Dr Frank Reith
Frank Reith obtained
a PhD in 2006 from the Australian National University, Australia, for his
pioneering work on the geomicrobiology of gold. From 2007 to 2015 he was an ARC
Research Fellow at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University
of Adelaide. In March 2015 he was appointed as senior lecturer in The School of
Biological Sciences. Since 2004 his laboratory is co-located in CSIRO Land and
Water at the Waite Research Institute. He is a member of the Environment Insitute (EI), The Sprigg Geobiology Centre and the Institute for Mineral and Energy Resources (IMER) at the University of Adelaide. His research aims to
understanding the interactions of microorganisms and trace metals in surface
environments. He is leading multidisciplinary research projects aimed at
uncovering the fundamental mechanisms of geobiological and geochemical cycling
of gold and other heavy/noble metals in surface environments
Office phone: +61 8 8303 8469
Further information can
be found on his blog:
APPOINTMENTS AND EMPLOYMENT
– present Senior Lecturer (Level-C) in the School of
Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide.
- 2007 –
present Visiting researcher at CSIRO Land and Water, Program 2,
Environmental Contaminant Mitigation and Technologies, Waite Laboratories,
- 2007 –
present Visiting Academic at South Australian Museum, as part of the
Mineralogy, previously (2007-2014) Minerals, Microbes and Solutions group
co-headed by Pring, Brugger and Reith.
- 2010 –
2015 ARC – Australian Research Fellowship, “Geomicrobiology of
Platinum Group Elements”, held at The University of Adelaide (geology and
Geophysics) and CSIRO Land and Water, Australia.
- 2007 –
10 ARC Australian Postdoctoral Fellowship (Industry, APDI),
‘Geomicrobiology of Gold’, held at The University of Adelaide, Australia.
- 2005 –
07 CSIRO-Postdoctoral Research Fellow held at CSIRO Exploration and Mining
and CSIRO Land and Water ‘Geomicrobiology of base metal and gold deposits
in semi arid and arid Australia’, Waite Laboratories, Adelaide, Australia.
Visiting Researcher at the RSES Australian National University (ANU),
Ph.D. in Quaternary and Regolith Sciences, Research School of Earth
Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
M.Sc. by research (50 %) and coursework (50 %), Ecological Microbiology
and Geo-ecology, The University of Bayreuth, Germany.
B.B.A., Marketing and Economics, The University of Bayreuth, Germany.
B.Sc., Geoecology, The University of Bayreuth, Germany
Awards & Achievements
- 2014 Keynote address: From little things big things grow – what
about gold nuggets? Australian Earth Science Convention, Newcastle,
- 2013 Invited speaker: Biogeochemical cycling of Au and Pt –
Integrating field Studies, micro-analyses and molecular biology’;
Goldschmidt Conference, Florence, Italy.
- 2011 Keynote address: The Geomicrobiology of Gold: Fundamental
processes to industrial applications; Goldschmidt Conference, Prague,
- 2006 CRC LEME Award for contributions to the regolith geosciences
from 2001 to 2006
- 2006 Robert Hill Memorial Prize given out by the Research School of
Earth Sciences at the Australian National University for outstanding
postgraduate research and research communication.
- 2004 Bicentennial Gold Endowment88/2004, awarded by the Australian
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, AUSIMM, for research into the “Geomicrobiology
- 2003 Taylor & Eggleton Award for overall excellence at the CRC
LEME REGOLITH Conference 2003.
- 2002 – 06 Australian Government International Postgraduate Research
Scholarship (IPRS): covering the tuition fees for international students
- 2002 – 05 ANU Ph.D.-Scholarship: Suppling a living allowance during
the Ph.D. project
- 2002 – 05 CRC LEME Ph.D.-Scholarship: Suppling a top-up of the ANU
As a geomicrobiologist,
geochemist and geoecologist I am used to studying processes from different perspectives,
i.e., from genes/proteins to cells and ecosystems and from nano-particles to
biominerals and rock formations through deep time to now. With my focus on
noble metals my research is at the nexus between fundamental process understanding
and biomedical as well as biomining applications. Therefore, I
am passionate about teaching our students how different perspectives of the
world can be integrated to find innovative solutions to contemporary problems.
