Professor Michelle Lane

Professor Michelle Lane
  Org Unit Paediatrics and Reproductive Health
  Telephone +61 8 8313 8176
  Location Floor/Room WS5060.01 ,  Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences Building ,   North Terrace

Our Research Group studies the how the oocyte, sperm contribute to the development of the early embryo and how this programs the development of the pregnancy and affects offspring. Using state of the art techniques we are unravelling the biochemical and molecular basis for how a healthy embryo is made. In particular we ae focussing on epigenetic mechanisms including methylation and microRNAs. We also have an interest in embryonic stem cells.

We are at the fore-front of developing fundamental knowledge in oocyte development, spermatogenesis and embryogenesis to both develop new treatment therapies.

We also have a vast translational research program where we use this fundamental knowledge to improve IVF treatment for infertile couples.  We work closely with world-leading IVF units Repromed and Monash IVF. We have several patents and have developed several new treatment regimes for IVF patients including the formation of sequential media and blastocyst development, vitirification and in metabolic assessment of embryos.

Her research group is currently active in understanding how lifestyle factors such as obesity and ageing impact on oocytes, sperm and embryos.


Michelle is an NHMRC Research Fellow, an inaugural Fellow of Reproductive Biology of the SRB, and in 2012 and 2013 her group has one several prizes at International meetings.

She received her PhD in 1996 and has published over 150 peer-reviewed papers, reviews and book chapters. She is internationally recognised for her work in understanding the biology of gametes and embryos and her team are frequently invited to give talks both nationally and internationally.

Our group is very active in student teaching. 

We have several Honours and PhD students in our lab, and graduates from our lab are dotted around the world and Australia continuing to develop their science careers.

  • summer scholarships
  • Honours students
  • PhD students

Current available PhD projects involve:

  • Epigenetic basis of perturbed sperm function caused by obesity
  • Methods to revive an aged egg to improve IVF outcomes.
  • Understanding the role of microRNA in fertilization and embryo development.

    Gamete and Embryo Biology Laboratory

    Basic Research informing Clinical Practice

     Our research team is about studying fundamental biology questions that will directly impact on patient outcomes.

    Our interests are  in exploring the underlying cause of infertility and to develop better treatment strageties to improve the success of human assisted reproductive technologies. We collaborate closely with Repromed, South Australia's largest IVF unit.

    Our research interests include:

    Mammalian Oocyte Biology

    Mammalian Preimplantation Development

    Sperm Biology

    Epigenetic control of early development

    IVF/Assisted Reproduction

    Impact of embryo health on pregnancy and offspring health

    We also have a special interest in obesity and infertility.


    Research Team

    Dr. Michelle Lane (Female and Male infertility and Nutrition/Obesity)

    Dr. Tod Fullston (Molecular/Epigenetic regulation of gametes and embryos) (NHMRC Career Development Fellow)

    Nicole Palmer (Obesity and offspring health/Andrology)

    Lauren Sanderman

    Wan Xian Kang

    Marni Spillane


    Nicole Palmer (PhD Student)

    Sarah Wakefield (PhD student)

    Leanne Pacella (PhD student)


    Clinical Affiliates

    Dr. Deirdre Zander-Fox (Environment and embryos/IVF technology)

    Dr. Hassan Bakos (Male infertility)

    Dr Kathryn Gebhardt (Viability markers for human embryos)


    >150 peer reviewed journal articles; H-factor 47.


    1.            McPherson NO, Bakos HW, Owens JA, Setchell BP, Lane M. Improving Metabolic Health in Obese Male Mice via Diet and Exercise Restores Embryo Development and Fetal Growth. PLoS One 2013; 8:e71459.

    2.            Fullston T, Ohlsson Teague EM, Palmer NO, Deblasio MJ, Mitchell M, Corbett M, Print CG, Owens JA, Lane M. Paternal obesity initiates metabolic disturbances in two generations of mice with incomplete penetrance to the F2 generation and alters the transcriptional profile of testis and sperm microRNA content. FASEB J 2013.

    3.            Campbell JM, Lane M, Vassiliev I, Nottle MB. Use of insulin to increase epiblast cell number: towards a new approach for improving ESC isolation from human embryos. Biomed Res Int 2013; 2013:150901.

    4.            Zander-Fox D, Cashman KS, Lane M. The presence of 1 mM glycine in vitrification solutions protects oocyte mitochondrial homeostasis and improves blastocyst development. J Assist Reprod Genet 2013; 30:107-116.

    5.            Campbell JM, Lane M, Vassiliev I, Nottle MB. Epiblast cell number and primary embryonic stem cell colony generation are increased by culture of cleavage stage embryos in insulin. J Reprod Dev 2013; 59:131-138.

    6.            Palmer NO, Bakos HW, Fullston T, Lane M. Impact of obesity on male fertility, sperm function and molecular composition. Spermatogenesis 2012; 2:253-263.

