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It is increasingly clear that genetics alone do not explain risks of developing allergies, and that environmental exposures before and around birth can program individuals to increased or decreased risk of allergies. Restricted growth before birth in preclinical studies appears to protect the offspring against allergic responses. However, whether prenatal growth predicts subsequent risk of allergy in humans is unclear. Many studies in humans use birth weight as a measure of fetal growth, but do not correct for gestational age, so effects of premature birth may confound those of fetal growth.