PUB HLTH 7105TB - Diseases of Occupation

Thebarton Campus - Semester 1 - 2015

This course offers a broad introduction to occupational health and safety. It will address the relationships between work, work processes and work exposures, and the occurrence of disease and injury. The nature, extent and distribution of work-related death, disease and injury will be considered, with special emphasis on the Australian environment. An important aim is to encourage a critical attitude towards health and safety issues, so that students will learn to evaluate problems and formulate appropriate preventive measures on the basis of scientific principles. The elective includes an industrial visit.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code PUB HLTH 7105TB
    Course Diseases of Occupation
    Coordinating Unit Public Health
    Term Semester 1
    Level Postgraduate Coursework
    Location/s Thebarton Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Internal & external mode
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange N
    Restrictions Available to Grad Cert, Grad Dip, M OH&S students only
    Course Description This course offers a broad introduction to occupational health and safety. It will address the relationships between work, work processes and work exposures, and the occurrence of disease and injury. The nature, extent and distribution of work-related death, disease and injury will be considered, with special emphasis on the Australian environment. An important aim is to encourage a critical attitude towards health and safety issues, so that students will learn to evaluate problems and formulate appropriate preventive measures on the basis of scientific principles. The elective includes an industrial visit.
    Course Staff
    Course Coordinator: Mr Paul Rothmore
    Phone: +61 8313 3568
    Email: paul.rothmore@adelaide.edu.au
    Location: Level 7, 178 North Terrace

    Learning & Teaching Team
    Phone: +61 8313 2128
    Email: postgrad_enq@adelaide.edu.au
    Location: Level 7, 178 North Terrace
    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 Demonstrate knowledge of the types of disease which can arise from work.
    2 Identify the ways in which physical agents in the work environment can affect human health.
    3 Identify the ways in which chemical agents in the work environment can affect human health.
    4 Apply a critical and systematic approach to the evaluation of the association between occupational hazards and disease.
    5 Apply a critical and systematic approach to the evaluation of the association between occupational hazards and injury.
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1-3
    The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 3,4
    An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 4,5
    Skills of a high order in interpersonal understanding, teamwork and communication. 1, 4, 5
    An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1 ,4 ,5
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    The following will be required.

    Levy BS, Wegman DH, Baron S, and Sokas R.  Occupational and Environmental Health: recognizing and preventing disease and injury. Sixth edition. 2011. Oxford University Press. Available from Unibooks.  Cost approx. $95.95.

    A set of readings will be provided on MyUni with material relevant for each topic.
    Recommended Resources
    You will need to access public sites such as SafeWork Australia (formerly the Australian Safety and Compensation Council); the   International Agency for Research on Cancer, and WorkCover (SA). The web addresses are:
    http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/
    www.iarc.fr
    www.workcover.com/
     
    Medline is accessible on the Adelaide University library website.  You need to enter your barcode from your student card. Note that barcode ends with an upper case letter, so that if it ends in I or O this is a number not a letter. For your user name type in your  surname in upper case.

    Medline is at www.library.adelaide.edu.au/

    To access and make efficient use of Medline, you should refer to the instruction at the following site:
    http://www.adelaide.edu.au/library/guide/med/pubhealth/local.html

    Pubmed is the free version of Medline and is available at:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi

    An example of a search strategy may also be found at:
    http://www.adelaide.edu.au/library/guide/med/pubhealth/pubstud.html
     
    SCOPUS
    Scopus is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature and web source. It is available on the University
    of Adelaide website at the following link:
    http://www.scopus.com/home.url
     
    CISDOC
    The CISDOC database is a collection of bibliographic information on occupational safety and health matters. It is does not contain  the full text but has sufficient information in order to locate these documents, as well as an abstract of each of them. CISDOC can be accessed at the following URL:
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/cisdoc/index_html
     
    NIOSH Tic-2
    NIOSHTIC-2 is a bibliographic database of all research reports supported in whole or in part by the US National Institute for  Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSHTIC2 can be accessed at the following URL:
    http://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/default.asp
     
    Other Resources

    International Labour Organisation, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety is a useful reference - http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english/

    Journals:
    Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health

    Occupational Health and Safety (Australia and New Zealand)

    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (US), (formerly the Journal of Occupational Medicine).

