PETROENG 3001 - Reservoir Simulation
North Terrace Campus - Semester 2 - 2014
General Course Information
Course Code PETROENG 3001 Course Reservoir Simulation Coordinating Unit Australian School of Petroleum Term Semester 2 Level Undergraduate Location/s North Terrace Campus Units 3 Contact Up to 4 hours per week Assumed Knowledge MATHS 1012, MATHS 2201, MATHS 2104, PHYSICS 1100, PETROENG 2009, MECH ENG 2021, COMP SCI 1201, PETROENG 3025 Restrictions Available to BE(Petroleum) students only Course Description The course gives the theoretical basis and practical fundamentals for numerical simulation and analytical modelling of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs. The partial differential equations required for modelling of single-phase and multi-phase fluid flow in porous media are derived. The governing systems are used for development of several analytical models which serve for reservoir evaluation and analysis. A particular attention is given to empirical functions of transport properties and phase equilibrium that the models contain and which are input functions into reservoir simulators. The numerical methods for solving the basic governing equations using finite difference methods are presented. Input data requirements and applications of simulation models for history matching and prediction of field performance will be discussed. Practical applications are directed to commercial reservoir simulator Eclipse.
Course Coordinator: Dr Mohammad SayyafzadehCourse Coordinator: Dr Mohammad Sayyafzadeh
The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.
Course Learning Outcomes
1 The ability to understand the basic concepts of numerical and analytical reservoir simulation 2 The ability to simulate simple cases of reservoir development and to learn in more details the Reservoir Simulator Eclipse 3 Understand key aspects of reservoir simulation in development of oil and gas fields 4 The ability to formulate fluid flow in porous media 5 The ability to solve the governing equations, numerically using finite difference methods 6 Formulate different strategies of field development based on reservoir simulation 7 Predict main indicators of the recovery from an oil or gas field under given recovery method 8 Describe main assumption of major mathematical models for oil and gas production 9 The ability to tune uncertain parameters of reservoir models using history data
University Graduate Attributes
This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:
University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s) Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1, 2, 3, 9 The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 4, 5, 6, 10 An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 6, 10 A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 2, 6, 7 A commitment to continuous learning and the capacity to maintain intellectual curiosity throughout life. 3 A commitment to the highest standards of professional endeavour and the ability to take a leadership role in the community. 2, 8
- Crichlow, Henry B., "Modern Reservoir Engineering: A Simulation Approach", Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1977.
- Aziz, A. & Settari, A., "Petroleum Reservoir Simulation", Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London, 1979.
- Ertekin, T., Abou-kassem, J. & King, G., "Basic Applied Reservoir Simulation" SPE, 2001.
- Peaceman, D.W., "Fundamentals of Numberical Reservoir Simulation", Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1977.
- Thomas, G.W., "Principles of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation", International Human Resources Development Corporation, 1982.
- Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1993, Mathematical Theory of Oil & Gas Recovery (With applications to ex-USSR oil & gas condensate fields), Kluwer Academic Publishers, London-Boston-Dordrecht, 600 p.
Learning & Teaching Activities
Learning & Teaching Modes
Lectures supported by problem-solving tutorials developing material covered in lectures
The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.
Lectures 3 hours/week
Tutorials 1 hour/week
Homework assignments 5 hours/week
Home Reading 3 hours/week
Learning Activities Summary
I. OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION - week 1-2
Reservoir simulation in petroleum engineering activity
Reservoir simulation in the sequence of petroleum geoscience and engineering disciplines
The importance of forecasting reservoir performance
Methods that provide a forecast, decline curve analysis, streamline simulation and grid-based simulator
The goals of carrying out reservoir simulation in Petroleum discipline
A review on the data required for reservoir simulation, porosity, permeability, saturation, pressure, relative permeability, capillary pressure, hysteresis of relative permeability and capillary pressure, three-phase relative permeability, well skin, fluid viscosity, formation volume factor, gas solubility and rock compressibility
Reservoir simulation in all stages of petroleum development: exploration, secondary migration and formation of petroleum accumulations, exploration welling, appraisal, depletion, preliminary geological model, data from several wells, well interference, secondary recovery, tracer and breakthrough data.
Direct and inverse problems. Modelling and history matching
Classification of models in reservoir simulation: single phase models, two-phase flows, black oil model, compositional model, thermal model.
Commercial reservoir simulators.
