the evolution from plan to market", Tang Renjian, translated by Watson, plus correspondence and contract between MacMillan Press, Waston and Christopher Findlay re publication of "Food security and economic reform: the challenges facing China's grain marketing system", 1996-97.

14.22  Wool survey, Beijing, June 1993. Includes information about production, handling and marketing, consumer demand, imports, subsidies etc.

14.23  Milk industry interviews, Beijing, November-December 1995. Includes information about supply and demand, processing, ownership, etc.

14.24  Shaanxi Province interviews, July 1996. Contents include provincial policy-makers, Xi'an City policy-makers, SASS economics, Hanzhong Government, Langao County (Angkang), Ankang Prefecture, Yulin Prefecture and notes from Jiao.

14.25  ADB project documentation, 7-16 August 1997. Includes township and village enterprises (TVEs) interviews and printed notes "Survey of Jiangsu Province", undated.

14.26  Rural finance survey notes, Shijiazhuang Jiaoqu Hebei, June 1997 and rural finance interviews, 1998.

14.27  Printed field notes, Shaanxi, February 1998. Contents include the Baoji Electric Bulb Factory; Shaanxi Structural Reform Commission; Five Rings Group Limited Liability Co. (cotton textile mill); Shaanxi General Trade Union, and Xi'an Labour Bureau.

14.28  Printed notes "Australian Studies review visit", April 1997. Includes itinerary and background information on the places (mostly universities) visited.  Printed notes "AusAID EFT project mission", July 1998. Includes interviews with Chinese officials and informants and Australian and bilateral informants.

Series 15: Notebooks

15.1  Set of three notebooks from 1984 with handwritten notes about the Chinese provinces of Anhi, Hebei (Wugong) and Shandong, covering subjects such as incomes, the economy, housing, agricultural development, etc.

15.2  1987 notebook detailing conferences attended and visits to China. Includes notes from the Chinese University of Hong Kong "Open Door Conference."

15.3  Set of three 1988 notebooks with various handwritten research notes and one brochure, labelled "1988 July Gansu AusAID Grasslands."

15.4  Notebook with various handwritten research notes from the Australian Academy visit, 21 November 1995.

15.5  Notebook with various handwritten research notes from the State Education Commission (SEdC), 6 April 1998.

Series 16: Scrapbooks of newspaper cuttings

Five large (25 x 37 cm) scrapbooks filled with news cuttings, 1967-1970 and 1974. Articles include:

Loyalty wavers in Mao's Army; Civil war looms for China after big army split; Wuhan now in throes of armed struggle; Peking plea for army support; Anti-Mao upsurge in east China; Peking demonstrators set fire to British Embassy buildings; Tibetans flee Red Guard terror; China bars exit of Britons in Peking; Artillery battle on Sikkim border: Indian troops killed in clash with Chinese; Revolution puts Mao back ten years; Violence flares up again in Canton: Anti-Maoists burn buses; Chinese infiltrate into Burma, plus many others.

Mao's men in control of Wuhan; Conflict of the world's two ideological civilizations; 400 die in Kwangsi fights; Canton students fight troops: 47 die in university fire; Chinese seize 40 more Hongkong junks; Mao's influence flounders against student tide; Families split in China migration drive; New constitution marks Mao's victory; Signs of a change in China's foreign policy; plus many others.

Moscow marchers damage Chinese Embassy; Russians ready for Peking siege; Soviet paper calls Mao 'a Hitler'; Lin Piao declared Mao's successor; Peking wants tighter grip on intellectuals; Under construction, a new Chinese missile plant... and the first published picture of a Chinese nuclear bomb factory; China builds road in Kashmir; Russian and Chinese forces prepare for war; Heavy casualties in Sino-Soviet border clash; China accused of terror in Inner Mongolia; Russia mobilizing for nuclear war, Peking says, plus many others.

China tells people to be prepared for war; Hanoi plea for unity among communists; China's most powerful nuclear explosion; Russians arrive in Peking for border talks; Peking welcomes purged professors; Hong Kong: Affluent society creates new outlook, plus many others.

Military attacked in Chinese poster war; Wall poster campaign intensifies against Peking municipal authorities; Peking wall poster story of girl's persecution; Hoses used on Peking women in wall poster episode; Cultural Revolution tactics banned by Peking leaders; Peking posters allege fraud in timber industry; Peking poster attacks Buddhist statuettes; Mao's nuclear arsenal, plus others.  Also includes a number of loose-leaf articles, in German, and a reprint "The campaign against Confucianism" from Asian Analysis, January 1974.

Series 17: Map of Xi'an
(1 item housed in Strong Room Map Cabinet)

Shaanxi sheng Cehuiju Bianzhi, Xi’an Shi Ditu, printed at 544 factory, Xi’an 1980, 3 sheets (Internal Use Publication).

[Shaanxi  Province Survey and Mapping Bureau (Ed), Map of Xi’an City, 
陕西省测绘局编制, 《西安地图》, 544厂印制, 西安, 1980, 三张, (内部用图)。]

Lee Hayes
24 April 2015
(Updated December 2018)

University Library

Barr Smith Library
South Australia 5005


Phone: +61 8 8313 5224