    7.            Zander-Fox D, Lane M. Media composition: energy sources and metabolism. Methods Mol Biol 2012; 912:81-96.

    8.            Pacella L, Zander-Fox DL, Armstrong DT, Lane M. Women with reduced ovarian reserve or advanced maternal age have an altered follicular environment. Fertil Steril 2012; 98:986-994 e981-982.

    9.            Fullston T, Palmer NO, Owens JA, Mitchell M, Bakos HW, Lane M. Diet-induced paternal obesity in the absence of diabetes diminishes the reproductive health of two subsequent generations of mice. Hum Reprod 2012; 27:1391-1400.

    10.          Campbell JM, Nottle MB, Vassiliev I, Mitchell M, Lane M. Insulin increases epiblast cell number of in vitro cultured mouse embryos via the PI3K/GSK3/p53 pathway. Stem Cells Dev 2012; 21:2430-2441.

    11.          Palmer NO, Bakos HW, Owens JA, Setchell BP, Lane M. Diet and exercise in an obese mouse fed a high-fat diet improve metabolic health and reverse perturbed sperm function. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012; 302:E768-780.

    12.          Bakos HW, Mitchell M, Setchell BP, Lane M. The effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on sperm function and fertilization in a mouse model. International Journal of Andrology 2011; 34:402-410.

    13.          Owens JA, Fullston T, Mitchell M, Palmer N, Bakos H, Lane M. Diet Induced Paternal Obesity Impairs the Metabolic and Reproductive Health of Two Subsequent Generations. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2011; 2:S10-S10.



    16.          Gardner DK, Wale PL, Collins R, Lane M. Glucose consumption by human embryos on day 4 and day 5 is predictive of pregnancy and sex. Human Reproduction 2011; 26:I18-I18.

    17.          Gebhardt KM, Feil DK, Dunning KR, Lane M, Russell DL. Human cumulus cell gene expression as a biomarker of pregnancy outcome after single embryo transfer. Fertility and Sterility 2011; 96:47-U454.

    18.          Bakos HW, Henshaw RC, Mitchell M, Lane M. Paternal body mass index is associated with decreased blastocyst development and reduced live birth rates following assisted reproductive technology. Fertility and Sterility 2011; 95:1700-1704.

    19.          Bakos H, Setchell B, Lane M. SEMINAL PLASMA GLUCOSE AND INSULIN LEVELS ARE ELEVATED IN OBESE MEN. Journal of Andrology 2011:62-63.

    20.          Mitchell M, Bakos HW, Lane M. Paternal diet-induced obesity impairs embryo development and implantation in the mouse. Fertility and Sterility 2011; 95:1349-1353.

    21.          Palmer NO, Fullston T, Mitchell M, Setchell BP, Lane M. SIRT6 in mouse spermatogenesis is modulated by diet-induced obesity. Reproduction Fertility and Development 2011; 23:929-939.

    22.          Fullston T, Mitchell M, Wakefield S, Lane M. Mitochondrial inhibition during preimplantation embryogenesis shifts the transcriptional profile of fetal mouse brain. Reproduction Fertility and Development 2011; 23:691-701.

    23.          Campbell JM, Mitchell M, Nottle MB, Lane M. Development of a mouse model for studying the effect of embryo culture on embryonic stem cell derivation. Stem Cells Dev 2011; 20:1577-1586.

    24.          Wakefield SL, Lane M, Mitchell M. Impaired mitochondrial function in the preimplantation embryo perturbs fetal and placental development in the mouse. Biol Reprod 2011; 84:572-580.

    25.          Mitchell M, Bakos HW, Lane M. Paternal diet-induced obesity impairs embryo development and implantation in the mouse. Fertil Steril 2011; 95:1349-1353.

    26.          Albuz FK, Sasseville M, Lane M, Armstrong DT, Thompson JG, Gilchrist RB. Simulated physiological oocyte maturation (SPOM): a novel in vitro maturation system that substantially improves embryo yield and pregnancy outcomes. Human Reproduction 2010; 25:2999-3011.

    27.          Lopes AS, Lane M, Thompson JG. Oxygen consumption and ROS production are increased at the time of fertilization and cell cleavage in bovine zygotes. Human Reproduction 2010; 25:2762-2773.

    28.          Wu LLY, Dunning KR, Yang X, Russell DL, Lane M, Norman RJ, Robker RL. High-Fat Diet Causes Lipotoxicity Responses in Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Decreased Fertilization Rates. Endocrinology 2010; 151:5438-5445.

    29.          Brown HM, Dunning KR, Robker RL, Boerboom D, Pritchard M, Lane M, Russell DL. ADAMTS1 Cleavage of Versican Mediates Essential Structural Remodeling of the Ovarian Follicle and Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix During Ovulation in Mice. Biology of Reproduction 2010; 83:549-557.