    Occupational and Environmental Medicine (formerly the British Journal of Industrial Medicine).

    Environmental Health Journal

     State of the Art Reviews - Occupational Medicine is a useful series of monographs, each covering an important topic e.g. shiftwork, construction safety and health, health hazards of farming, violence in the workplace, worksite health promotion, the mining  industry, hazardous waste workers etc.  Individual issues can be borrowed from the Department of Public Health.  The Barr Smith  Library of the University of Adelaide has started receiving this series, but they do not have any pre-1992 issues.

    NB. Don’t be intimidated by the references to “medicine”.  Most of the literature in these journals does not require medical  knowledge, in spite of the journal titles!
     
    Legislation. The Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act, supporting regulations and workers’ compensation legislation can be obtained from the WorkCover web site http://www.workcover.com/

    Some Codes of Practice, e.g. Workplace Hazardous Substances are available through this source, but some, e.g. Manual Handling, are not.  However you can get the model code of practice, on which codes in the various States are based, at the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission website http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/

    Hunter’s Diseases of Occupations is a valuable reference, but is prohibitively expensive.  A copy (9th Edition) has been placed on  reserve in the University of Adelaide Library.
    Online Learning
    This is an online course. All course-related material is available through MyUni where you will also find Announcements related to this   course and Discussion Boards where you will submit assignments and conduct discussions with your fellow students. Copies of  presentations will be uploaded during the semester. MyUni is accessed by entering the The University of Adelaide website and then    selecting the MyUni tab (bottom right-hand corner) or by following this link - https://myuni.adelaide.edu.au/webapps/login/. You will then be prompted to enter to username and password.
  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    As an online course much of the contact you have with fellow students and staff will be via MyUni You will be assigned to one of three online discussion groups to which you will submit your written assignments (with the exception of the Major Assignment). Following  submission of your assignment there is a period where you will have the opportunity to read, and provide constructive comment, on  the work of your fellow Discussion Group members. Participants in this course have a wide range of backgrounds and this is your  opportunity to gain an insight into different problem-solving perspectives (and remember your contribution is assessable).
    Workload

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.  The University expects full-time students (i.e. those taking 12 units per semester) to devote a total of 48 hours per week to their studies. This means that, for this course, you are expected to commit approximately 12 hours per week to private study. Lectures for  locally-based students are offered by industry experts during the Semester. Students are encouraged to attend where possible.  Attendance should be considered as part of the suggested 12 hour study commitment per week.
    Learning Activities Summary
    Week Topic Lecture
    Week 1 Orientation Orientation
    Literature Searching
    Course expectation and questions
    Week 2
    Scientific Method
    Health Hazards
    Causation of Disease
    Hazardous Chemicals – Conceptual Framework
    Week 3
    Epidemiology
    Biological Monitoring
    Incidence
    Prevalence
    Measures of Effect
    Biological Monitoring and Health Surveillance
    Week 4 Musculoskeletal Disorders Risk Factors
    Anatomy
    Common Injuries
    Week 5 Occupational Cancer Workplace Risk Factors
    Individual Monitoring
    Week 6
    Occupational Stress and Heart Disease
    Risk Factors
    Management Strategies
    Week 7 Occupational Respiratory Disease Occupational Asthma
    Week 8 Miscellaneous Occupational Factors Skin Disease
    Reproductive Effects
    Infectious Diseases
    Specific Course Requirements
    A worksite visit to a Foundry is expected.
    For online students living in Adelaide, you should plan on attending  

    Intercast and Forge, 1 Schumacher Road, Wingfield.
    http://www.intercast.com.au/

    This will be scheduled early in the semester.

    This visit is also an important preparation for the major assignment.

    Long trousers (no parachute material), long sleeves and robust covered footwear (i.e. no runners or high-heels) must be worn. Hard  hats and safety glasses will be available at the foundry, however, if you have your own please bring them. Please note that if you are not dressed appropriately you will not be allowed to enter the foundry.

