PETROENG 7051 - Formation Damage and Productivity Enhancement

North Terrace Campus - Semester 2 - 2015

The course covers formation damage in injection and production wells, its prediction, mathematical and laboratory modeling, prevention and mitigation. The oil-production processes covered are injectivity decline, re-injection of produced water, invasion of drilling fluid, sand production, gravel pack, sand screens, fines migration, disposal of produced water, IOR. The physics phenomena caused damage include deep bed filtration, external filter cake formation, precipitation of salts, ashpaltenes and paraffines, fines migration and liberation, rock deformation and compaction, two-phase flow of suspensions and colloids. Cases of vertical, horizontal, fractured and perforated wells are discussed. Techniques of damage removal and well stimulation are presented. The lectures are accompanied by numerous training exercises and field examples

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code PETROENG 7051
    Course Formation Damage and Productivity Enhancement
    Coordinating Unit Australian School of Petroleum
    Term Semester 2
    Level Postgraduate Coursework
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Intensive short course of lectures, seminars
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange N
    Prerequisites MATHS 1011, MATHS 1012
    Course Description The course covers formation damage in injection and production wells, its prediction, mathematical and laboratory modeling, prevention and mitigation. The oil-production processes covered are injectivity decline, re-injection of produced water, invasion of drilling fluid, sand production, gravel pack, sand screens, fines migration, disposal of produced water, IOR. The physics phenomena caused damage include deep bed filtration, external filter cake formation, precipitation of salts, ashpaltenes and paraffines, fines migration and liberation, rock deformation and compaction, two-phase flow of suspensions and colloids. Cases of vertical, horizontal, fractured and perforated wells are discussed. Techniques of damage removal and well stimulation are presented.
    The lectures are accompanied by numerous training exercises and field examples
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Professor Pavel Bedrikovetski

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes

    1.   Understand key aspects of formation damage in different processes of oil production.

    2.   Explain reservoir physics of main formation damage mechanisms.

    3.   Describe the purpose of damage removal, prevention and mitigation, of well stimulation.

    4.   Understand the concepts and equipment required for water management in onshore and offshore developments.

    5.   Analysis of mathematical models for formation damage in different processes of oil production (waterflooding, pressure
          depletion, EOR).

    6.   Describe the applicability of different mathematical models of formation damage

    7.   Explain the process and importance of injected water treatment.

    8.   Utilise knowledge of formation damage reservoir physics in design of damage-free oil production technologies.

    9.   Describe processes associated with formation damage in injection and production wells and its uses in exploration and
          production.

    10.  Apply a critical-thinking and problem-solving approach towards the principles of damage-free oil production technologies.


    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10
    The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 1
    An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9
    A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10
    A commitment to the highest standards of professional endeavour and the ability to take a leadership role in the community. 1, 9
    An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1, 9
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources

    The following two texts are an integral work book and reference for this course;

    1. Civan, F.: Reservoir Formation Damage
    (Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation), Gulf Professional
    Publishing, 2nd ed (2007). Approximate cost = 150 US $

    2. Tiab, D. and Donaldson, E.C., 2004, Petrophysics,
    Gulf Prof Publishing, 2nd Ed. Approximate cost = 160 US $

    Recommended Resources

    Useful Reference Books

    ·        Schechter, R., 1987, Well stimulation, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Engleswood, NJ, NY.

    ·        Khilar, K. and Fogler, S., 1998: Migration of Fines in Porous Media, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/London/Boston

    ·        Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1993, Mathematical Theory of Oil & Gas Recovery (With applications to ex-USSR oil & gas condensate fields),
             Kluwer Academic Publishers, London-Boston-Dordrecht, 600 p.

    ·        Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1999, Advanced Waterflooding, Textbook, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 450 p.

    Additional lecture notes will be provided during the lecture.

    Online Learning

    PDF’s of lecture power points and additional material will be provided via MyUni

  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    The lectures provide an outline to formation damage and associated problems, which is supported by problem-solving tutorials and practicals developing material covered in lectures.

