OENOLOGY 2501WT - Microbiology for Viticulture and Oenology II

Waite Campus - Semester 1 - 2018

An introduction to the biology of micro-organisms and invertebrates of importance in agriculture and natural ecosystems with particular emphasis on viticulture and oenology. Topics to be considered include: microbial growth, energy sources and nutritional categories; form and function of major groups of microorganisms; classification and identification; beneficial and deleterious activities of microorganisms; features of saprophytic, pathogenic, symbiotic and commensal lifestyles; determinants of pathogenicity and resistance; interactions of microorganisms and environment; nature and occurrence of Botrytis, yeasts and bacteria associated with the vineyard and winery, and their influence on grape and wine quality; interactions between wine yeast and bacteria; spoilage and selected strains of yeast in wine; nutritional requirements and wine processing parameters affecting growth and activity of wine yeast; practical skills for manipulating microorganisms and invertebrates and studying their activities.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code OENOLOGY 2501WT
    Course Microbiology for Viticulture and Oenology II
    Coordinating Unit School of Agriculture, Food and Wine
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s Waite Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 6 hours per week
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y
    Incompatible PLANT SC 2500WT, PLANT SC 2520WT
    Assumed Knowledge BIOLOGY 1202, BIOLOGY 1101 & OENOLOGY 1018NW
    Restrictions Available to B Viticulture & Oenology students only
    Course Description An introduction to the biology of micro-organisms and invertebrates of importance in agriculture and natural ecosystems with particular emphasis on viticulture and oenology. Topics to be considered include: microbial growth, energy sources and nutritional categories; form and function of major groups of microorganisms; classification and identification; beneficial and deleterious activities of microorganisms; features of saprophytic, pathogenic, symbiotic and commensal lifestyles; determinants of pathogenicity and resistance; interactions of microorganisms and environment; nature and occurrence of Botrytis, yeasts and bacteria associated with the vineyard and winery, and their influence on grape and wine quality; interactions between wine yeast and bacteria; spoilage and selected strains of yeast in wine; nutritional requirements and wine processing parameters affecting growth and activity of wine yeast; practical skills for manipulating microorganisms and invertebrates and studying their activities.
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Professor Vladimir Jiranek

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 explain the role and importance of microorganisms
    2 describe the form and function of bacteria, fungi and viruses
    3 demonstrate an understanding of the principles of and processes involved in the recognition, manipulation, identification and classification of key groups of microorganisms
    4 understand the principles of growth and reproduction of bacteria, fungi and viruses
    5 discuss beneficial and deleterious activities of microorganisms
    6 prepare and maintain pure cultures of bacteria, yeast and fungi
    7 demonstrate effective information handling and communication skills and the ability to work in a team
    8 understand the nature, distribution and activities of yeast, LAB & Botrytis in winemaking
    9 discuss factors modulating the influence of yeast and LAB in winemaking
    10 demonstrate proficiency in the operation of the bright-field and phase-contrast microscopes to enumerate and identify microorganisms
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Deep discipline knowledge
    • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
    • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
    • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
    1-6,8,9
    Critical thinking and problem solving
    • steeped in research methods and rigor
    • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
    • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
    1-10
    Teamwork and communication skills
    • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
    • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
    • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
    7,10
    Career and leadership readiness
    • technology savvy
    • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
    • forward thinking and well informed
    • tested and validated by work based experiences
    1-10
    Intercultural and ethical competency
    • adept at operating in other cultures
    • comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
    • Able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
    • demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
    7,10
    Self-awareness and emotional intelligence
    • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
    • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
    • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
    1-10
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources

    This course will require the following texts and other resources:

    • A laboratory coat and closed-in shoes must be worn for all practical classes.
    • Reading list to be provided (no required text)
    Online Learning

    MyUni: Teaching materials and course documentation will be posted on the MyUni website (http://myuni.adelaide.edu.au/).

  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes

    This course will be delivered by the following means:

    Internal:

    • 2 hour lecture block taught in one day
    • 1 tutorial of 1 hour in 4 weeks of the course
    • 1 practical of 3-4 hours per week (3 hours when tutorial held in first hour of session)
    Workload

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    A student enrolled in a 3 unit course, such as this, should expect to spend, on average 12 hours per week on the studies required. This includes both the formal contact time required to the course (e.g., lectures and practicals), as well as non-contact time (e.g., reading and revision).