Dr. Carla M. Zammit (2011
- 13); now at the University of Queensland. Project: Development and testing of
whole-cell biosensor for gold and assessment of microbial communities
associated with auriferous environments.
Angelica Rea (November
2014 - present). Project: Biologically mediated transformations of gold in
temperate and tropical environments.
Sahar S. Shar (current,
August 2012 - present). Thesis: Mobility and biomineralisation of platinum.
Nicole Wiesemann (current,
2010 - present). Thesis: Biochemical mechanism of gold resistance and
detoxification in Cupriavidus metallidurans
Christine Ta (completed,
2009 - 13), Thesis: The speciation of gold in mine wastes and natural waters.
(completed, 2008 - 13). Thesis: Cupriavidus metallidurans and the
biomineralisation of gold
MSc and BSc Hons
Andrew Hennessey (2015).
Project: 3-D printing of Ca-carbonate precipitating bacteria.
Sahar S. Shar (completed
MSc., 2010 - 12). Thesis: Microbial mechanisms of gold and platinum
solubilisation and precipitation.
Paige Sawley (completed
2014). Thesis: Supergene gold transformation: Secondary and nano-particulate
gold from Northern Finland.
Lachlan Stewart (completed
2011). Thesis: Mobilisation Features and Environmental Mobility of Gold across
Rebecca Pohrib (completed
2011). Thesis: Exploration Geomicrobiology – Developing bio-indicator
technology for mineral exploration.
(completed 2008). Thesis: Solubilization of gold by bacterial metabolites.
2013-14 Mineral exploration under cover - in
the Minerals Tertiary Education Council (MTEC) and Minerals Geoscience Honour’s
Program the University of Adelaide - 1 week field course.
2013 BRSIII - Basins, Sediments and Regolith III
(University of Adelaide, Geology and Geophysics)
2012 LPEII - Landscape Processes and Environments
II (University of Adelaide, Geology and Geophysics)
2008-11 EGA 3 -
Environmental Geoscience Applications III (University of Adelaide, Geology and
Frank Reith is geomicrobiologist and geochemist interested in
the geomicrobial processes that affect metal cycling and the formation of new
minerals. In turn, he also studies how microbes are affected by elevated
concentrations of heavy metals in these environments. His particular interests
lie in the biomediated cycling of noble/heavy metals, e.g., gold, platinum,
uranium, osmium and iridium. The fundamental processes understanding created in
a range of ARC funded project is used to develop tools for industry, e.g.,
biosensors and bioindicators for mineral exploration. Recently, he has become
involved in ecotoxicology and forensic research projects. His approach has always
been highly multidisciplinary with techniques from and publications in the
fields of geomicrobiology, (meta)genomics, microbial ecology, engineering, micro-analyses,
geochemistry, geology and synchrotron science.
Nationally competitive funding
F (Australian Research Fellow and project leader), Ball A, Fein J. (2010-15).
ARC Discovery Project and ARF Fellowship, DP1093238. The geomicrobiology and
(bio)geochemistry of platinum, palladium and rhodium; $630K. Platinum,
palladium and rhodium are extremely rare precious metals, which are widely used
in the petroleum- and automotive industries. This project aims to establish the
fundamental understanding of (bio)geochemical and geomicrobial processes
leading to the dispersion and accumulation of these metals in soils, sediments
and biota overlying mineralisation. Hence, the project provides data required
for successful exploration in Australia. In addition, it also provides critical
data for environmental and health risk assessments by establishing
biogeochemical transformation pathways of highly reactive Pt-, Pd- and Rh
particles emitted from catalytic converters.
F (project leader), Brugger J, Shapter J, Lenehan C, Pring A (2011-2014) ARC
Linkage Project LP100200102. Development of Biosensors and Bio-indicators for
gold exploration and processing in Australia; $960K Metal-resistant bacteria
thriving in gold-bearing zones use specific genetic and biochemical mechanisms
to control gold mobility, precipitation and biomineralisation. Using
state-of-the-art transcriptomic and proteomic approaches allows us to
characterise the genes and proteins involved, and construct revolutionary new
gold-specific biosensors for in-field gold quantification with sub-ppb
sensitivity. In combination with novel (micro)-analytical techniques and field-
and geochemical studies, we will create the mechanistic understanding of gold
distribution and speciation in solution and solid materials enabling mineral
explorers to extract, detect and quantify Au in sample materials in the field
utilising the biosensor technology.