    Workload

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    All classes must be attended to gain the fullest knowledge in the subject. Pre-reading of the Lecture material from MyUni and recommended reference books will enable students to gain more depth of knowledge in the subject area of each lecture.
    Learning Activities Summary

    Topics to be treated in order of presentation

    INTRODUCTION:                                                                                                       

    General aspects of oil/gas production and water injection

    Technical, economical and environmental aspects

    Examples for water management: WESTERN SIBERIA, CAMPOS BASIN, NORTH SEA, GULF OF MEXICO, CASPIAN SEA

     
    WATER MANAGEMENT IN OILFIELD EXPLOITATION:

    Water Management cycle

    The need of rate maintenance

    Oil recovery with waterflooding

    Directions for waterflooding project

    Estimates for waterflood project

    Skin effect in injection and production wells


    FORMATION DAMAGE OF INJECTORS: PHYSICAL MECHANISMS

    Sea water injection: pore size exclusion, fine migration, molecular forces, salinity, bridging, segregation

    Produced water re-injection: adsorption, capillary sorption, deformation and mobilisation of trapped
    particles

    Aggregation of solid and liquid particles. Effects of wettability

    Fines migration in oil and gas reservoirs: drag, electrostatic, adhesion and lifting forces.  Other forces acting on particles in porous
    media


    INJECTIVITY TESTS: COREFLOODING WITH FORMATION DAMAGE

    Mathematical model for permeability impairment

    Filtration coefficient and formation damage coefficient

    Laboratory studies of deep bed filtration

    Exercise: Filtration coefficient determination from laboratory measurements of outlet concentration

    Exercise: Formation damage coefficient determination from laboratory measurements of pressure drop on a core

    Simultaneous determination of both coefficients from pressure measurements in 3 core points

    Results of laboratory tests treatment

     
    WELL IMPAIRMENT WITH INJECTION OF WATER WITH SOLID PARTICLES

    Prediction of well impairment based on laboratory test data

    Direct recalculation of coreflood data to well impairment for the case of low filtration coefficient

    Prediction of well impairment based on injection history

    Exercise: predict injectivity decline based on coreflood data

    Exercise: predict injectivity decline based on well data

    Field case - already waterflooded field, Campos basin, Brazil

    Field case - a young field, Campos basin, Brazil

     
    EFFECTS OF PARTICLE AND PORE SIZES ON IMPAIRMENT

    Mathematical model for deep bed filtration accounting for particle and pore size distributions

    Calculation of flux reduction and accessibility factors

    Analytical models for deep bed filtration for different particle and pore size distributions

    Calculation of filtration coefficient for different particle and pore size distributions

    Exercise: practical calculations for injected water filtering

     
    EXTERNAL CAKE FORMATION DURING SEA WATER INJECTION

    Mathematical model for external cake formation

    Erosion of external filter cake.Mathematical model.Laboratory study.

    Determination of cake permeability from routine coreflood data

    Results of laboratory tests treatment

    Exercise: extrapolate the injectivity index curve for a well

    Field case - already waterflooded field, Campos basin

    Exercise: explain the concave shape of injectivity index curve

    Field case - a young field, Campos basin

     
    WELL IMPAIRMENT WITH INJECTION OF OILY WATER (PRODUCED WATER REINJECTION)

    Effects of remobilisation of oil droplets

    Mathematical model for permeability impairment

    Exercise: check whether oil drop would be mobilised at a given porous media and flow velocity

    Laboratory studies of deep bed filtration for oily water

    Results of laboratory tests treatment

    Well impairment prediction, field examples

     
    BACKFLOW IN INJECTORS

    Removal of internal cake

    Removal of external filter cake

     
    IMPAIRMENT OF HORIZONTAL INJECTORS AND INJECTIVITY PROFILE CHANGE

    Formation damage in horizontal injectors

    How to use the formation damage in horizontal injectors in order to improve sweep efficiency

     
    INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CAKE FORMATION IN FRACTURED INJECTORS

    PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL - TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS                              

    Reinjection of produced water into aquifers - technological schemas

    Injector impairment problems

    Environmental concerns

    Mathematical model for produced water disposal into aquifers

    Prediction of oily drops propagation and of injectivity decline

    Field case: produced water disposal into aquifer A (Campos Basin, Brazil)

     
    DRILLING MUD INVASION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REMOVAL

    Basic equations for internal and external cake formation during drilling

    Analytical models

    How to determine particle size distribution in drilling mud that would provide minimum formation damage

     
    FINES MIGRATION IN OIL AND GAS FIELDS

    Physics of fines migration

    Effects of fines migration on formation damage

    Fines production. Sand production control

    Gravel packs. Sand screens

     
    OILFIELD SCALING IN PRODUCTION WELLS – LABORATORY STUDY

    Physics of sulphate scaling.