    Learning Activities Summary
    Type of learning activity Topic
    Lecture 1 Introduction: overview of course, teaching staff. Definition of microbiology. Role and importance of microbiology in agriculture and related areas. Interactions of microorganisms with invertebrates. Brief history, principles of microbiological methods and culture media.
    Lecture 2 Microbial growth. Definition of growth (binary fission, budding, extension), energy and nutritional requirements of bacteria and fungi. Environment and microbial growth: temperature, atmosphere, pH, moisture, osmotic pressure, light. Growth curve for unicellular organisms. Sterilisation: principles and practice (heat, irradiation, chemical sterilants, filtration).
    Lecture 3 Bacteria. Membranes, walls, glycocalyx, flagella, pili, endospores. Variation in morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacteria; use in routine identification. Examples from groups of agricultural and oenological importance.
    Lecture 4 Fungi. Vegetative structures: yeasts, hyphae, hyphal growth, modified hyphae, hyphal aggregations, importance of these structures. Reproductive structures: asexual and sexual spores, their formation and importance. Mechanisms of spore dispersal.
    Lecture 5 Viruses. Structure, function, classification and importance as pathogens of humans, animals and plants. Host responses to virus infection.
    Lecture 6 Techniques for identification and classification. Microbial systematics: concepts, nomenclature. Criteria used in classification and identification of bacteria and fungi: morphology, physiology, biochemistry, nucleic acids, genetic methods.
    Lecture 7 Introduction to microbial ecosystems. Colonisation of substrates, biofilms, recognition and cell-cell signalling. Lifestyles; free-living, saprophytic, commensal, symbiotic, parasitic lifestyles.
    Lecture 8 Microbial activities: microorganisms in food. Effects of composition of food on microbial growth and spoilage. The role of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi in the preparation of fermented food. Food spoilage and food preservation.
    Lecture 9 & 10 Microbial activities: microbes as pathogens. Definition and importance of disease, Koch's postulates, necrotrophs and biotrophs. The disease triangle and disease cycle. Toxins (including mycotoxins). Disease management.
    Lecture 11 & 12 Microbial activities: microorganisms as beneficial organisms. The nitrogen cycle, with emphasis on the role of microorganisms. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase. Free-living and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Rhizobium, formation of nodules, economic and environmental benefits of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Bioremediation, compost and silage.
    Lecture 13 Biology and activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB): LAB as a major group of bacteria, important genera, their characteristics and significance in food production and spoilage.
    Lecture 14 & 15 Lactic acid bacteria in winemaking: Malolactic bacteria strains; malolactic fermentation; factors affecting growth and activities of LAB, in grape juice/must and wine, such as pH, temperature, oxygen, SO2, fermentation by-products, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, vinification practices. Interactions between LAB and yeasts in winemaking. Proposed basis for synergistic, neutral and inhibitory interactions. Implications for strain choice.
    Lecture 16 Botrytis cinerea in winemaking: Biology and epidemiology; infection process and host-parasite interactions; types of berry rots and chemical changes brought about by Botrytis infection
    Lecture 17 Biology and activities of yeasts: yeasts as a major group of microorganisms - their characteristics, habitats, distribution, biochemical and beneficial and spoilage activities.
    Lecture 18 Key taxonomic features of yeasts; their classification and identification.
    Lecture 19 Vineyard and winery yeast flora: Microflora of grape berries, must, wine and the vineyard environment; detection and isolation of yeasts of oenological significance; natural fermentations; propagation and inoculation.
    Lecture 20 Nature and actions of spoilage yeasts: Key spoilage yeasts including representatives of genera including Pichia, Zygosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Metchnikowia, Dekkera/Brettanomyces. Factors favouring their growth and their influence over winemaking. Selected yeast strains: properties and selection strategies and criteria.
    Lecture 21 & 22 Yeast growth and nutrition: growth and nutrition in grape juice, must and wine; growth kinetics; role of nitrogen, carbon, vitamins and minerals in yeast growth and by-product formation.
    Lecture 23 & 24 Process variables influencing yeast growth and behaviour: juice/wine pH, fermentation temperature, oxygen availability, sugar concentration, presence of sulphur dioxide and fermentation by-products, killer yeasts, and vinification practices.
