Laminar Flames

Call for Contributions for ISF-5

In preparation for ISF-5, we need your input to maximize participations and improve our understanding of soot formation by encouraging multiple contributions to modelling and experiments on target flames and reactors.

Following the outcomes of ISF-4, we aim to select target flames that help us investigate critical concepts in soot formation such as 1. Inception, 2. morphology, 3. composition, 4. optical properties, and 5. oxidation. By suggesting target flames and reactors, we aim to encourage multiple modeling contributions as well as measurements for data that is currently missing for the suggested targets. Also, we are including a series of counterflow diffusion flames, flames with real fuels as well as flow reactors as targets in order to expand the envelop of soot formation conditions for modeling and measurements.  

To maximize contributions, the plan is to encourage any simulation and experimental work on the listed targets with a focus on one of the critical concepts. However, in order to keep the workshop focused, we plan to ask all those who provide simulation data to model one main target premixed and one main target counterflow diffusion flame. This way we can compare different models on a standard platform without limiting contributions on other targets.

The criteria for selecting the main flames is availability of data from multiple techniques on soot concentration and morphology that complement each other as well as species concentration measurements.

Some of the suggested flames and reactors are classic targets of the previous ISF workshops. The reason for suggesting each target is briefly explained together with the data that is currently available. The suggested main premixed and counterflow diffusion flames are identified by “ISF-5 main”. Also, premixed and counterflow diffusion flames using real fuels (Jet A) are listed as potential targets.

Please select the targets that you are planning to simulate or collect data for before ISF-5 in 2021. Also, let us know if you can simulate the “ISF-5 main” flames or if you suggest a different flame as “ISF-5 main”.

We look forward to working with all of you to make the ISF-5 a success.

Download information about ISF 5 potential target flames and reactors here.

M Reza Kholghy

On behalf of the Program Leaders for the Laminar Flames Program

We encourage you to simulate or perform experiments on any of the flames listed below.

Note that the target of ISF-4 is the chemical and physical processes of soot particle inception, and the science behind the gas to solid phase transition. Contributions to the Laminar and Pressurised Flames Colloquium of the ISF-4 will be solicited in this area.

Simulations have been performed to provide complete temperature profiles that are in close agreement with the experimentally-measured values. These profiles are highlighted in red in the Excel spreadsheets. Everyone is strongly encouraged to impose these temperature profiles in their calculations.

Call for submissions form for laminar flames.

Laminar Premixed Flames

Co-flow laminar diffusion flame

Laminar pressurised flames and sprays

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  • ISF-4 target flame 2: Laminar diffusion pressurised

    Highest preference in this flame series has the 4 bar case with most comprehensive data available.

    KAUST Diffusion Pressurized This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions (no soot) thus links to Laminar Flames session.

    KAUST diffusion pressurized
    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions (no soot) thus links to laminar flames session.

    Flow and operating conditions:

    • Pressure range for soot volume fraction and particle size: 4 - 16 atm
    • Pressure range for temperature: 1 - 4 atm
    • Pressure range for species: 1 - 16 atm
    • Fuel mass flow: 1.37 mg/s ethylene, 6.41 mg/s nitrogen
    • Co-flow mass flow for fv , D63, and dp : 1.25, 2.51, 4.01, 4.42 g/s air at 4, 8, 12, and 16 atm, respectively
    • Co-flow mass flow for temperature and species: 1.25 g/s for 1-8 atm, 1.32 g/s for 12 and 16 atm

    Dimensions for soot volume fraction and particle size:

    Fuel tube ID is 4.0 mm. The 6.1 mm OD is tapered from 5 mm below fuel nozzle exit to the tip. A 100 ppi carbon foam 8 mm in length is placed inside the fuel nozzle 8 mm below the nozzle tip. The co-flow diameter is 50 mm and contains a honeycomb with 1 mm channels that ends 5 mm below fuel nozzle tip.

    Dimensions for temperature and species:

    Fuel tube ID is 4.0 mm. The 6.35 mm OD is tapered from 5 mm below fuel nozzle exit to the tip. Steel wool is placed inside the fuel nozzle 8 mm below the nozzle tip. The co-flow contains a 100 ppi aluminum foam which ends 5 mm below the fuel nozzle tip. For 1-8 atm, the co-flow diameter is 50 mm, and for 12 and 16 atm, the co-flow diameter is 25 mm.

    Measurements:

    • Soot volume fraction ( fv ) and particle size (D63 and dp ) by line of sight attenuation and scattering. Df = 1.7, kf = 2.4.
    • Temperature by thermocouple measurement, species by gas extraction via quartz probe and GC analysis

    Reference for soot, temperature and species:

    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.11.004

    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.148

    dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.02.034

    Contact:
    Prof. Willam Roberts

    Soot volume fraction measurement

    Temperature measurement by thermocouple(K)

    Species

    Particle size

    Velocity

  • ISF-4 target flame 3: Laminar premixed pressurised 1

    Duisburg premixed pressurised

    Image: Duisburg premixed pressurised

    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions (no soot), thus links to laminar flames session.

    Flow and operating conditions

    Pressure range: 0.1 - 3.0 MPa

    Dimensions:

    Three concentric burner plates (sintered material) for stabilizing a laminar sooting flame in the center shielded by an annular non-sooting rich flame and an air coflow. The housing and the flanges are water cooled. Multiple optical ports allow the application of various optical diagnostics techniques.