J, Reith F (project leader, APDI), Shapter J, Pring A (2007-2010) ARC Linkage
Project LP0669007. The geomicrobiology of gold; $590K. Microorganisms living in
Australian soils mediate the dispersion and concentration of gold close to
mineralisation. However, the organisms responsible, the physiological and
biochemical mechanisms involved, the solubilisation and precipitation kinetics,
and the nature of the transported gold are unknown. By identifying these
organisms and the physiological and biogeochemical processes involved using
novel analytical techniques and molecular biology approaches we will create a
quantitative understanding of biogeochemical cycling of gold, which may
facilitate the construction of sensitive biosensors specific to gold that can
be used for mineral exploration, and the development of ore-processing
techniques using microorganisms.
Large collaborative and international
D, Falconer DM, Reith F (leader of geomicrobiology and next generation
sequencing), 2013-16. Gold growth in situ: nanoparticles to nuggets. Royal Soc.
of New Zealand- Marsden Grant UOO1313; $630K.
A, Bissett A, Mele P, Reith F (key-collaborator, University of Adelaide), Lowe
A. et al., 2011-2016. Biome of Australian soil environments. Bioplatforms,
National Framework Dataset Program; $4.5M.
DH, Grosse C, Reith F (leader geomicrobiology and synchrotron approaches,
2010-14. Bacterial interaction with precious metals Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
(DFG) Ni262/11-1. $200K.
Access to major facilities grants
Australian Synchrotron (Australian Synchrotron, AS); XFM; to Brugger, Li,
Reith, Etschmann Distribution and Speciation of Arsenic and Germanium in
Australian Ores. (XFM, 4 days, Nov. 2014).
AS; XFM; Experimentalists: Reith, Brugger, Etschmann Metalloproteomics of
Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.
AS #4464; XFM; Experimentalists: Reith, Brugger, Etschmann, Lombi, Donner;
Biomineralisation of gold - nano-XANES imaging of gold in bacterial cells, soil
organics and clays.
European Synchrotron Research Facility (ESRF); 20 24337 ID22; Experimentalists:
Reith, Brugger, Etschmann: Biomineralisation and speciation of gold in
individual cells of the metallophilic bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans
incubated with three gold(I)-complexes. Funding: AS_IA094_ESRFSC-2954, $11,900.
AS #2830; XFM; Experimentalists: Reith, Brugger, Etschmann: Field-based
biosensors for gold exploration: Understanding the distribution and association
of Au in auriferous soils, calcrete and other weathered materials.
AS092; XFM; 1307; Experimentalists: Reith, Brugger, Etschmann:
Biomineralisation of gold in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans - SXRF-mapping
and µ-XANES on individual bacterial cells.
Advanced Photon Source (APS; Chicago) /PNC-CAT Experimentalists: Reith,
Schmidt-Mumm, Hough, Brugger: The formation of anomalous gold in carbonate in
the Australian regolith – Mapping the role of microbiota.
EC231, ID22, ESRF. 12 shifts, Assessment of gold bioaccumulation in individual
cells of the metallophillic bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans.
Experimentalists: Reith, Brugger, Etschmann. AMRF funding 07/08-S-12, $12,000.
ME110507, APS/2ID-E and 2ID-D: Fundamental mechanisms of gold bioaccumulation
by the metallophillic bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans (6 shifts 2ID-D, 12
shifts 2ID-E) Experimentalists: Reith, Brugger, Etschmann. ASRP funding, 06/07
SSRL, Stanford University; to Reith: Fundamental mechanisms of gold
bioaccumulation by the metallophilic bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans. AMRF
funding, 06/07-S-45, $4,400.