    30.          Fullston T, Mitchell M, Owens J, Palmer N, Bakos H, Lane M. Paternal Obesity Affects Male Offspring's Health and Sperm Function. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2010; 50:22-22.

    31.          Gebhardt K, Feil D, Lane M, Russell D. Predicting Pregnancy Success-Evaluation of Cumulus Cell Gene Expression Following Single Embryo Transfer. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2010; 50:23-23.

    32.          Bell VG, Lane M, Zander-Fox DL. Embryo Compatibility of Common Disinfectants in the Embryology Laboratory. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2010; 50:47-47.

    33.          Gardner DK, Wale PL, Collins R, Lane M. Glucose Consumption by Human Embryos on Day 4 and Day 5 is Predictive of Pregnancy and Sex. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2010; 50:7-7.

    34.          Zander-Fox DL, Mitchell M, Thompson JG, Lane M. Alterations in mouse embryo intracellular pH by DMO during culture impair implantation and fetal growth. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2010; 21:219-229.

    35.          Tremellen KP, Lane M. Avoidance of weekend oocyte retrievals during GnRH antagonist treatment by simple advancement or delay of hCG administration does not adversely affect IVF live birth outcomes. Human Reproduction 2010; 25:1219-1224.

    36.          Schelbach CJ, Kind KL, Lane M, Thompson JG. Mechanisms contributing to the reduced developmental competence of glucosamine-exposed mouse oocytes. Reproduction Fertility and Development 2010; 22:771-779.

    37.          Chin PY, Macpherson AM, Thompson JG, Lane M, Robertson SA. Stress response genes are suppressed in mouse preimplantation embryos by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human Reproduction 2009; 24:2997-3009.

    38.          Hull ML, Nemeth D, Hague WM, Wilkinson C, Liebelt J, Lane M, Feil D. Mitochondrial fatty acid transport enzyme deficiency-implications for in vitro fertilization. Fertility and Sterility 2009; 91.

    39.          Robker RL, Akison LK, Bennett BD, Thrupp PN, Chura LR, Russell DL, Lane M, Norman RJ. Obese Women Exhibit Differences in Ovarian Metabolites, Hormones, and Gene Expression Compared with Moderate-Weight Women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2009; 94:1533-1540.

    40.          Yeo CX, Gilchrist RB, Lane M. Disruption of Bidirectional Oocyte-Cumulus Paracrine Signaling During In Vitro Maturation Reduces Subsequent Mouse Oocyte Developmental Competence. Biology of Reproduction 2009; 80:1072-1080.

    41.          Mitchell M, Schulz SL, Armstrong DT, Lane M. Metabolic and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Early Mouse Embryos Following Maternal Dietary Protein Intervention. Biology of Reproduction 2009; 80:622-630.

    42.          Mitchell M, Cashman KS, Gardner DK, Thompson JG, Lane M. Disruption of Mitochondrial Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Activity in Mouse Blastocysts Impairs Viability and Fetal Growth. Biology of Reproduction 2009; 80:295-301.

    43.          Watkinson RM, Herkenne C, Guy RH, Hadgraft J, Oliveira G, Lane ME. Influence of Ethanol on the Solubility, Ionization and Permeation Characteristics of Ibuprofen in Silicone and Human Skin. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology 2009; 22:15-21.


    45.          Fullston T, Mitchell M, Wakefield S, Filby A, Lane M. Micro-Array Analysis of Fetal Mouse Brain Following Induction of Mitochondrial Dysfunction During Pre-Implantation Embryo Development. Biology of Reproduction 2009:102-102.

    46.          Russell DL, Gebhardt K, Fed D, Robker RL, Lane M. Novel Cumulus Cell Biomarkers of an Oocyte's Potential to Achieve Pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction 2009:91-91.

    47.          Lekamge DN, Lane M, Gilchrist RB, Tremellen KP. Increased gonadotrophin stimulation does not improve IVF outcomes in patients with predicted poor ovarian reserve. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 2008; 25:515-521.

    48.          Bakos HW, Thompson JG, Feil D, Lane M. Sperm DNA damage is associated with assisted reproductive technology pregnancy. International Journal of Andrology 2008; 31:518-526.

    49.          Feil D, Henshaw RC, Lane M. Day 4 embryo selection is equal to Day 5 using a new embryo scoring system validated in single embryo transfers. Human Reproduction 2008; 23:1505-1510.

    50.          Gilchrist RB, Lane M, Thompson JG. Oocyte-secreted factors: regulators of cumulus cell function and oocyte quality. Human Reproduction Update 2008; 14:159-177.

    51.          Wakefield SL, Lane M, Schulz SJ, Hebart ML, Thompson JG, Mitchell M. Maternal supply of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter mechanisms involved in oocyte and early embryo development in the mouse. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008; 294:E425-E434.

    52.          Yeo CX, Gilchrist RB, Thompson JG, Lane M. Exogenous growth differentiation factor 9 in oocyte maturation media enhances subsequent embryo development and fetal viability in mice. Human Reproduction 2008; 23:67-73.