II. TRANSPORT PHENOMENA LAWS IN POROUS MEDIA- weeks 2-3
Mass conservation law, energy conservation law and the conservation of momentum law
Darcy’s law - Isotropic and anisotropic media - extended darcy and equation of state (EoS)
III. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS - week 4
Discretisation, Taylor series, first and second derivative approximation
Finite difference, implicit and explicit
Jacobi Iterative method, Fauss-Seidel method
Boundary value problem and Initial value problem
Linearisation, Pseudo pressure
IV. SINGLE PHASE FLOW - weeks 5-6
Primary recovery. Depletion (pressure blowdown). Mathematical model.
Example of closed system: flow of gas in reservoirs, 1d, 3d, initial and boundary conditions. Model = mass conservation + EoS + Darcy´s law
Mass conservation law for single-phase flow
Darcy´s law for single-phase flow of Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids, with gravity, accounting for inertial effects, in anisotropic rocks
Rock compression, Terzhagy eq. Slightly compressible fluid and rock
Compressibility of fluid/rock and pseudo pressure
Formulation of single-phase flow in porous-media, oil reservoirs and gas reservoirs
Analytical model for 1d flow towards well
V. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR A SINGLE PHASE FLOW - week 7
Finite difference methods for single phase flow. First- and second difference quotinets. Grid systems. Treatment of initial and boundary conditions. Steady state flows – elliptic problems. Unsteady state flow of compressible fluids – parabolic problems
VI. TWO PHASE FLOW - week 8
Derivation of basic equations. Small-scale and large scale approximations
Features: relative permeability, capillary pressure, phase viscosities and densities. Compressible and incompressible phases
Formulation of multi-phase flow in porous media, two-phase and three-phase
VII. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR MULTI PHASE FLOW - weeks 9-10
Multiphase displacement – hyperbolic problems. Mixed type problems. Formulation of initial and boundary conditions
Finite difference methods. Matrix solvers. IMPES
Consistency, stability and convergence. Grid orientation effects
VIII. WELL MODELLING - week 11
Well index. Boundary conditions on the well. Pieceman’s condition. Dietz’s factors
Piecemen’s condition. Rarefied grid.
IX. HISTORY MATCHING - week 11-12
Parameterisation, objective funcation formation, and calibration
Bayesian formulation and Uncertainty Quantification
Ensamble Kalman Filter
X. ADVANCED RESERVOIR SIMULATION- week 12
Compositional models in petroleum exploration. Secondary migration of oil and gas
Simulationof fractured reservoirs and unconventional resources
Specific Course Requirements
The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:
- Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
- Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
- Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
- Assessment must maintain academic standards.
The course will be assessed with a weighting of 10% based on the results in-class tests and/or quizzes, 15% on assignments, 25% on practical project, and 50% on final exam.
Assessment Related Requirements
Compulsory attendance at tutorials is required. Attendance at lectures is highly recommended.
There will be 2 in-term tests that will count towards the final assessment.
Dates of the in-term tests will be given via MyUni two weeks in advance.
Alternative test dates for students who cannot be present on the date of the test on medical and compassionate grounds can be requested through the Course Coordinator.
Final exam is comprehensive and covers all materials in the course.
Submission of Work for Assessment
Practical and field class exercises should be submitted in hardcopy with a completed copy of the assessment coversheet that is available from the school office. This should be signed to indicate you have read the above university policy statement on plagiarism, collusion and related forms of cheating.
Extensions for Assessment Tasks
Extensions of deadlines for assessment tasks may be allowed for reasonable causes. Such situations would include compassionate and medical grounds of the severity that would justify the awarding of a supplementary examination. Evidence for the grounds must be provided when an extension is requested. Students are required to apply for an extension to the Course Co-ordinator before the assessment task is due. Extensions will not be provided on the grounds of poor prioritising of time.
Penalty for Late Submission of Assessment Tasks
Assessment tasks must be submitted by the stated deadlines. There will be a penalty for late submission of assessment tasks. The submitted work will be marked ‘without prejudice’ and 10% of the obtained mark will be deducted for each working day (or part of a day) that an assessment task is late, up to a maximum penalty of 50% of the mark attained. An examiner may elect not to accept any assessment task that a student wants to submit after that task has been marked and feedback provided to the rest of the class.
Provision of Feedback to Students
Exercises will be returned to students within two weeks of their submission.
Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:
M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme) Grade Mark Description FNS Fail No Submission F 1-49 Fail P 50-64 Pass C 65-74 Credit D 75-84 Distinction HD 85-100 High Distinction CN Continuing NFE No Formal Examination RP Result Pending
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Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.
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