APS (2-ID-D SRI-155): Mechanisms of gold bioaccumulation by the metallophillic
bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans, Experimentalists: Reith, Lombi, Brugger,
Additional research funding was awarded from Primary Industries
and Regions SA, CSIRO Land and Water and Minerals Down Under Flagships, The
South Australian Museum, Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape,
Environments and Mineral Exploration, The Institute for Mineral and Energy
J, Reith F, Southam G (2015, invited) Using TEM in geomicrobial research.
Analytical Geomicrobiology – A handbook of instrumental techniques. eds.
D. Alessi, H. Veerimani, J. Kenney; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
CM and Reith F (2013) Gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus
metallidurans. Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins eds. V. N. Uversky, R. H.
Kretsinger, E. A. Permyakov. Springer, Berlin, Germany. DOI
F, Dürr M, Welch S, Rogers SL (2008) The geomicrobiology of the regolith,
In: Scott K. and Pain CF. (eds.) Regolith Geoscience. CSIRO Press
Melbourne Australia (accepted for publication 15.11.2007).
F, Rogers SL (2007) Exploration Geomicrobiology – The New Frontier. In: C.
Dunn, Handbook of Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry 9:
Biogeochemistry in Mineral Exploration. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The
- Craw D,
Kerr G, Reith F, Falconer D.M. (2014, accepted 10.10.14) Pleistocene
paleodrainage and placer gold redis-tribution, western Southland, New
Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics.
G, Reith F, Etschmann B, Brugger J, Southam G (2014, accepted 30.11.14).
Surface transformations of platinum grains from New South Wales,
Australia. American Mineralogist.
- Ta C,
Reith F, Brugger J, Pring A, Lenehan C (2014). Analysis of
gold(I/III)-complexes by HPLC-ICP-MS demonstrates gold(III) stability in
surface waters. Environmental Science and Technology 48, 5737-5744.
CM, Brugger J, Southam G, Reith F (2014). In situ recovery of uranium—the
microbial influence. Hydrometallurgy 150, 236-244
- Weiland F, Zammit CM, Reith F, Hoffmann P (2014). High
resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of native proteins.
Electrophoresis 35, 1893-1902.
F, Campbell SG, Ball AS, Pring A, Southam G (2014) Platinum in Earth
Surface Environments. Earth-Science Rev. 131, 1-21.
HR, Collinson DM, Li J, Mutch LA, Perrot FA, Rea SM, Reith F, Watkin
E.L.J. (2014) Bioleaching of a low-grade copper ore, linking leach
chemistry and microbiology. Minerals Engineering 56, 35-44.
F, Brugger J, Zammit CM, Nies DH, Southam G (2013). Geobiological Cycling
of Gold: From Fundamental Process Understanding to Exploration Solutions.
Minerals 3, 367-394.
CM, Quaranta D, Gibson S, Zaitouna AJ, Ta C, Brugger J, Lai RY, Grass G,
Reith F (2013) A Whole-Cell Biosensor for the Detection of Gold PLoS ONE,
8 (8), art. no. e69292.
N, Mohr J, Grosse CM, Herzberg M, Hause G, Reith F, Nies DH (2013)
Influence of copper resistance determinants on gold transformation by
Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34. J. Bacteriol. 195, 2298-2308.
J, Etschmann B, Grosse C, Plumridge C, Kaminski J, Paterson D, Shar SS, Ta
C, Howard DL, de Jonge MD, Ball AS, Reith F (2013). Can biological
toxicity drive the contrasting behavior of platinum and gold in surface
environments? Chemical Geology 343, 99-110.
L, Etschmann B, Brugger J, Shapter J, Southam G, Reith F (2013). Biomineralization
of gold in biofilms of Cupriavidus metallidurans. Environ. Sci. Technol.
AR, Reith F, Lehmann B, Brugger J, Meinhold G, Tupinambá M, Kwitko-Ribeiro
R (2012) Anatase nanoparticles on supergene platinum-palladium aggregates
from Brazil: revealers for titanium mobility in natural waters. Chemical
Geology 334, 182-188.
F, Zammit CM, Rogers SL, McPhail DC, Brugger J (2012). Potential
utilization of micro-organisms in gold processing: A Review. Transaction
of the Institutions of Mining And Metallurgy 121, 251-260.