    Practical 1 Culture techniques: aseptic technique, methods for culture of bacteria - streak plating, spread plating, antibiotic sensitivity testing; sub-culture of bacteria to slopes; sub-culture of fungi by point inoculation.
    Use of dissecting and compound microscopes (revision). Calibration of ocular micrometers.
    Tutorial Introduction, assessment procedures
    Practical 2 Assess cultures from week 1 and re-streak single colony from mixed bacterial culture towards establishing a pure culture. Single-celled microorganisms: colony morphology – what to look for and how useful is it? Microscopic features: morphology of living and stained cells (methylene blue, Gram stain), demonstration of staining for endospores. Identification of bacteria by morphology and biochemical tests. Counting bacteria using the Standard Plate Count procedure.
    Practical 3 Tutorial (small groups): complete assessment of “pure” cultures of bacteria from weeks 1 and 2; count colonies in Standard Plant Count from week 2; bacteria and fungi – structure and function. Multi-celled microorganisms: examine structures of fungi in non-stained and stained preparations, with emphasis on types. of hyphae, spores and spore-bearing structures.
    Practical 4 Microorganisms as agents of disease and spoilage of grapes: Examination of grapes inoculated with various bunch rot pathogens, grapevine powdery mildew and demonstration of Koch's postulates.
    Practical 5 Tutorial: Introduction to Grape and Wine Microbiology. Microscopic cell counts: Recap of use of haemocytometer, counting cells and calculations. Includes PC-based exercise.
    Practical 6 Yeasts in ferment: Part 1. Examine and tentatively identify the supplied unknown yeast. Inoculate 750 mL juice, add supplements and take T = 0 readings. Develop and get approval for experimental plan for final time point.
    Practical 7 Tutorial: LAB metabolism. Wine bacteria: Part 1. Examine and describe isolates of key bacterial genera. Isolate bacteria present in the mixed culture.
    Practical 8 Mid-semester theory exam (Weeks 1 – 6). Wine bacteria: Part 2. Examine plates from Part 1. Wine yeasts: Examine and describe isolates of key yeast genera grown on solid and liquid. Yeasts in ferment: Part 2. Read plates from Part 1. Examine and tentatively identify the supplied unknown yeast.
    Practical 9 Yeasts in ferment: Part 3. Observe “wines”, perform analysis on T = Final samples. Rack wines.
    Practical 10 Yeasts in ferment: Part 4. Finalise analysis from Part 3. Conclude calculations and check with demonstrator. Practical Revision: Practice microscope and microbial techniques.
    Practical 11 Practical Exam
    Practical 12 Yeasts in ferment: Part 5. Rack wine into 750 mL bottles and carry out sensory assessment of all the wines. Record findings.
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    Assessment taskType of assessmentPercentage of total assessment for grading purposesHurdle (Yes/No)Outcome being assessed
    Quizzes on practical exercise and underlying theory Formative 0% No 1-4
    Practical/tutorial report on form and function of microorganisms Formative Summative 0%
    5%
    No 1-7
    Plant disease, practical report Summative 10% No 1-7
    Practical report on Yeast fermentation Summative 10% No 1-10
    Practical Exam Summative 15% No 1-6,9,10
    Written exam(s) Summative 60% Yes 1-6,8,9

    *Collectively forms a hurdle

    Assessment Related Requirements
    To pass the course, a student must obtain a minimum of 40% for the written exam(s) (i.e. 24 out of 60).
    Assessment Detail

    Practical and tutorials reports account for 40% of the final mark, as follows:

    • Form and function of microorganisms, practical/tutorial report due at end of tutorial 2 (5% of final mark).
    • Plant disease, practical report due at end of practical session (10% of final mark)
    • Yeast fermentation practical report, due 1 week after the last practical session (15% of final mark)
    • Practical examination in week11, completes and submitted at the end of the session, tests student understanding of practical content and their practical skills (10% of final mark).

    Practical reports will be assessed promptly assessed to provide continual feedback to students and a sense of progressive accomplishment in the course. Students will receive written feedback on each of practical reports submitted for assessment.

    Submission

    If an extension is not applied for, or not granted then a penalty for late submission will apply. A penalty of 10% of the value of the assignment for each calendar day that is late (i.e. weekends count as 2 days), up to a maximum of 50% of the available marks will be applied. This means that an assignment that is 5 days or more late without an approved extension can only receive a maximum of 50% of the mark.

    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
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