Glossary of Mycological Terms
Additional reference: Hawksworth DL, PM Kirk, BC Sutton, DN Pegler. 1995. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the fungi. International Mycologyical Institute.
|Conidia developing at the tip and along the sides of the conidiophore.
|A large, globose, thick-walled conidium, usually produced by Emmonsia (Chrysosporium) parvum, in the lungs of humans and animals.
|Hyphal elements growing above the agar surface.
|Aleurioconidium (pl. aleurioconidia)
|A thallic conidium released by lysis or fracture of the supporting cell.
|Ameroconidium (pl. ameroconidium)
|A one-celled conidium.
|An asexual state of a fungus.
|A specialized conidiogenous cell producing conidia in basipetal succession by a series of short percurrent proliferations (annellations). The tip of an annellide increases in length and becomes narrower as each subsequent conidium is formed.
|Annelloconidium (pl. annelloconidia)
|A conidium produced by an annellide.
|A swelling. The term is primarily applied to the funnel-shaped swelling of a sporangiophore, immediately below the columella, seen in some zygomycetes.
|A type of conidial ontogeny involving the conversion and subsequent disarticulation of a determinant conidiogenous hypha.
|Arthroconidium (pl. arthroconidia)
|A thallic conidium released by either the splitting of a double septum or by the fragmentation or lysis of a disjunctor cell.
|A fruiting body containing asci and ascospores.
|A group of fungi that reproduce sexually by the endogenous formation of ascospores in an ascus.
|Referring to the Ascomycetes.
|A haploid spore produced within an ascus following karyogamy and meiosis.
|Ascus (pl. asci)
|A sac-like cell containing ascospores. Asci are characteristic of the Ascomycetes.
|Lacking septa, often pertaining to the hyphae seen in zygomycetes (also see coenocytic).
|Ballistoconidium (pl. ballistoconidia)
|A conidium that is forcibly discharged.
|A group of fungi that reproduce sexually by the exogenous formation of basidiospores from a basidium.
|A haploid spore produced on a basidium following karyogamy and meiosis.
|Basidium (pl. basidia)
|A cell that gives rise to a basidiospore. Basidia are characteristic of the Basidiomycetes.
|A chain of conidia, the oldest conidium is at the apex and the youngest is at the base.
|A chain of conidia having the youngest cell at the base.
|Blastoconidia developing at the opposite poles of a parent cell.
|Phialides arising from metulae as in the genus Aspergillus.
|Two or rarely three levels of branching directly below the phialides as in the genus Penicillium.
|A form of conidial development where there is a recognizable enlargement or "blowing out" of a conidial initial before being delimited by a septum.
|A chain of conidia having the youngest cell at the tip.
|Blastoconidium (pl. blastoconidia)
|An asexual conidium that forms by a blowing out or budding process.
|A young conidium. Usually used to denote the young blastoconidia of yeasts.
|Asexual multiplication by the production of a small outgrowth or bud from a parent cell.
|A hyaline mucopolysaccharide sheath around the cell wall of certain yeasts e.g. Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula.
|Conidia arranged in chains.
|Chlamydoconidium (pl. Chlamydoconidia)
|A thick-walled, thallic conidium formed within the vegetative hyphae. Chlamydoconidia function as organs of perennation rather than dissemination.
|A specialized hyphal bridge over a septum in the Basidiomycetes.
|Cleistothecium (pl. cleistothecia)
|An enclosed ascocarp containing randomly dispersed asci.
|Infrequently septate, multi-nucleate hyphae as in the Zygomycetes.
|A small collar. Usually, a remnant of a cell wall present at the tip of a phialide, or around a sporangiophore.
|Columella (pl. columellae)
|A sterile dome-like structure at the tip of a sporangiophore or within a sporangium.
|Forming a column.
|A cell that forms conidia.
|A specialized hypha upon which conidia develop.
|Conidium (pl. conidia)
|An asexual reproductive propagule formed in any manner that does not involve cytoplasmic cleavage. Conidia function as organs of dissemination.
|Having a loose and coarse texture.
|Cylindric, having parallel walls and circular cross-section.
|A dark brown, greenish gray or black colour.
|A small projection or peg on which conidia are produced.
|A fungus belonging to the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum, or Trichophyton with the ability to utilize keratin to infect hair, nail and skin.
|The conidiophore does not alter in length after the formation of conidia.
|An artificial subdivision to accommodate those fungi where only the asexual state is known.
|A type of hyphal branching into two equal forks.
|Dictyoconidium (pl. dictyoconidia)
|A conidium with both longitudinal and transverse septa; a muriform conidium.
|Didmoconidium (pl. didymoconidia)
|A two celled conidium.
|Having two different morphological forms.
|An empty cell that fragments and/or undergoes lysis to release a conidium.
|A characteristic septum found in the Basidiomycetes that flares out near the pore to form an elongate channel.
|A two layered septum that may undergo centripetal separation (schizolysis) to release a conidium.
|Having a short and dense mycelial texture.
|A slow growing variant.
|Covered with delicate spines.
|Natural hair invasion by a dermatophyte characterized by arthroconidia on the outside of the hair shaft.
|Spread out, radiate.
|Oval, with a symmetric curve.
|A spore produced within a spherule.
|Natural hair invasion by a dermatophyte characterized by the development of arthroconidia within the hair shaft only.
|Droplets of fluid formed on the surface of a colony.
|Curved like a sickle.
|Fluffy or cottony.