F, Brugger J, Zammit CM, Gregg AL, Goldfarb KC, Andersen GL, Desantis TZ,
Piceno YM, Brodie EL, Lu Z, He Z, Zhou J, Wakelin SA (2012). Influence of
geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian
soils. The ISME Journal 6, 2107-2118.
F, Stewart L, Wakelin SA (2012) Supergene gold transformation: Secondary
and nano-particulate gold from southern New Zealand. Chemical Geology 320,
CM, Cook N, Brugger J, Reith F (2012) Gold mining: Future technologies
driven by bacteria, MESA Journal 65, 18-20.
L, Brugger J, Shapter J, Laird JS, Southam G, Reith F (2012) Supergene
gold transformation: Biogenic secondary and nano-particulate gold from
arid Australia. Chemical Geology 320, 17-31.
CM, Cook N, Brugger J, Ciobanu CL, Reith F (2012) The future of
biotechnology for gold exploration and processing. Minerals Engineering
SA, Anand RR, Reith F, Gregg AL, Noble RRP, Goldfarb KC, Andersen GL, Desantis
TZ, Piceno YM, Brodie EL (2012). Bacterial communities associated with a
mineral weathering profile at a sulphidic mine tailings dump in arid
Western Australia FEMS Microbiology Ecology 79, 298-311.
S, Anand RR, Macfarlane C, Reith F, Noble R, Rogers S (2012) Assessing
microbiological surface expression over an overburden-covered VMS deposit.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112, 262-271.
- Reith F
(2011) Life in the deep subsurface. Geology 39, 287-288.
F, Etschmann B, Dart RC, Brewe DL, Vogt S, Schmidt Mumm A, Brugger J
(2011) Distribution and speciation of gold in biogenic and abiogenic
calcium carbonates – Implications for the formation of gold anomalous
calcrete. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 1942-1956.
F, Fairbrother L, Nolze G, Wilhelmi O, Clode PL ,Gregg A, Parsons JE,
Wakelin SA, Pring A, Hough R, Southam G and Brugger J., 2010. Nanoparticle
factories: Biofilms hold the key to gold dispersion and nugget formation.
Geology 38, 843-846.
G, Reith F, Qualls C, Ali A-M, Spilde M, et al. (2010) Bacterial
Deposition of Gold on Hair: Archeological, Forensic and Toxicological
Implications. PLoS ONE 5, e9335.
J, Pring A, Ryan C, Reith F, Etschmann B, Liu W, O’Neill B, Ngothai Y
(2010) Probing ore deposits formation: new insights and challenges from
synchrotron and neutron studies. Radiation Phys. Chem. 79, 151-161.
G., Lengke MF, Fairbrother L, Reith F (2009) The biogeochemistry of gold.
Elements 5, 303-307.
F, Etschmann B, Grosse C, Moors H, Benotmane MA, Monsieurs P, Grass G,
Doonan C, Vogt S, Lai B, Martinez-Criado G, George GN, Nies D, Mergeay M,
Pring A, Southam G, Brugger J, (2009). Mechanisms of gold
biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans. Proceeding
of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 106, 17757-17762.
L, Shapter J, Pring A, Southam G, Brugger J, Reith F (2009) Effect of the
cyanide-producing bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum on ultraflat gold
surfaces. Chemical Geology 265, 313-320.
F, Wakelin S., Gregg, A.L. Schmidt Mumm A. (2009) A microbial pathway for
the formation of gold anomalous calcrete. Chemical Geology 258, 315-326.
F., Rogers S.L. (2008) Assessment of bacterial communities in auriferous
and non-auriferous soils using genetic and functional fingerprinting.
Geomicrobiology J. 25, 203-215.
F, Lengke MF, Falconer D, Craw D, Southam G (2007) Winogradski Review –
The geomicrobiology of gold. ISME Journal 1, 567-584.
F, McPhail DC (2007) Microbial influences on solubilisation and mobility
of gold and arsenic in regolith samples from two gold mines in semi-arid
and tropical Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica. Acta 71, 1183-1196.
Mumm A, Reith F (2007) Calcrete genesis at the gold anomaly of the Barns
prospect, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Journal of Geochemical
Exploration 92, 13-33.