    For online students living outside South Australia, you should try to visit a Foundry in your area.  For students outside Australia, other arrangements will have to be negotiated.
    Small Group Discovery Experience
    N/A
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    Assessment Task Task Type Weighting Learning objective(s) being addressed
    Minor Assignment - Module 1 Summative 12% 1
    Online Quiz - Module 2 Summative 12% 3
    Minor Assignment - Module 3 Summative 12% 1,2,5
    Minor Assignment - Module 5 Summative 12% 1-4
    Online Quiz - Module 6 Summative 12% 1-4
    Major Assignment Summative 30% 1-5
    Course Participation Summative 10% 1-5
    Assessment Related Requirements
    GUIDELINES FOR THE MAJOR ASSIGNMENT (MODULE 4)
    This is your opportunity to demonstrate your ability to undertake a literature review, to make a critical appraisal of an issue, and to  use your writing skills.

    You are expected to show evidence of having made a scientific examination of the issue yourself - i.e. it should be more than one  would expect, for example, from a competent journalist.  You should show evidence of having undertaken a critical review of the  scientific literature on the subject, including a computerised literature search.  If you are reviewing a chemical, reliance on the  information in a MSDS is insufficient. 

    In your use of journals you should bear in mind the importance of obtaining scientific information from the original source; try to  avoid quoting an author who is quoting another author.    You should also learn to distinguish between journals which are refereed  and those which are not.  Scientific and professional journals use a process of peer review, in which papers are read  critically by experts in the relevant field (referees), and by journal editors, and then rejected, or revised extensively, on the basis of  detailed written critiques by these experts. For example, source material from the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health is likely to be more persuasive than a piece from Safety News.

    Where you use sources other than these refereed journals, were these reliable sources like chapters in reputable books, and did  you provide the proper details so that the reader could easily find the sources you used?  Providing the reader with the means by  which your scientific and intellectual tracks may be retraced is very important. The reader should be able to find your sources for  himself or herself, and should also be able to exercise helpful judgement about the quality of your sources
    of facts and ideas.

    Referencing is important in enabling you to demonstrate the level of your own scholarship in coming to grips with the problem.   Each source that you cite will need to be identified in the references, properly using the Vancouver or the Harvard reference format  that you see in biomedical and public-health journals (for example Occupational Health: Australia and New Zealand). Learn to use  one or the other in the precise standard manner. The University of Adelaide website has examples of appropriate referencing at  the following link: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/library/guide/gen/essay/reference.html

    Six to twelve references would be about the right number for your major written assignment, but the number of references you  need will vary, depending on how you choose to approach the topic.

    NB A set of references is not the same as a bibliography.  References relate to publications specifically cited in your report, whereas  a bibliography refers to what you may have read as a background to understanding the topic, without necessarily being  cited in your report.  A list of references is mandatory, a bibliography is optional. Marks will be deducted for inappropriate referencing.

    In critically reviewing an issue, remember that science is not necessarily “common sense”.  Scientific thinking requires supporting  evidence from observation – reason is not enough.

    Use appropriate headings and sub-headings throughout your assignment and remember to provide captions/titles for all pictures  and diagrams used (and refer to these in the text).

    GUIDELINES FOR OTHER ASSIGNMENTS
    The requirements are similar to those for the major assignment, except for the length.  Because these are to be short, it is an  opportunity to learn how to condense the important features of any subject into a short report.  Most people who will want your  opinion as a consultant will be looking for quality rather than quantity: the longer your reports, the less chance they will be read at  all, let alone read in full.

    As with the major assignments, you should read as much as necessary to ensure that you have a good general grasp of the topic,  but a wide-ranging literature review is not essential.  Citation of two or three good references should suffice.
    Assessment Detail
    MODULE 1 - SCIENTIFIC METHOD
    Assignment: 12%
    Expected Length: 500 words
    Date for submission of assignment: Refer to the MyUni Course site.
    Date for submission of commentary: 1-week following the assignment submission date.