    53.          Lane M, Mitchell M, Cashman KS, Feil D, Wakefield S, Zander-Fox DL. To QC or not to QC: the key to a consistent laboratory? Reproduction Fertility and Development 2008; 20:23-32.

    54.          Wakefield S, Lane M, Mitchell M. Mitochondrial dysfunction of the early mouse embryo increases expression of SNF2 family genes. Biology of Reproduction 2008:132-133.

    55.          Mitchell M, Georgiou A, Cashman K, Stump A, Lane M. Do sirtuin proteins function in the developing mammalian embryo? Biology of Reproduction 2008:134-134.

    56.          Dunning KR, Lane M, Brown HM, Yeo C, Robker RL, Russell DL. Altered composition of the cumulus-oocyte complex matrix during in vitro maturation of oocytes. Human Reproduction 2007; 22:2842-2850.

    57.          Banwell KM, Lane M, Russell DL, Kind KL, Thompson JG. Oxygen concentration during mouse oocyte in vitro maturation affects embryo and fetal development. Human Reproduction 2007; 22:2768-2775.

    58.          Kind KL, Lane M, Thompson JG. Environmental influences during preimplantation embryo development: the role of oxygen. Early Human Development 2007; 83:S34-S34.

    59.          Bakos HW, Thompson JG, Lane M. Sperm DNA damage: Is altered carbohydrate metabolism to blame? Fertility and Sterility 2007; 88:S48-S49.

    60.          Bakos HW, Froiland DA, Thompson JG, Lane M. Elevated glucose levels induce lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2007; 47:A1-A1.

    61.          Feil D, Henshaw R, Lane M. Single embryo transfer on day 4 in unselected patients is a successful alternative to blastocyst transfer. Human Reproduction 2007; 22:I8-I9.

    62.          Lekamge DN, Barry M, Kolo M, Lane M, Gilchrist RB, Tremellen KP. Anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of IVF outcome. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2007; 14:602-610.

    63.          Lane M, Gardner DK. Embryo culture medium: which is the best? Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2007; 21:83-100.

    64.          Banwell KM, Lane M, Russell DL, Kind KL, Thompson JG. Oxygen concentration during in vitro maturation of murine oocytes influences subsequent fetal and placental outcomes. Reproduction Fertility and Development 2007; 19:285-285.

    65.          Dunning K, Lane M, Brown H, Yeo C, Thompson J, Robker R, Russell D. Altered cumulus oocyte matrix following in vitro maturation of oocytes. Biology of Reproduction 2007:199-199.

    66.          Norman RJ, Davies M, Wang J, Lane M. Prevention of multiple gestation in IVF - Introduction to theme. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2006; 46:S14-S16.

    67.          Lane M, Cashman K. Cryoloop vitrification of mouse oocytes and embryos maintains cellular integrity and increases embryo viablility. Transgenic Research 2006; 15:782-782.

    68.          Sheehan CB, Lane M, Gardner DK. The CryoLoop facilitates re-vitrification of embryos at four successive stages of development without impairing embryo growth. Human Reproduction 2006; 21:2978-2984.

    69.          Kelley RL, Kind KL, Lane M, Robker RL, Thompson JG, Edwards LJ. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone alters maternal ovarian hormone concentrations and the uterus and perturbs fetal development in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 2006; 291:E761-E770.

    70.          Thompson J, Lane M. Reply: In unselected patients, elective single embryo transfer prevents all multiples, but results in significantly lower pregnancy rates compared to double embryo transfer. Human Reproduction 2006; 21:2195-2195.

    71.          Gardner DK, Lane M. One-step versus two-step culture of mouse preimplantation embryos. Human Reproduction 2006; 21:1935-1936.

    72.          Clark AR, Stokes YM, Lane M, Thompson JG. Mathematical modelling of oxygen concentration in bovine and murine cumulus-oocyte complexes. Reproduction 2006; 131:999-1006.

    73.          Sutton-McDowall ML, Mitchell M, Cetica P, Dalvit G, Pantaleon M, Lane M, Gilchrist RB, Thompson JG. Glucosamine supplementation during in vitro maturation inhibits subsequent embryo development: Possible role of the of developmental competence. Biology of Reproduction 2006; 74:881-888.

    74.          Feil D, Lane M, Roberts CT, Kelley RL, Edwards LJ, Thompson JG, Kind KL. Effect of culturing mouse embryos under different oxygen concentrations on subsequent fetal and placental development. Journal of Physiology-London 2006; 572:87-96.

    75.          Wang J, Lane M, Norman RJ. Reducing multiple pregnancy from assisted reproduction treatment: educating patients and medical staff. Medical Journal of Australia 2006; 184:180-181.

    76.          Zander DL, Thompson JG, Lane M. Perturbations in mouse embryo development and viability caused by ammonium are more severe after exposure at the cleavage stages. Biology of Reproduction 2006; 74:288-294.