    • Diameter of inner burner: 20 mm
    • Diameter of fresh gas tube: 22 mm
    • Diameter of surrounding burner: 26 × 56 mm
    • Diameter of coflow : 60 × 86 mm
    • Detailed 3D-CAD files are available!
    • Visible flame heights: ~ 1 mm
    • Visible sooting exhaust gas height: > 40 mm fixed equivalence ratio of ɸ=2.1
    Duisburg premixed pressurised

    Image: Duisburg premixed pressurised

    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions (no soot), thus links to laminar flames session.

    Measurements:

    • Laser Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII)CMD, fv
    • Excitation @ 1064 nm, detection @ 550/694 nm
    • Laser Extinction @ 785 nm fv
    • Particle Sampling & TEM evaluation CMD
    • Spectrally resolved black body radiation Tgas

    Locations:
    All diagnostics have been applied at 15 mm HAB for 18 different pressures, several additional measurement locations have been studied in addition with some of the diagnostics

    Note: LII signal suffers from attenuation, thus fv determined by LII deviates from that by extinction, being the more reliable measure for increased pressure/soot concentrations

    Fuel:

    • Ethylene (C2H4) for sooting flames
    • non-sooting flames with ethylene, methane, propene
    • other gaseous fuels are possible

    References:

    M. Hofmann, B.F. Kock, T. Dreier, H. Jander, C. Schulz: Appl. Phys. B 90, 629 (2008)

    Data is available on request from the email addresses below:
    Prof. Dr. Christof Schulz
    Dr. Thomas Dreier

  • ISF-4 target flame 4: Laminar premixed pressurised 2

    ISF target flame 2rs

    This data set contains data for atmospheric conditions, thus links to laminar flames session.

    Flow and operating conditions

    Pressure range: 0.1 – 0.5 MPa

    Dimensions:

    The central, sooting flame (ethylene/air) was stabi¬lized above a water-cooled sintered bronze matrix. This flame is surrounded by a non-sooting “shielding flame” of methane/air (varying ɸ). The flames were surrounded by an air coflow. The diameters of the central matrix, shielding matrix, and coflow duct were 41.3 mm, 61.3 mm, and 150 mm, respectively.

    Conditions:

    Pressure: 3 bar
    ɸ = 2.3 (C/O=0.766)
    ɸ = 2.5 (C/O=0.834)

    Pressure: 3 bar
    ɸ = 2.05 (C/O=0.683)
    ɸ = 2.4 (C/O=0.8)

    Measurements:

    • Laser Induced Incandescence
    • Shifted vibrational CARS

    Fuel: Ethylene (C2H4) / air mixture for central flame.

    Flame details

    Experimental data

    References:

    M.S. Tsurikov et al., Comb. Sci. Technol. 177 (2005) 1835-1862

  • ISF-4 other flame 1: Pressurised laminar diffusion C2H6

    Ethylene

    Flow and operating conditions:

    • Pressure range: 0.2 - 3.34 MPa
    • Fuel (ethylene) mass flow: 0.00052 g/s
    • Co-flow mass flow: 0.12g/s for 0.2-2.53MPa, 0.24g/s for 3.04-3.34MPa
    • Visible flame heights: ~ 10 mm

    Dimensions:
    Fuel tube exit is tapered for a distance of 5 mm on both sides. There is sintered foam in the tube prior to the start of the taper.

    • Starting inner fuel tube diameter: 2.29 mm
    • Exit inner duel tube diameter : 3.06 mm
    • Starting outer fuel tube diameter: 4.76 mm
    • Exit outer fuel tube diameter: 3.06 mm

    There is sintered foam in the air tube at a distance of 14.7 mm below the exit plane of the fuel tube.

    • Air tube inner diameter: 25 mm

    Reference for complete burner geometry:
    P. Mandatori , Soot formation in ethane-air coflow laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressures, Master's thesis, University of Toronto,
    Toronto, Canada (2006).

    Measurements:
    Soot volume fraction and temperature by spectral soot emission (SSE) diagnostics.

    Temperature data

    Soot volume fraction data

    Reference:
    Mandatori et al. (2011), Proc. Combust. Inst, 33:577-584

    Contact: Professor Ömer Gülder

  • ISF-4 other flame 2: Pressurised laminar diffusion CH4

    Methane-Air Gülder

    Image: Methane-Air Gülder

    Flow and operating conditions:

    • Pressure range: 1.0 - 6 MPa
    • Fuel (CH4) mass flow: 0.00055 g/s
    • Co-flow mass flow: 0.4 g/s for lower pressures, 0.8g/s for higher pressures
    • Fuel temperature: 294 +/- 3K
    • Air temperature: 294 +/- 3K
    • Visible flame heights: ~ 9 mm

    Dimensions:
    Fuel tube exit is tapered for a distance of 5 mm on both sides. There is sintered foam in the tube prior to the start of the taper.

    • Starting inner fuel tube diameter: 2.29 mm
    • Exit inner fuel tube diameter: 3.06 mm
    • Starting outer fuel tube diameter: 4.76 mm
    • Exit outer fuel tube diameter: 3.06 mm

    There is sintered foam in the air tube at a distance of 14.7 mm below the exit plane of the fuel tube.

    • Air tube inner diameter: 25 mm

    Reference for complete burner geometry:
    P. Mandatori , Soot formation in ethane-air coflow laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressures, Master's thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (2006)

    Measurements:
    Soot volume fraction and temperature by spectral soot emission (SSE) diagnostics.

    Download the data file.

    References:

    • D.R. Snelling et al. AIAA Journal, Vol. 40, No. 9, September 2002
    • H.I. Joo et al. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 32, 2009, pages 769-775
    • M.R.J. Charest et al., Combustion and Flame, Vol. 158, 2011, pages 860-875

    Contact: Professor Ömer Gülder