    On the basis of the coursework and reading in this module, you will prepare and submit answers to ONE of two questions  (Epidemiology OR the Application of Scientific Method) to the relevant Discussion Board on MyUni. Following the submission deadline you will be required to read and provide constructive commentary on the work of your fellow students (and reflect on the  comments made on your own work by your fellow students).

    MODULE 2 – BIOLOGICAL MONITORING
    Online Quiz: 12%
    Date for submission of assignment: Refer to the MyUni Course site.
    Date for submission of commentary: 1-week following the assignment submission date.

    On the basis of the coursework and reading in this module, you will complete an Online Quiz related to the Health Effects of Lead  Exposure and Biological Monitoring Programs. Following completion of the quiz you will be required to contribute to the online  discussion on this topic. Note: The Quiz Entry Password will be made available in the week prior.

    MODULE 3 – MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS
    Assignment: 12%
    Expected Length: 500 words
    Date for submission of assignment: Refer to the MyUni Course site.
    Date for submission of commentary: 1-week following the assignment submission date.

    On the basis of the coursework and reading in this module, you will prepare and submit an answer to a question related to the  Assessment and Management of Back Injuries to the relevant Discussion Board on MyUni. Following the submission deadline you  will be required to read and provide constructive commentary on the work of your fellow students (and reflect on the comments  made on your own work by your fellow students).

    MODULE 4 – OCCUPATIONAL CANCER
    Major Assignment: 30%
    Expected Length: 1500 words (not including references)
    Date for submission of assignment: Refer to the MyUni Course site.

    This is the major assignment for this course. Our society, aided by (or indeed reflected in) the media, has a general view that there  are many cut-and-dried occupational and environmental health hazards in daily life. One often hears simplistic statements such as:  "pesticides cause cancer" or "lead causes mental retardation".  However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the science that underlies such statements.

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified foundry work as cancer-causing.  This  classification was made in the 1980s.  Since then further studies have been reported, and not all have supported the hypothesis  that foundry work causes lung cancer.  Moreover foundry work has changed since the period when the original studies were done.
     
    Write an assessment of the risk of lung cancer from work in foundries, considering any uncertainties and how they could be  addressed or have been addressed. 

    In your answer discuss what chemical agents in foundries could account for a lung cancer excess in the epidemiological studies.  Is such a risk likely to be present in the foundry you have visited?

    In any particular foundry (such as the one you have visited), how would you assess the degree of risk to the workers?  (This might include measurement of worker exposures, protein and DNA adducts as markers of exposure and genetic toxicity, medical testing.)

    The folder labelled “Foundries” on MyUni contains material from the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and other sources, for use in the major assignment.

    The major assignment in Module 4 is not to be uploaded to your Group Discussion Board. This assignment is to be submitted electronically using Turnitin.

    No commentary is required on other students’ contributions to this module.

    Worksite visit
    A worksite visit is planned to a foundry or comparable worksite. A visit to Intercast and Forge, 1 Schumacher Road, Wingfield, will  be scheduled during the semester. If you can’t attend, contact Paul Rothmore to make alternative arrangements.

    Alternative arrangements
    Students outside South Australia for whom a foundry visit is not practical will need to contact Paul Rothmore to make alternative arrangements for the assignment.
     
    MODULE 5 – RESPIRATORY DISEASE
    Assignment: 12%
    Expected Length: 500 words
    Date for submission of assignment: Refer to the MyUni Course site.
    Date for submission of commentary: 1-week following the assignment submission date.

    On the basis of the coursework and reading in this module, you will prepare and submit answers to ONE of two questions  (Investigation of a Cluster of Illness Episodes in an Office Building OR Assessment of the Need for Asbestos Removal from a Building) to the relevant Discussion Board on MyUni. Following the submission deadline you will be required to read and provide  constructive commentary on the work of your fellow students (and reflect on the comments made on your own work by your fellow students).

    MODULE 6 – OTHER OCCUPATIONAL DISORDERS
    Online Quiz: 12%
    Date for submission of assignment: Refer to the MyUni Course site.
    Date for submission of commentary: 1-week following the assignment submission date.