    77.          Herrick JR, Lane M, Gardner DK, Behboodi E, Memili E, Blash S, Echelard Y, Krisher RL. Metabolism, protein content, and in vitro embryonic development of goat cumulus-oocyte complexes matured with physiological concentrations of glucose and L-lactate. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2006; 73:256-266.

    78.          Thompson J, Lane M, Robertson S. Adaptive responses of early embryos to their microenvironment and consequences for post-implantation development. Early Life Origins of Health and Disease 2006; 573:58-69.

    79.          Yeo CX, Gilchrist RB, Thompson JG, Lane M. 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) is present in mouse cumulus oocyte complexes and regulated by growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). Biology of Reproduction 2006:104-104.

    80.          Zander DL, Thompson JG, Lane M. Ammonium impairs mitochondrial function and homeostasis in murine 2-cell embryos. Biology of Reproduction 2006:125-126.

    81.          Robker RL, Minge CE, D Bennett B, Lane M, Norman RJ. Peri-ovulatory Rosiglitazone treatment reverses impaired embryo development associated with obesity. Biology of Reproduction 2006:136-136.

    82.          Mitchell M, Schulz SJ, Hamon R, Armstrong DT, Lane M. The influence of maternal dietary protein supply on oocyte quality and mitochondrial homeostasis of in vivo and in vitro produced mouse embryos. Biology of Reproduction 2006:91-91.

    83.          Gardner DK, Reed L, Linck D, Sheehan C, Lane M. Quality control in human in vitro fertilization. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 2005; 23:319-324.

    84.          Walker DL, Gardner DK, Lane M, Tummon IS, Session DR, Thornhill AR. Cryosystem assessment by glucose uptake of murine blastocysts. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2005; 11:601-607.

    85.          Lane M, Gardner DK. Mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle regulates mouse embryo nutrient consumption. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005; 280:18361-18367.

    86.          Karagenc L, Lane M, Gardner DK. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates mouse blastocyst inner cell mass development only when media lack human serum albumin. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2005; 10:511-518.

    87.          Gardner DK, Lane M. Ex vivo early embryo development and effects on gene expression and imprinting. Reproduction Fertility and Development 2005; 17:361-370.

    88.          Lane M, Gardner DK. Understanding cellular disruptions during early embryo development that perturb viability and fetal development. Reproduction Fertility and Development 2005; 17:371-378.

    89.          Thompson J, Clark A, Froiland D, Stokes Y, Lane M. A "nutrient sparing" hypothesis to explain the nutrition of the immature bovine cumulus-oocyte complex. Biology of Reproduction 2005:173-173.

    90.          Karagenc L, Lane M, Gardner DK. Oestradiol, cyclodextrin-encapsulated 17 beta-oestradiol and the oestradiol solubilizer 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin all impair preimplantation mouse embryo development. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2004; 9:280-286.

    91.          Thompson JG, Feil D, Edwards LJ, Lane M, Kind KL. Mouse fetal development is perturbed by culture in low oxygen concentration that increases expression of oxygen-sensitive genes via hypoxia inducible factors: A non-epigenetic embryonic programming phenomenon? Biology of Reproduction 2004:218-218.

    92.          Lane M, Gardner DK. Ammonium induces aberrant blastocyst differentiation, metabolism, pH regulation, gene expression and subsequently alters fetal development in the mouse. Biology of Reproduction 2003; 69:1109-1117.

    93.          Gardner DK, Hewitt EA, Lane M. Sequential media used in human IVF do not affect imprinting of the H19 gene in mouse blastocysts. Fertility and Sterility 2003; 80:S256-S256.

    94.          Gardner DK, Hewitt EA, Lane M. Ammonium alters gene expression and imprinting of H19 in cultured mouse blastocysts. Fertility and Sterility 2003; 80:S256-S257.

    95.          Lane M, Gardner DK, Hasler MJ, Hasler JF. Use of G1.2/G2.2 media for commercial bovine embryo culture: equivalent development and pregnancy rates compared to co-culture. Theriogenology 2003; 60:407-419.

    96.          Gardner DK, Lane M. Blastocyst transfer. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 2003; 46:231-238.

    97.          Gardner DK, Stilley KS, Lane M. High protein diet inhibits inner cell mass formation and increases apoptosis in mouse blastocysts developed in vivo by increasing ammonium in the female tract. Pediatric Research 2003; 53:47A-47A.

    98.          Gardner DK, Lane M, Stevens J, Schoolcraft WB. Changing the start temperature and cooling rate in a slow-freezing protocol increases human blastocyst viability. Fertility and Sterility 2003; 79:407-410.

    99.          Lane M, Maybach JM, Hooper K, Hasler JF, Gardner DK. Cryo-survival and development of bovine blastocysts are enhanced by culture with recombinant albumin and hyaluronan. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2003; 64:70-78.

