OENOLOGY 7028WT - Introductory Winemaking

Waite Campus - Semester 2 - 2018

The course provides an introduction to modern wine production through the perspective of the Australian wine industry. Introductory topics in grape and wine chemistry are described, including acidity and the impacts of grape and wine acids in winemaking, sulphur dioxide and its uses in winemaking, phenolic compounds and their role in wine composition, and the effects of oxidation upon wine during maturation. All aspects of wine production including harvest, fruit processing, white and red vinification techniques, and alcoholic and malolactic fermentation are described. The principles and practice of processes to stabilise and clarify juices and wines are introduced. Practical activities during the course include an introduction to the techniques of basic chemical and microbiological analysis of grape juice, fermenting musts and final wines, management of a small-scale fermentation under defined conditions, and a visit to a commercial winery.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code OENOLOGY 7028WT
    Course Introductory Winemaking
    Coordinating Unit School of Agriculture, Food and Wine
    Term Semester 2
    Level Postgraduate Coursework
    Location/s Waite Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 7 hours per week
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y
    Assessment Practical reports, written assignments, online quizzes, examination
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Associate Professor Christopher Ford

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 Describe the effects of acids and acidity on grape and wine composition and on the control of the winemaking process.
    2 Explain how sulfur dioxide management is used in winemaking.
    3 Explain the role and management of phenolic compounds during winemaking processes.
    4 Describe the basic operations of grape harvesting and processing.
    5 Describe the unit processes and equipment used in fermentation, pressing
    and post-fermentation treatments and their impacts on the final wine
    style outcomes.
    6 Explain how different styles of white and red table wine are produced.
    7 Describe the effects of aging, maturation and oxidation on wine composition.
    8 Explain the basic principles of the management of yeast during the
    alcoholic fermentation and of bacterial cultures during the secondary
    9 Demonstrate familiarity and competence with the practical skills and
    techniques used in grape and wine chemical analysis. This will include
    the planning and reporting of analyses, the use of apparatus to measure
    pH, titratable acidity, sulfur dioxide, volatile acidity and alcohol,
    plus the use of spectrophotometric measurements for wine phenolics.
    10 Demonstrate an understanding of the conduct of an alcoholic fermentation
    and of the planning required to undertake practical winemaking
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Deep discipline knowledge
    • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
    • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
    • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
    Critical thinking and problem solving
    • steeped in research methods and rigor
    • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
    • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
    Teamwork and communication skills
    • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
    • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
    • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
    Career and leadership readiness
    • technology savvy
    • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
    • forward thinking and well informed
    • tested and validated by work based experiences
    Intercultural and ethical competency
    • adept at operating in other cultures
    • comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
    • able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
    • demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
    Not addressed
    Self-awareness and emotional intelligence
    • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
    • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
    • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
    Not addressed
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    Lecture notes will be posted to MyUni Canvas before each class. There will be no provision of printed lecture handouts. All lectures will be recorded using Echo360.
    Recommended Resources
    There is no set textbook for this course. A recent and very useful text is Understanding Wine Chemistry, edited by Andrew L Waterhouse, Gavin L Sacks and David W Jeffery. This text is available to students online from the University of Adelaide library.
    Many of the currently available general winemaking texts are written from a non-Australian perspective, and therefore address only some aspects of what is pertinent to the situation in Australia. The major oenological texts are also expensive, and for this reason, it has been decided that where possible the chapters in the four texts relevant to each lecture will be indicated by the lecturing staff at the time of delivery. Students are encouraged to take the opportunity during the semester to compare the various texts (two copies of each are held in the Woolhouse (Waite) Library on Reserve), as an aid to deciding which one best suits their personal requirements and preferences.

    These texts are:
    Boulton, R.B., Singleton, V.L., Bisson, L.F. and Kunkee, R.E. (1998) Principles and Practices of Winemaking. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

    Jackson, R.S. (2008) Wine Science, Principles, Practice, Perception. Third edition Academic Press.

    Margalit, Y.M. (2005) Concepts in Wine Chemistry. The Wine Appreciation Guild.

    Ribereau-Gayon, P., Dubourdieu, D., Donèche, B. and Lonvard, A. (2006) Handbook of Enology, Volumes 1 and 2. John Wiley.

    Additionally, the following laboratory manual is recommended:
    Iland, P., Bruer, N., Edwards, G., Weeks, S. and Wilkes, E. (2004) Chemical analysis of grapes and wine: techniques and concepts. Patrick Iland Wine Promotions Pty Ltd, Campbelltown, South Australia.

    Additional reference books that can be accessed from the Woolhouse library are:
    Clarke, R.J. and Bakker, J. (2004) Wine Flavour Chemistry. Blackwell, Oxford.

    Hornsey, I. (2007) The Chemistry and Biology of Winemaking. RSC Publishing, Cambridge.