    On the basis of the coursework and reading in this module, you will complete an Online Quiz related to Skin Cancer and its  Prevention, Consequences of Stress, Possible Mechanisms of Adverse Reproductive Effects of Different Exposures, and Prevention  of Blood-Borne Infection. Following completion of the quiz you will be required to contribute to the online discussion on this topic.

    COURSE PARTICIPATION – 10%
    Constructive commentary on what your fellow students have to say is an important part of your active learning process, and should be regarded as online tutorial work.  After the submission date for Modules, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 there will be a 1-week period where  you will be able to read, share opinions and discuss the module subject with other students on your Discussion Board. To ensure  readability keep your comments brief. Your input is assessable. While at least 10 comments are expected during the Semester your  input will be assessed in accordance with its quality rather than its volume.
    Submission
    All assignments, with the exception of Module 4 (major assignment) are submitted to your allocated on-line tutorial group via  MyUni. Module 4 is to be submitted electronically using Turnitin (see the Assignments section on MyUni)). Turnitin will allow you to  submit drafts of your Major Assignment for electronic checking of plagiarism up until the final submission date. The major assignment must include the following statement:

    PLAGIARISM STATEMENT
    I declare that all material in this assessment is my own work except where there is clear acknowledgement or reference to the work of others. I have read the University Statement and Definition of Plagiarism and Related Form of Cheating at  http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/230. I give permission for my assessment work to be reproduced and submitted to other academic staff for the purposes of assessment and to be copied, submitted to and retained by the University’s plagiarism detection software provider for the purposes of electronic checking of plagiarism.
    Name:..........................................Date:..................................

     
    Extensions must be requested, at the latest, by the last working day before the due date of submission. They will generally be  granted only on medical and genuine compassionate grounds. Only the course coordinator, or a person authorised by them, may grant extensions.

    Lateness: Marks will be deducted when assignments for which no extension has been granted are submitted late. Marks will be  deducted from the mark (awarded on merit) at the rate of 5% per day.

    Return of Assignments: It is anticipated that student’s assignments, with comments will be returned, to University of Adelaide  student e-mail address, within 2-weeks of submission deadlines.

    Resubmission: Where a student is provided with the opportunity to resubmit an assignment this may receive a maximum mark of 50% (depending on the circumstances of the required resubmission).

    Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty that amounts to theft or fraud.  It is the unacknowledged use of the thoughts or  writings of another person, as if they are one's own.  This may occur as a result of deliberate misuse of another person's work, or  through ignorance or inexperience about the correct way to acknowledge other work.  Plagiarism includes presenting information or paraphrasing ideas from books, articles, etc. or other students' work, without clear identification of the source through proper  use of referencing; and quoting directly from a source, without indicating that it is a direct quote.  This is considered an extremely  serious matter, which may lead to failure of an assignment, or even suspension from University.   The University of Adelaide has a  policy on plagiarism that can be viewed at http://www.adelaide.edu.au/clpd/plagiarism/students/ There is a Guide to Avoiding   Plagiarism, prepared by the Centre for Learning and Professional Development at the following link: http://www.adelaide.edu.au /clpd/all/learning_guides/learningGuide_avoidingPlagiarism.pdf  #You should be aware that any of your submitted assessment work may be submitted for electronic checking of plagiarism.#
     
    Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com) is an online plagiarism prevention service. You must submit your major assignment via Turnitin  (see the Assignments section on MyUni). You can submit drafts of your major assignment for self-checking prior to final submission  (and you are strongly encouraged to do so). Note however, that your minor assignments may also be submitted for checking at the  sole discretion of the Course Coordinator.

    Guidance on length of assignments: Although we encourage students to submit assignments that demonstrate their  understanding of the topic, the length of assignments should be within 20% of the expected word length. Being succinct is an  important skill.  A penalty of 10% of the mark (awarded on merit) may apply in the case of an obvious breach of this guidance.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
  • Fraud Awareness

    Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.