    100.        Bavister BD, Kinsey DL, Lane M, Gardner DK. Recombinant human albumin supports hamster in-vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction 2003; 18:113-116.

    101.        Lane M, Maybach JM, Gardner DK. Addition of ascorbate during cryopreservation stimulates subsequent embryo development. Human Reproduction 2002; 17:2686-2693.

    102.        Karagenc L, Lane M, Gardner DK. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates mouse blastocyst ICM development only when culture conditions are suboptimal. Fertility and Sterility 2002; 78:S170-S170.

    103.        Karagenc L, Lane M, Gardner DK. Estradiol, cyclodextrin-encapsulated 17 beta-estradiol and the estradiol solubilizer 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin impair preimplantation mouse embryo development. Fertility and Sterility 2002; 78:S276-S276.

    104.        Schoolcraft W, Lane M, Stevens J, Gardner DK. Increased hyaluronan concentration in the embryo transfer medium results in a significant increase in human embryo implantation rate. Fertility and Sterility 2002; 78:S5-S5.

    105.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Stevens J, Schoolcraft W. Ongoing development of a human blastocyst culture system. Fertility and Sterility 2002; 78:S8-S8.

    106.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Schoolcraft WB. Physiology and culture of the human blastocyst. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 2002; 55:85-100.

    107.        Lane M, Maybach JM, Gardner DK. Ammonium affects ICM development, metabolism, intracellular pH, and fetal growth rates. Biology of Reproduction 2002; 66:104-104.

    108.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Stevens J, Schoolcraft WB. Noninvasive assessment of human embryo nutrient consumption as a measure of developmental potential. Fertility and Sterility 2001; 76:1175-1180.

    109.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Inhibiting 3-phosphoglycerate kinase by EDTA stimulates the development of the cleavage stage mouse embryo. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2001; 60:233-240.

    110.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Stevens J, Schoolcraft WB. Increased human blastocyst viability by changing the start temperature and cooling rate in a slow freezing protocol. Fertility and Sterility 2001; 76:S80-S80.

    111.        Steeves CL, Lane M, Bavister BD, Phillips KP, Baltz JM. Differences in intracellular pH regulation by Na+/H+ antiporter among two-cell mouse embryos derived from females of different strains. Biology of Reproduction 2001; 65:14-22.

    112.        Squirrell JM, Lane M, Bavister BD. Altering intracellular pH disrupts development and cellular organization in preimplantation hamster embryos. Biology of Reproduction 2001; 64:1845-1854.

    113.        Ludwig TE, Lane M, Bavister BD. Differential effect of hexoses on hamster embryo development in culture. Biology of Reproduction 2001; 64:1366-1374.

    114.        Lane M, O'Donovan MK, Squires EL, Seidel GE, Gardner DK. Assessment of metabolism of equine morulae and blastocysts. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2001; 59:33-37.

    115.        Gandhi AP, Lane M, Gardner DK, Krisher RL. Substrate utilization in porcine embryos cultured in NCSU23 and G1.2/G2.2 sequential culture media. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2001; 58:269-275.

    116.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Vitrification of mouse oocytes using a nylon loop. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2001; 58:342-347.

    117.        Lane M. Mechanisms for managing cellular and homeostatic stress in vitro. Theriogenology 2001; 55:225-236.

    118.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Schoolcraft WB. Culture systems and blastocyst development. 2001.

    119.        Johnson AE, Lane M, Gardner DK, Diekman MA, Krisher RL. Changes in follicular fluid environment between 5 mm and 10 mm follicles. Biology of Reproduction 2001; 64:156-157.

    120.        Winger QA, Lane M, Gardner DK. Expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase mRNA isoforms in mouse oocytes and embryos developed in vivo and in vitro. Biology of Reproduction 2001; 64:178-179.

    121.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Blastomere homeostasis. 2001.

    122.        Gardner DK, Lane M. Vitrification - Is it going to replace conventional freezing techniques? ; 2001.

    123.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Schoolcraft WB. Culture and transfer of viable blastocysts: a feasible preposition for human IVF. Human Reproduction 2000; 15:9-23.

    124.        Gardner DK, Lane MW, Lane M. EDTA stimulates cleavage stage bovine embryo development in culture but inhibits blastocyst development and differentiation. Molecular Reproduction and Development 2000; 57:256-261.

    125.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Stevens J, Schlenker T, Schoolcraft WB. Blastocyst score affects implantation and pregnancy outcome: towards a single blastocyst transfer. Fertility and Sterility 2000; 73:1155-1158.

    126.        Lane M, Lyons EA, Bavister BD. Cryopreservation reduces the ability of hamster 2-cell embryos to regulate intracellular pH. Human Reproduction 2000; 15:389-394.

    127.        Gandhi AP, Lane M, Gardner DK, Krisher RL. A single medium supports development of bovine embryos throughout maturation, fertilization and culture. Human Reproduction 2000; 15:395-401.