F, Rogers SL, McPhail DC, Webb D (2006) Biomineralization of Gold:
Biofilms on bacterioform gold. Science 313, 233-236.
F, McPhail DC (2006) Effect of resident microbiota on the solubilization
of gold in soils from the Tomakin Park Gold Mine, New South Wales,
Australia, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 1421-1438.
F, McPhail DC, Christy AG (2005) Bacillus cereus, gold and associated
elements in soil and regolith samples from Tomakin Park Gold Mine in
south-eastern New South Wales. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 85,
F, Drake HL, Kuesel K (2002) Anaerobic activities of bacteria and fungi in
moderately acidic conifer and deciduous leaf litter. FEMS Microbial
Ecology 41, 27-35.
Conference Proceedings (selection)
J, Reith F, Southam G (2014) Biogeochemical cycling of gold: Nano-particle
formation and accretion. Goldschmidt 2014, Sacramento, USA.
F, Zammit CM, Reith F, Hoffmann P (2014) High resolution two-dimensional
electrophoresis of native proteins up to 1.2 MDa. Lorne Proteomics
- Reith F
(2014) Biogeochemical cycling of gold and platinum – An integrative
micro-analytical approach ICONN ACMM Symposium 2014, Adelaide, Australia.
J, Zammit CM, Reith F; Southam G (2014) Biogeochemical cycling of gold: an
F; Shuster J, Zammit CM, Southam G (2014) Keynote: From little things big
things grow – What about gold nuggets AESC Convention Newcastle.
J, Mei Y, Reith F, Etschmann B, Fiorentini M, Barnes S. (2014) Palladium
transport in aqueous fluids http://ima2014.professionalhosting.co.za/IMAConference/
C.M., Li K., Etschmann B., Brugger J., Reith F. (2013) Geobiology of In
Situ Uranium Leaching Advanced Materials Research 825, 372-375.
F, Zammit C, Nies DH, Southam G, Brugger J. (2013) Biogeochemical cycling
of Au and Pt – Integrating field Studies, micro-analyses and molecular
biology. Mineralogical Magazine Goldschmidt spec. edition p. 204
F., Grosse C., Brugger J., Nies D.H. (2013) Microbial toxicity determines
the environmental mobility of gold and platinum FEMS Symposium Leipzig Germany.
CM, Cook N, Ciobanu CL, Brugger J, Reith F (2013) Prospective
Biotechnologies: Future Applications in Gold Exploration and Processing.
World Gold 2013 The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy,
Carlton Victoria Australia, pp.233-247.
F, Grass G, Zammit C., Southam G., Brugger J (2011) The Geomicrobiology of
Au: From Fundamental Processes to Industrial Applications. Mineralogical
Magazine Goldschmidt spec. edition p. 1707
F, Ta C, Etschmann B, Lenehan C Brugger, J. (2011) Mobility of Platinum
and Gold in the Australian Regolith – Spectroscopic and Electron
Microscopic Analyses. Mineralogical Magazine Goldschmidt spec. edition p.
G, Reith F, Maclean L, Southam G, 2011. The weathering of platinum from
nuggets and platinum immobilisation by Cupriavidus metallidurans
Mineralogical Magazine Goldschmidt spec. edition p. 615.
- Reith F
Etschmann B, Brewe DL, Vogt S, Brugger J (2010) The distribution of gold
in biogenic and abiogenic carbonates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73,
A1087-A1087 Supplement: Suppl. S.
Reith F, Pring A., Wakelin SA, Brugger J (2010) The Role of Bacteria in
Mobilisation and Deposition of Gold” 13th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium
2010, ‘GIANT ORE DEPOSITS DOWN-UNDER’. Symposium Proceedings, p. 293.
F, Etschmann B, Brewe DL, Vogt S, Brugger J (2009) The distribution of
gold in biogenic and abiogenic carbonates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
73, A1087-A1087 Supplement: Suppl. S.
Fairbrother L, Shapter J, Pring A, Southam G, Brugger J, Reith F (2009)
Effect of the cyanide-producing bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum on
ultraflat gold surfaces. J Geochem Explor. 101, p. 32.