|A basal cell of a conidiophore as seen in Aspergillus and Fusarium.
|Spindle-shaped, tapering toward the end.
|Bent like a knee.
|The initial hypha that develops from a conidium or spore.
|Conidia aggregated in slimy heads at the tip of an annellide or phialide.
|Containing one or more oil droplets.
|Gymnothecium (pl. gymnothecia)
|A non-ostiolate ascocarp composed of loosely interwoven hyphae and containing randomly dispersed asci.
|A fungus that requires mating between two compatible strains for sexual reproduction to occur.
|A scar at the base of a conidium.
|A mode of blastic conidium ontogeny in which all the cell wall layers of the conidiogenous cell are involved in conidium development.
|A mode of thallic conidium ontogeny in which all the cell wall layers of the conidiogenous cell are involved in conidium development.
|A fungus capable of sexual reproduction on a single thallus.
|Thick-walled cells with characteristic thin-walled pores, usually associated with cleistothecia of Aspergillus.
|A prefix meaning hyaline to lightly coloured.
|Hypha (pl. hyphae)
|A single filament of a fungus.
|A class of mycelial moulds which reproduce asexually by conidia on hyphae or aggregations of hyphae.
|Within a hyphal element.
|On the side.
|Shaped like a double convex lens.
|Macroconidium (pl. macroconidia)
|The larger of two different types of conidia produced by a fungus in the same manner.
|Having a conidiophore that is morphologically different from the vegetative hyphae.
|Merosporangium (pl. merosporangia)
|A small cylindrical sporangium with the sporangiospores aligned in a row.
|Metula (pl. Metulae)
|A sterile cell below the phialides of some Aspergillus and Penicillium species.
|Microconidium (pl. microconidia)
|The smaller of two different types of conidia produced by a fungus in the same manner.
|Having a conidiophore that is not morphologically different from the vegetative hyphae.
|Sticky or slimy.
|Blastoconidia developing at different sites on the surface of a parent cell.
|Having several septa.
|A conidium with both longitudinal and transverse septa.
|Mycelium (pl. mycelia)
|The mass of hyphae making up the thallus of a fungus.
|Club-shaped in reverse; the distal region is smaller.
|Pear-shaped in reverse; the distal region is larger.
|An opening or pore in an ascocarp or a pycnidium.
|Like the teeth of a comb.
|A slender stalk.
|A film-like or skin-like surface growth.
|Penicillus (pl. penicilli)
|The brush-like conidiophore of Penicillium.
|Conidiogenous cell growth where a new axis grows through the previous apex.
|The outer wall of an ascocarp.
|Perithecium (pl. perithecia)
|An enclosed ascocarp characterized an apical ostiole and by asci arranged in a basal tuft or hymenium layer.
|A prefix meaning darkly pigmented.
|A specialized conidiogenous cell that produces conidia in basipetal succession without increasing in length.
|Phialoconidium (pl. phialoconidia)
|A conidium produced from a phialide.
|Phragmoconidium (pl. phragmoconidia)
|A conidium having two or more transverse septa.
|Having more than one form.
|Born on the sides of a conidiophore or hyphae.
|Poroconidium (pl. poroconidia)
|A conidium produced through a small pore in a conidiogenous cell.
|A string of elongated blastoconidia formed in some yeasts that resemble a hypha-like filament.
|Pycnidium (pl. pycnidia)
|An asexual fruiting body containing conidia.
|An extension of a sympodial proliferating conidiogenous cell bearing conidia.
|A hypha composed of a number of cells swollen at one end resembling a tennis racquet.
|Retrogressive conidial development
|The conidiogenesis cell becomes shorter during the successive development of conidia.
|A short branching root-like hyphae seen in some Zygomycetes.
|A mass of thick-walled cells formed by the vegetative hyphae that function as an organ of perennation.
|Having a conidiophore that is only slightly morphologically different from the vegetative hyphae.
|Septum (pl. septa)
|A cross wall in a hypha.
|Covered in small spines.
|Sporangiolum (pl. )
|A small sporangium producing a small number of sporangiospores.
|A specialized hypha that bears a sporangium.
|An asexual spore produced within a sporangium.
|Sporangium (pl. sporangia)
|A sac-like structure producing asexual spores endogenously by cytoplasmic cleavage.
|A reproductive propagule formed by either meiosis or mitosis. However, if by asexual means, cleavage of cytoplasm is usually involved.
|Sporodochium (pl. sporodochia)
|A cushion-shaped mass of hyphae bearing conidiophores.
|Sterigma (pl. sterigmata)
|A small pointed structure upon which a basidiospore forms.
|A running hypha from which rhizoids and sporangiospores arise.
|Having lines or minute furrows.
|Not quite round or spherical.
|A mode of conidiogenous cell growth which results in the development of conidia on a geniculate or zig-zag rachis.
|Synnema (pl. synnemata)
|A group of erect conidiophores that are cemented together producing conidia at the apex and/or along the sides.
|The sexual state of a fungus.
|A mode of conidial ontogeny where a conidium is formed from a pre-existing hyphal segment or cell.
|Having swellings at intervals.
|Cut off sharply.
|Having small wart-like structures.
|Phialides arising directly from a vesicle as in Aspergillus.
|Having many warts.
|Having branches arranged in verticils or whorls.
|A swollen cell.
|A thick-walled sexual spore formed by the fusion of two similar gametangia; characteristic of the Zygomycetes.