    128.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Lactate regulates pyruvate uptake and metabolism in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Biology of Reproduction 2000; 62:16-22.

    129.        Hooper K, Lane M, Gardner DK. Toward defined physiological embryo culture media: Replacement of BSA with recombinant albumin. Biology of Reproduction 2000; 62:249-250.

    130.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Regulation of ionic homeostasis by mammalian embryos. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 2000; 18:195-204.

    131.        Gardner DK, Pool TB, Lane M. Embryo nutrition and energy metabolism and its relationship to embryo growth, differentiation, and viability. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 2000; 18:205-218.

    132.        Gandhi AP, Lane M, Gardner DK, Krisher RL. Substrate utilization in porcine embryos cultured in NCSU23 and G1.2/G2.2 culture medium. Biology of Reproduction 2000; 62:251-252.

    133.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Regulation of substrate utilization in mouse embryos by the malate-aspartate shuttle. Biology of Reproduction 2000; 62:252-253.

    134.        Hall-Woods ML, Krisher RL, Lane M, Gardner DK, Asa CS. Comparison of Gardner's G1/G2 sequential media and buffalo rat liver (BRL) cell go-culture for bovine in-vitro embryo production. Biology of Reproduction 2000; 62:316-316.

    135.        Lane M, Schoolcraft WB, Gardner DK. Vitrification of mouse and human blastocysts using a novel cryoloop container-less technique. Fertility and Sterility 1999; 72:1073-1078.

    136.        Lane M, Bavister BD. Regulation of intracellular pH in bovine oocytes and cleavage stage embryos. Molecular Reproduction and Development 1999; 54:396-401.

    137.        Lane M, Ludwig TE, Bavister BD. Phosphate induced developmental arrest of hamster two-cell embryos is associated with disrupted ionic homeostasis. Molecular Reproduction and Development 1999; 54:410-417.

    138.        Lane M, Bavister BD, Lyons EA, Forest KT. Containerless vitrification of mammalian oocytes and embryos - Adapting a proven method for flash-cooling protein crystals to the cryopreservation of live cells. Nature Biotechnology 1999; 17:1234-1236.

    139.        Schoolcraft WB, Gardner DK, Lane M, Schlenker T, Hamilton F, Meldrum DR. Blastocyst culture and transfer: analysis of results and parameters affecting outcome in two in vitro fertilization programs. Fertility and Sterility 1999; 72:604-609.

    140.        Gardner DK, Rodriegez-Martinez H, Lane M. Fetal development after transfer is increased by replacing protein with the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan for mouse embryo culture and transfer. Human Reproduction 1999; 14:2575-2580.

    141.        Lane M, Baltz JM, Bavister BD. Bicarbonate/chloride exchange regulates intracellular pH of embryos but not oocytes of the hamster. Biology of Reproduction 1999; 61:452-457.

    142.        Krisher RL, Lane M, Bavister BD. Developmental competence and metabolism of bovine embryos cultured in semi-defined and defined culture media. Biology of Reproduction 1999; 60:1345-1352.

    143.        Lane M, Baltz JM, Bavister BD. Na+/H+ antiporter activity in hamster embryos is activated during fertilization. Developmental Biology 1999; 208:244-252.

    144.        Lane M, Forest KT, Lyons EA, Bavister BD. Live births following vitrification of hamster embryos using a novel containerless technique. Theriogenology 1999; 51:167-167.

    145.        Ludwig TE, Lane M, Bavister BD. Effect of hexoses on hamster embryo development in culture. Biology of Reproduction 1999; 60:191-191.

    146.        Ludwig TE, Lane M, Bavister BD. Effect of phosphate in culture medium on development and intracellular pH in hamster embryos cultured from the 2-cell stage. Theriogenology 1999; 51:245-245.

    147.        Lane M, Baltz JM, Bavister BD. Regulation of intracellular pH in hamster preimplantation embryos by the sodium hydrogen (Na+/H+) antiporter. Biology of Reproduction 1998; 59:1483-1490.

    148.        Lane M, Bavister BD. Calcium homeostasis in early hamster preimplantation embryos. Biology of Reproduction 1998; 59:1000-1007.

    149.        Lane M, Boatman DE, Albrecht RM, Bavister BD. Intracellular divalent cation homeostasis and developmental competence in the hamster preimplantation embryo. Molecular Reproduction and Development 1998; 50:443-450.

    150.        Gardner DK, Lane M. Culture of viable human blastocysts in defined sequential serum-free media. Human Reproduction 1998; 13:148-159.

    151.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Amino acids and vitamins prevent culture-induced metabolic perturbations and associated loss of viability of mouse blastocysts. Human Reproduction 1998; 13:991-997.

    152.        Gardner DK, Vella P, Lane M, Wagley L, Schlenker T, Schoolcraft WB. Culture and transfer of human blastocysts increases implantation rates and reduces the need for multiple embryo transfers. Fertility and Sterility 1998; 69:84-88.