J, Pring A, Reith F, Etschmann B, Weihua L. (2009) Towards molecular-level
understanding of geochemical processes in mineral exploration. Journal of
F, Rogers SL, McPhail DC, Brugger J (2007) Potential for the utilisation
of micro-organisms in gold processing. In: Avraamides, J., Deschenes G.,
Tucker, D. (Eds): World Gold 2007, The Australasian Institute of Mining
and Metallurgy, Carlton Victoria Australia, pp. 67-74.
F, Schmidt Mumm A (2007) Microbially mediated formation of gold in
calcrete anomalies in Australia. Geochmica et Cosmochinica Acta 71 (15):
A831-A831 Suppl. S.
McPhail DC, Usher A, Reith F (2006) On the mobility of gold in the
regolith: Results and implications from experimental studies, in Regolith
2006 – Proceedings CRC LEME Regolith Symposium (Eds: R. W. Fitzpatrick and
P. Shand), p. 386-
F, Rogers SL (2006) Bioaccumulation and secondary gold nugget formation
Geochmica et Cosmochinica Acta 70 (18): A526-A526 Suppl. S.
F, Rogers SL Schmidt Mumm A. (2006). Exploration geomicrobiology – The new
frontier. In: R.W. Fitzpatrick and P. Shand Eds., Regolith 2006
Proceedings CRC LEME Regolith Symposium, CRC LEME, 291-295.
F., Rogers S. (2005) The influence of micro-organisms on the dispersion
and concentration of gold in Australian soils. In: Book of Abstracts and
CD, 8th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements,
(8th ICOBTE) Adelaide, 3-7 April 2005. CLW. p. 564-565.
- Reith F
(2005) Contribution of plants and microbiota to the biologically mediated
turnover of gold at the Tomakin Park Gold Mine in New South Wales,
Australia. In: Roach I.C. ed. 2005. Regolith 2005 – Ten Years of CRC LEME.
CRC LEME, pp. 260-264.
F, Rogers SL (2004) Gold flakes and the art of molecular bioscience. In:
Roach, I.C. Ed., Regolith 2004, CRC LEME, 291-295.
- Reith F
(2004) Microbially mediated mobilisation and precipitation of gold in
Australian soil and regolith. Geochmica et Cosmochinica Acta 68 (11):
A198-A198 Suppl. S.
Reith F, McPhail DC (2004) Evidence for a geomicrobiologically mediated
gold cycle in soil and regolith in Eastern Australia. In: 17th Australian
Geological Convention Conference Proceedings, p. 115.
Mumm A., Reith F., (2004) The biogeochemistry of calcrete forming
processes. In: Roach, I.C. (ed.) Regolith 2004, CRC LEME, p. 315-319.
F. (2003) Evidence for a microbially mediated gold cycle in Australian
soil and regolith – a literature review. In: Roach, I.C. Ed., Advances in
Regolith, CRC LEME, 336-341.
- Reith F
(2002) Interactions of microorganisms with gold in regolith materials from
a gold mine near Mogo in southeastern New South Wales. In: Roach, I.C.
(ed.): Regolith and Landforms in Eastern Australia, CRC LEME, p. 107-110.
F, Kuesel K, Drake HL (1999) Comparative assessment of anaerobic
activities of leaf and conifer Litter, Biospectrum (special edition), p.
in revision, under review and in preparation:
F, Zammit CM, Pohrib R, Gregg AL, Schmidt-Mumm A, Wakelin SA (2014,
submitted) Geogenic factors as drivers of microbial community diversity in
soils overlying polymetallic deposits Environmental Microbiology.
F, Zammit CM, Shar SS, Etschmann B, Bottrill R, Southam G, Oberthuer T,
Ball AS, Brugger J (2015, submitted). (Trans)formation of platinum and
osmiridium nuggets: The role of biofilms and biomineralisation. Nature
N., Hause G., Berthold L., Etschmann B., Brugger J., Martinez-Criado G.,
Herzberg M., Dobritzsch D, Baginsky S,Reith F, Nies DH (2014, submitted)
Synergetic gold and copper detoxification at the core of gold
biomineralization Nature Communications
- Ta C,
Brugger J, Pring A, Lenehan CE, Reith F (2014, submitted) Effect of
manganese oxides on the mobilization and speciation of gold. Chemical
C.M., Weiland F., Joël Brugger, Gordon Southam, Peter Hoffmann, Reith F
(2015, in preparation) Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34: proteomic response
to gold and copper. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics.