    Mathematical modelling. Analytical models for 1-D linear waterflood with sulphate scaling.

    Laboratory modelling of barium and strontium scaling.Laboratory set-up.A new method for determination of chemical
    kinetics in porous media.

    Exercise: calculate barium and strontium sulphate precipitation in a core

    Exercise: calculate sulphate deposition kinetics from outlet concentration

    Exercise: calculate permeability reduction from pressure drop history

    Results of lab data treatment

     
    OILFIELD SCALING IN PRODUCTION WELLS – MODELLING, FIELD STUDIES

    Analytical model for BaSO4 scaling in axi symmetric geometry. Productivity index reduction and skin factor due to scaling

    Exercise: predict productivity decline based on lab test

    Exercise: predict productivity decline based on well data

    CaSO3 oilfield scaling. Thermodynamic conditions for productivity reduction.

    BaSO4 scaling prevention. Inhibitors. Solvents.

    Field cases: Alba (North Sea), B (Brazil, Campos Basin)

     
    OILFIELD SCALING IN INJECTION WELLS

    Sulphate scaling and injectivity decline during reinjection of produced water

    Analytical model for produced water reinjection and injectivity impairment

     
    INJECTION AND PRODUCTION WELL STIMULATION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REMOVAL

     
    TAKING ADVANTAGE OF FORMATION DAMAGE TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION AND RECOVERY

    Sweep efficiency increase due to distributed skin along the horizontal injector

    Using fines migration to improve sweep during waterflooding

     
    PRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT

    Summary and Review Session.

  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary

    1.     Home assignments (20%)

    2.     Design Group Project (20%)

    3.     Class participation including quizzes (10%)

    4.     Final examination – closed book (50%)

    Assessment Detail
    Individual assessment is based on marks awarded to tests and the final examination.

    Group assessment is based on a group design report and assignment.
    Submission

    Submission of Work for Assessment

    The assessment should be submitted with a completed copy of the assessment coversheet that is available from the school office. This should be signed to indicate you have read the above university policy statement on plagiarism, collusion and related forms of cheating.

     
    Extensions for Assessment Tasks

    Extensions of deadlines for the assessment task may be allowed for reasonable causes. Such situations would include compassionate and medical grounds of the severity that would justify the awarding of a supplementary examination. Evidence for the grounds must be provided when an extension is requested. Students are required to apply for an extension to the Course
    Co-ordinator before the assessment task is due. Extensions will not be provided on the grounds of poor prioritising of time.

     
    Penalty for Late Submission of Assessment Tasks

    The assessment task must be submitted by the stated deadlines. There will be a penalty for late submission of assessment tasks. The submitted work will be marked ‘without prejudice’ and 10% of the obtained mark will be deducted for each working day (or part of a day) that an assessment task is late, up to a maximum penalty of 50% of the mark attained. An examiner may elect not to accept any assessment task that a student wants to submit after that task has been marked and feedback provided to the rest of the class.

     
    Provision of Feedback to Students

    The assessment will be returned to students within two weeks of their submission. The detailed analysis of exercises will follow each test.

    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

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    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

    Communication

    It is important that all students maintain active communication channels throughout the year. The primary communication channels to students in this course are as follows.

    MyUni:
    Students should regularly check the MyUni website (http://myuni.adelaide.edu.au/).

    Email:
    Each student should regularly check his or her University-provided email account (firstname.lastname@student.adelaide.edu.au) for information from members of the academic staff concerning course work matters and other announcements as they arise. Make sure you clean up your Inbox regularly as if it is full you will not receive our email! We will regard an email message being sent to your
    student email address or an announcement posted on the MyUni site as our having communicated with each member of the class. Not reading one’s University provided email or MyUni announcements will not be a valid excuse for missing important deadlines

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