    Jacobson, J.L. (2006) Introduction to Wine Laboratory Practices and Procedures. Springer, New York.

    Linskens, H. F. and Jackson, J. F. (Eds) (1988) Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. New series, Vol 6, Wine Analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

    Margalit, Y. (2004) Concepts in Wine Technology. The Wine Appreciation Guild, San Francisco.

    Ough, C. S. (1991) Winemaking Basics. Food Product Press, New York

    Peynaud, E. (1984) Knowing and Making Wine. Translation of Connaissance et Travail du Vin (1981) Wiley - Interscience.

    Rankine, B. C. (2004) Making Good Wine: A Manual of Winemaking Practice for Australia and New Zealand. Macmillan Australia, Sydney.

    Waterhouse, A.L. and Kennedy, J.A. (2004) Red Wine Chemistry – Revealing the Mysteries. American Chemical Society, Washington DC.

    Zoecklein, B. W., Fugelsang, K. C., Gump, B. H. and Nury, F. S. (1999) Wine Analysis and Production. Aspen Publishers, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland.

    A significant collection of journal articles is available as a reading list from within the Course Materials section of the MyUni pages for Introductory Winemaking.
    Online Learning
    Course administration is accomplished using MyUni: Activities will include email, Announcements, lecture handouts and recordings, an online reading list and links to past examinations. Copies of the Course Profile (this document) and the Course Handbook (including the Timetable of Lectures, Practicals and Tutorials) will be posted on MyUni. Coursework assignments may be submitted through Turnitin as directed. Coursework marks will be made available through the Gradebook. Assessment in the form of online quizzes will be offered during the semester as a part of the Formative Assessment component. Details may be found below. All materials will be released at the relevant time during the semester.
  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    The course material is taught by a combination of lectures and practical classes, with formative assessment exercises in the form of practical write-ups, a practical test, a written assignment, and online quizzes, and summative assessment in the form of end-of-semester examination. Lecture modes used are based primarily on traditional classroom paradigms of lecturer-student interactions, using PowerPoint or similar presentation techniques. The use of enhanced teaching approaches including student-centred activities is likely to increasingly feature in this aspect of the course. Short online quizzes are provided to allow regular self-assessment of understanding and progress.

    Practical classes including a site visit to a local winery are designed and timetabled such that as far as possible, the topics co-ordinate with those being taught at that time within the lecture stream. Learning within practical classes will be based on student participation in a series of experimental exercises designed to demonstrate some of the key grape and wine analytical techniques, yeast culture, and the management of a small-scale (ca 30L) alcoholic fermentation, as a prelude to larger (1,000L) ferments conducted in higher-level courses. In some cases, report writing, including quantitative data analysis and interpretation and problem solving, will form part of the learning activities.

    Feedback is provided on all assessed work.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    A student enrolled in a 3 unit course, such as this, should expect to spend, on average 12 hours per week on the studies required. This includes both the formal contact time required to the course (e.g., lectures and practicals), as well as non-contact time (e.g., reading and revision).
    Learning Activities Summary
    Week Type of learning activity Topic
    Week 1 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Acidity in grapes and wine
    Introduction to winemaking
    Health, safety and well-being; basic lab techniques; calculations
    Week 2 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    The winemaking chemistry of sulfur dioxide
    Winemaking operations and processes I
    Basic grape and wine analysis (Acids/sugars/SO2/VA)
    Week 3 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Winemaking operations and processes II
    Winemaking operations and processes III
    Basic grape and wine analysis (Acids/sugars/SO2/VA)
    Week 4 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Anthocyanins and phenolics in grapes and wines I
    Anthocyanins and phenolics in grapes and wines II
    Basic grape and wine analysis (Acids/sugars/SO2/VA)
    Week 5 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    White table wines I
    White table wines II
    Phenolics, Tannin and Alcohol measurements
    Week 6 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    White table wines III
    White table wines IV
    Phenolics, Tannin and Alcohol measurements
    Week 7 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    White table wines V
    Red table wines I
    Analysis of juice, must and wine samples: assessed practical / Cellar
    operations – inert gases
    Week 8 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Red table wines II
    Red table wines III
    Analysis of juice, must and wine samples: assessed practical / Cellar operations – inert gases
    Week 9 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    No lectures – public holiday
    No lectures – public holiday
    Winery tour
    Week 10 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Red table wines IV
    Red table wines V
    White juice ferment – setup, inoculation and initial juice analysis
    Week 11 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Introduction to juice and wine clarification and stabilisation
    Oxidation and the aging of wines
    White juice ferment – completion and final wine analysis
    Week 12 Lecture 1
    Lecture 2
    Wine microbiology I
    Wine microbiology II
    Wine microbiology
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    Assessment Task Type of assessment Percentage of total assessment for grading purposes Hurdle
    (Yes/No or part of a combined hurdle)
    Objectives being assessed/achieved Approximate Timing of Assessment 
    Practical reports Formative and Summative 15% No 1,2,3,9,10 Weeks 5 and 7 or 8
    Practical skills test Formative and Summative 5% No 9 Weeks 5 and 6
    Red wine production written assignment Formative and Summative 20% No 3-8 Week 9
    Fermentation management assignment Formative and Summative 10% No 1,2,8,9,10 Week 11
    End of semester examination Summative 50%
    Yes (50%)
    1-10 Semester 2 exams period
    Assessment Related Requirements
    Assessment Task Requirement for hurdle
    Is additional assessment available if student does not meet hurdle requirement
    Details of additional assessment
    End of semester examination 50%


