Turbulent Flames

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  • ISF-5 target flame 1: Adelaide jet flames 1-6

    Adelaide jet flame



    • Nozzle internal diameters: 4.4 mm, 5.8 mm, 8.0 mm

    Flow conditions:

        Bulk jet exit Reynolds number: 5,000; 8,000; 9,000; 15,000
        Bulk jet exit strain rate (s-1): 4,100; 7,500; 12,900

    More information about the flames:

    Contact: Professor Bassam Dally

  • ISF-5 target flame 2: Sandia flame

    Sandia flame


    • Nozzle internal diameter = 3.2 mm
    • Inner wall thickness = 0.65 mm
    • Pilot outer diameter = 19.1 mm
    • Outer wall thickness = 1.95 mm

    Fuel jet: Ethylene

    Pilot: Ethylene/air at equivalence ratio of 0.9 and thermal power of 2%

    Flow conditions

    • Fuel average jet velocity = 54.7 m/s
    • Co-flowing air mean velocity = 0.6 m/s
    • Exit Reynolds number = 20,000
    • Fuel temperature = 294 K


    • Soot volume fraction by LII
    • Simultaneous soot volume fraction and temperature with 3-line soot pyrometry
    • OH PLIF
    • PAH PLIF
    • Radiant emission

    Data files

    1. Current processed soot concentration data files (mean and rms)
    2. Temperature-OH-PAH-Radiation data

    Further information

    View more information about the turbulent ethylene target flame.

    View more information about the geometry and measurements techniques.

    View a publication that provides additional information about the burner design and operation.

    Contact: Chris Shaddix

  • ISF-5 target flame 3: Adelaide bluff body flames 1-4

    bluff body flame

    Dimensions: Nozzle internal diameter: 3.6 mm; Bluff body diameter: 50.0 mm

    Fuel jet: Flames 1-3 ethylene-hydrogen: flame 4 LPG

    Flow conditions: Bulk jet exit Reynolds number: ~30,800

    Summary: Download an overview of the 4 flames and available data.

    Data files: Data for intermittency and average value of soot volume fraction is available for each flame.

    Contact email: Professor Bassam Dally

  • ISF-5 target flame 4: swirled pressurised

    Image: Schematics of burner

    Image: Schematics of burner


    • Swirl nozzle diameter = 19.8 mm (outer air flow)
    • 60 fuel channels of 0.5x0.4 mm2 on an annulus of approx. 13.5 mm diameter
    • Suite of 16 flames of varying operating conditions, reference case of highest preference is at 3 bar, equivalence ratio 1.2 with oxidation air

    Fuel: Ethylene

    • Absolute pressure range: 1 – 5 bars
    • Exit Reynolds number various
    • Fuel mass flow 2-65 slm
    • Air mass flow 31-870 slm
    • Ox. air mass flow 0-350 slm
    • Fuel temperature 293 K
    • Air temperature 293 K
    • Power 2-65 kW
    Swirled burner pressurized

    Soot volume fraction by LII, temperature by CARS, OH distribution by OH LIF, velocity distribution by PIV, in addition OH* chemiluminescence and soot luminosity.

    • Computational grid available
    • View more details on the measurements

    Data are reported for example by:

    K.P. Geigle et al., J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136, 021505, 2014, doi 10.1115/1.4025374

    K.P. Geigle et al., Proc. Combust. Inst. 2014, doi 10.1016/j.proci.2014.05.135

    C. Eberle et al., AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA 2014-3472, 28.-30.07.2014, Cleveland, USA

    K.P. Geigle et al., Appl. Phys. B. 2015, doi 10.1007/s00340-015-6075-3

    Data is available on request from Klaus-Peter Geigle

  • ISF-5 other flame 1: Delft Adelaide flame

    Delft flame

    Dimensions: Nozzle diameter = 6 mm; Primary air annulus diameter = 45 mm

    Main jet: Natural gas (approx. 81% CH4, 14% N2)

    Pilot: The pilot burns a premixture of C2H2/H2/air.

    Flow Conditions: Ujet=21.9 m/s, Uann=4.4 m/s, Ucoflow=0.3 m/s

    Scalar Measurements in the base of the flame: Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements of F, T, major species, CO, OH, and NO were obtained in the TDF lab at Sandia. Accuracy of some species measurements in some locations is limited by high levels of fluorescence interference from soot precursors. CARS temperature measurements and OH PLIF imaging, performed at TU Delft, have also been reported for this flame. Time resolved OH PLIF imaging, using the system at Lund University, has also been done. References are in the documentation file.

    Contact: Dr Dirk Roekaerts

    Velocity Measurements: Velocity measurements were obtained at the Delft University of Technology.

    Contact: Dr Dirk Roekaerts

    Soot Measurements: Measurements of soot volume fraction were obtained at the University of Adelaide, as reported by Qamar et al. (2009), Combustion and Flame, 156, 1339-1347.

    Download a copy of the data

    Contact: Prof Bassam Dally

  • ISF-5 other flame 2: DLR lifted ethylene jet flame

    DLR ethylene jet flame

    Dimensions: Nozzle diameter = 2.0 mm; Co-flow air annulus diameter = 140 mm

    Fuel jet: Ethylene

    Absolute ambient pressure: 959-981 mbar
    Exit Reynolds number: 10 000
    Fuel mass flow: 10.4 g/min
    Air mass flow: 320 g/min
    Fuel temperature: 297 ±5 K
    Air temperature: 311 ±5 K
    Mean fuel jet velocity: 44 m/s
    Power: 8.7 kW
    Lift-off height: 23 mm

    Measurements: temperature by CARS, Simultaneous OH* and soot volume fraction by LII, Simultaneous velocity by PIV and soot volume fraction by LII, mixture quantification upstream of ignition by Raman scattering.

    View more details on the measurements.

    Data is reported by:
    Köhler et al. (2011), Applied Phys. B, 104:409-425.
    Köhler et al. (2012), Combust. Flame, 159: 2620–2635

    Data is available on request from: e-mail: Markus Koehler or Klaus-Peter Geigle.

  • ISF-5 target flame 5: Adelaide Bluff-body flame

    bluff-body flame

    Dimensions: Nozzle internal diameter: 4.6 mm; Bluff body diameter: 38 mm (ENB_1), 50 mm (ENB_2), 64 mm (ENB_3)

    Flow conditions: Bulk jet exit Reynolds number: 15,000 for all flames

    Summary: An overview of the three flames is provided in a one page PDF document.

    Data files: Data for flowfield and soot volume fraction is available for each flame:

    Contact email: Professor Bassam Dally