P., Reith F (2015, in preparation) Supergene gold (trans)formation –
Biofilms, nanoparticulate an secondary gold from northern Finland.
B., Grosse C., Martinez-Criado G., Brugger J., Reith F (2015, in
preparation) Effect of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 on the
transformation of mobile platinum and gold complexes. Chemical Geology.
F, Etschmann B, Southam G, Nolze G, Brugger J (2015, in preparation).
Supergene platinum biomineralisation – The formation history of the
enigmatic nuggets from Corrego Bom Sucesso, Serro, Brazil. Geology.
F, Dart R, Etschmann B., Brugger J., Pring A., Schmidt Mumm A., Cornelis
G. (2015, in preparation) Mobility of gold and platinum nano-particles in
Australian soils. Chemical Geology.
J, Reith F, Southam G (2015, in preparation) Mobility of gold in soils and
sediments of the Kilkivan area, subctropical Queensland, Australia.
- Reith F
(2007) Geomicrobiological investigations at the Jaguar and Teutonic Bore
sites in Western Australia. Report for AMIRA P778 – Predictive
geochemistry in areas of transported cover, 69 p.
- Reith F
(2004) The geomicrobiology of gold in the weathering environment.
Australasian Science 25/6, p. 23-25.
- Reith F
(2003) Relevance of microorganisms for the formation of and the
exploration for gold deposits in the Australian regolith. The AUSIMM
Bulletin 6, p. 60-62.
- Reith F
(2006) The Geomicrobiology of gold – Interaction of bacteria with gold in
Australian soils and deeper regolith materials. Ph.D. thesis, Australian
- Reith F
(1999) Anaerobic activities and anaerobic microbial populations in leaf
and conifer litter from two adjacent sites in central eastern Germany (in
German). M.Sc. thesis, The University of Bayreuth, Germany.
- German Microbiological Society (since 1999)
- European Association of Geochemistry (since 2004)
- Geochemical Society (since 2006)
- Australian Synchrotron XFM-PAC committee (2015)
‘Interviews for Nature concerning gold cycling the
environment, published 2013 as P. Gynne, Microbiology: There's gold in them
there bug, Nature 495 S12–S13
‘Der Kinder Brockhaus’
a children’s encyclopedia in German, Brockhaus Verlag, Guetersloh, Germany.
There’s gold in them there modified bugs, for New
Bacteria Have the Midas Touch, Iran Daily, 20.7.2006.
Tip for Gold Prospectors: Follow the Bacteria, Henry
Fountain for The New York Times, 18.7.2006.
Bakterien machen Gold
zu Nuggets, Der Spiegel Online, 14.7.2006.
mit ihrem Stoffwechsel Gold, Die Welt, 14.7.2006.
Thar's gold in them thar microbes, CNN Online, 13.7.2006.
Goldsucher: Bacterien und Pilze (in German) by Rolf H.
Latusseck for Welt am Sonntag, 25.7.2004.
A corrida do ouro (in Portugese), by Adriana Kuechler for
Superinteressante, April 2004
Gold strike: scientist discovers that bacteria and fungi
build nuggets, by Richard Macey for the Sydney Morning Herald, 28.1.2004, p. 3.
Bugs can bring a golden harvest, by Brandan O’Malley for
the Courier Mail, Brisbane, 28.1.2004.
Minute master builders get gold into shape, by Emma Young
for New Scientist Magazine, 14.2.2004, p. 13.
Scope - Channel 10 kids and teenager science show
ABC Gippsland 16.7.2006
ABC Victoria 17.7.2006
ABC Radio National in ‘The World Today‘ 27.1.2004.
ABC local stations in Ballarat, Rockhampton, Cairns
Eastside Radio (Sydney), in ‘Talking Science’, Feb. 2004.
Entry last updated: Saturday, 4 Mar 2017
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