    Additional examination
    Assessment Detail
    Summative (examination-based) Assessment - details:

    The final examination will consist of one paper divided into two sections. Section A will comprise questions dealing with calculations used in winemaking. It will be worth approximately 8% of the final paper (15 marks out of 180 total). Section B will comprise questions covering the whole course and be worth approximately 92% of the final paper. Questions will be compulsory although there may be choice within questions.

    Formative (coursework) Assessment - details:

    Formative assessment for the course will be covered by the following items:

    1.  Practical class reports:

    There will be eleven practical classes conducted per student over the course of the semester. A written report will be submitted for the outcome of the chemical analyses of wine (pH, titratable acidity, sulfur dioxide and reducing sugar) conducted in weeks 2-4 (5%). A second report will be submitted for the analysis of red wine phenolics conducted in weeks 5 or 6 (the class is divided into two for this exercise). All submitted work will be returned with feedback within 2 weeks of submission.

    2.  Practical skills test:

    In weeks 7 or 8 students will be assessed on their ability to accurately determine the pH, titratable acidity, total, free and bound sulfur dioxide, and volatile acidity of a wine. They will be required to report their analytical findings in an appropriate manner, and demonstrate their ability to undertake basic wine calculations.

    3.  Red wine production assignment:

     Students will prepare a written proposal for the production of a medium to full-bodied dry red table wine. The exact wine style and source of grapes is the choice of the student. The proposal is to describe every aspect of the winemaking process from the perspective of activities that can be conducted using the facilities available in the Wine Science Laboratory. A flow chart of the processes is to be submitted along with details of the proposed wine style that explain how the winemaking options selected will lead to the selected wine style outcomes. Exemplars from previous students will be available on MyUni.

    4.  Fermentation management assignment:

       Students will work in groups of two or three to undertake the fermentation of a 30-litre batch of white grape juice. The aim of the exercise is to maintain a steady rate of fermentation by the use of appropriate monitoring and temperature control management. You will monitor your ferment twice daily over a seven-day period; each monitoring event will require approximately 15 minutes to complete, each student will conduct between four and five individual monitoring events. Full chemical analyses will be conducted at the outset, at a point mid-way through the fermentation, and upon completion of the fermentation. The assessment is based on an individual report that comprises a fermentation progress curve, indicating the monitoring points, fermentation parameters and the decisions that were made and their subsequent consequences. Exemplars from previous students will be available on MyUni.

    5.  Online quizzes: During the semester, 5 online quizzes will be set from within MyUni/Assessments. Each quiz will contain 10 questions, which will comprise a number of formats including but not limited to multiple choice, missing words, ordering and calculations. Quizzes will normally be available for a four-day period including weekends, which will be announced via a MyUni Announcement and email to each student.

    The quizzes are intended to provide each student with a brief assessment of their knowledge of topics covered in recent and past lectures and tutorials. Each quiz may be attempted only once; students will receive their scores immediately upon completion of the quiz and full feedback after the quiz closes.

    Penalty For Late Submission Of Assignments

    A signed Assessment Coversheet must accompany all work submitted for assessment during the semester. Copies are available for download from MyUni and are also included in the Practical booklet.

    Assignments must be submitted by their deadlines. For work submitted past the deadline for that assignment, there will be a penalty of 10% of the unprejudiced mark for each working day (or part of a working day) that an assignment is late, up to a maximum penalty of 50% of the unprejudiced mark (all eligible submitted work is assessed in the first instance without prejudice). The examiner may elect not to accept any assignment that a student wants to submit after the assignments for the rest of the class have been marked and feedback provided.

    Extensions of deadlines may be allowed for reasonable causes. Such situations would include compassionate and medical grounds of the severity that would justify the awarding of a supplementary examination. Evidence for the grounds must be provided when an extension is requested. Extensions of deadlines should be negotiated with the course coordinator before the assignment is due. Extensions will not be provided on the grounds of poor time management.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

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  • Policies & Guidelines
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