    153.        Lane M, Bavister BD. Na+/H+ antiporter activity in hamster embryos is initiated during fertilization. Biology of Reproduction 1998; 58:167-167.

    154.        Ludwig TE, Lane M, Bavister BD. Increased fetal development after transfer of hamster embryos cultured with glucose. Biology of Reproduction 1998; 58:167-167.

    155.        Bavister BD, Lane M. Na+/H+ antiporter activity is present in cleavage stage bovine embryos generated by IVM/IVF. Biology of Reproduction 1998; 58:93-93.

    156.        Lane M, Bavister BD. Hamster 2-cell embryos utilise the Na+/H+ antiporter to regulate intracellular pH. Theriogenology 1998; 49:184-184.

    157.        Krisher RL, Lane M, Bavister BD. Influence of semi-defined and defined culture media on the development, cell number and metabolism of bovine embryos. Theriogenology 1998; 49:207-207.

    158.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Nonessential amino acids and glutamine decrease the time of the first three cleavage divisions and increase compaction of mouse zygotes in vitro. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 1997; 14:398-403.

    159.        Gardner DK, Lane M. Culture and selection of viable blastocysts: a feasible proposition for human IVF? Human Reproduction Update 1997; 3:367-382.

    160.        Gardner DK, Lane MW, Lane M. Development of the inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts is stimulated by reducing the embryo:incubation volume ratio. Human Reproduction 1997; 12:P132-P132.

    161.        Gardner DK, Lane M, RodriguezMartinez H. Mouse fetal development after transfer is increased by replacing protein with the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronate for embryo culture. Human Reproduction 1997; 12:O215-O215.

    162.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Differential regulation of mouse embryo development and viability by amino acids. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 1997; 109:153-164.

    163.        Gardner D, Lane M, Kouridakis K, Schoolcraft W. Complex physiologically based serum-free culture media increase mammalian embryo development. 1997.

    164.        Lane M, Gardner DK. EDTA stimulates development of cleavage stage mouse embryos by inhibiting the glycolytic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate kinase. Biology of Reproduction 1997; 56:193-193.

    165.        Gardner DK, Lane M. Alleviation of the 2-cell block in CF1 mouse embryos is associated with an increase in the ATP:ADP ratio and subsequent inhibition of phosphofructokinase. Biology of Reproduction 1997; 56:216-216.

    166.        Vella PJ, Lane M, Gardner DK. Induction of glycolysis in the day-3 mouse embryo by glucose. Biology of Reproduction 1997; 56:26-26.

    167.        Gardner DK, Vella P, Lane M, Wagley L, Schlenker T, Schoolcraft WB. Culture and transfer of human blastocysts increases implantation rates and reduces the need for multiple embryo transfers. Fertility and Sterility 1997:O002-O002.

    168.        Gardner DK, Lane M. Alleviation of the '2-cell block' and development to the blastocyst of CF1 mouse embryos: Role of amino acids, EDTA and physical parameters. Human Reproduction 1996; 11:2703-2712.

    169.        Gardner DK, Lane M. Tubal environment of the embryo - Reply. Fertility and Sterility 1996; 66:670-671.

    170.        Lane M, Gardner DK. Selection of viable mouse blastocysts prior to transfer using a metabolic criterion. Human Reproduction 1996; 11:1975-1978.

    171.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Calderon I, Leeton J. Environment of the preimplantation human embryo in vivo: Metabolite analysis of oviduct and uterine fluids and metabolism of cumulus cells. Fertility and Sterility 1996; 65:349-353.

    172.        Gardner DK, Selwood L, Lane M. Nutrient uptake and culture of Sminthopsis macroura (stripe-faced dunnart) embryos. Reproduction Fertility and Development 1996; 8:685-690.

    173.        Lane M, Gardner DK. REMOVAL OF EMBRYO-TOXIC AMMONIUM FROM THE CULTURE-MEDIUM BY IN-SITU ENZYMATIC CONVERSION TO GLUTAMATE. Journal of Experimental Zoology 1995; 271:356-363.

    174.        Lane M, Gardner DK. GLYCOLYTIC ACTIVITY CAN BE USED TO SELECT VIABLE MOUSE BLASTOCYSTS PRIOR TO TRANSFER. Biology of Reproduction 1995; 52:137-137.



    177.        Gardner DK, Lane M, Batt P. UPTAKE AND METABOLISM OF PYRUVATE AND GLUCOSE BY INDIVIDUAL SHEEP PREATTACHMENT EMBRYOS DEVELOPED IN-VIVO. Molecular Reproduction and Development 1993; 36:313-319.

    178.        Gardner DK, Lane M. AMINO-ACIDS AND AMMONIUM REGULATE MOUSE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN CULTURE. Biology of Reproduction 1993; 48:377-385.



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