PETROENG 3026 - Formation Damage & Productivity Enhancement
North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2014
General Course Information
Course Code PETROENG 3026 Course Formation Damage & Productivity Enhancement Coordinating Unit Australian School of Petroleum Term Semester 1 Level Undergraduate Location/s North Terrace Campus Units 3 Contact Up to 4 hours per week Prerequisites MATHS 1012 Assumed Knowledge MATHS 2201, MATHS 2104, PHYSICS 1100, PETROENG 2009, MECH ENG 2021, COMP SCI 1201 Course Description The course covers transport of colloids/suspensions in natural reservoirs and its applications to formation damage in injection and production wells, its prediction, mathematical and laboratory modelling, prevention and mitigation. The oil-production processes covered are injectivity decline, re-injection of produced water, invasion of drilling fluid, sand production, gravel pack, sand screens, fines migration, disposal of produced water, IOR. The physics phenomena caused damage include deep bed filtration, external filter cake formation, precipitation of salts, ashpaltenes and paraffines, fines migration and liberation, rock deformation and compaction, two-phase flow of suspensions and colloids. Cases of vertical, horizontal, fractured and perforated wells are discussed. Techniques of damage removal and well stimulation are presented.
The lectures are accompanied by numerous training exercises and field examples
Course Coordinator: Professor Pavel Bedrikovetski
The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.
Course Learning Outcomes
1 Understand key aspects of formation damage in different processes of oil production. 2 Explain reservoir physics of main formation damage mechanisms. 3 Describe the purpose of damage removal, prevention and mitigation, of well stimulation. 4 Understand the concepts and equipment required for water management in onshore and offshore developments. 5 Analysis of mathematical models for formation damage in different processes of oil production (waterflooding, pressure depletion, EOR). 6 Describe the applicability of different mathematical models of formation damage. 7 Explain the process and importance of injected water treatment. 8 Utilise knowledge of formation damage reservoir physics in design of damage-free oil production technologies. 9 Describe processes associated with formation damage in injection and production wells and its uses in exploration and production. 10 Apply a critical-thinking and problem-solving approach towards the principles of damage-free oil production technologies.
University Graduate Attributes
This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:
University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s) Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 1 An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 A commitment to the highest standards of professional endeavour and the ability to take a leadership role in the community. 1, 9 An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1, 9
Required ResourcesThe following two texts are an integral work book and reference for this course;
1. Civan, F.: Reservoir Formation Damage (Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation), Gulf Professional Publishing, 2nd ed (2007). Approximate cost = 150 US $
2. Tiab, D. and Donaldson, E.C., 2004, Petrophysics, Gulf Prof Publishing, 2nd Ed. Approximate cost = 160 US $
Recommended ResourcesUseful Reference Books
- Schechter, R., 1987, Well stimulation, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Engleswood, NJ, NY.
- Khilar, K. and Fogler, S., 1998: Migration of Fines in Porous Media, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/London/Boston
- Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1993, Mathematical Theory of Oil & Gas Recovery (With applications to ex-USSR oil & gas condensate fields), Kluwer Academic Publishers, London-Boston-Dordrecht, 600 p.
- Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1999, Advanced Waterflooding, Textbook, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 450 p.
Online LearningPDF’s of lecture power points and additional material will be provided via MyUni
Learning & Teaching Activities
Learning & Teaching ModesThe lectures provide an outline to formation damage and associated problems, which is supported by problem-solving tutorials and practicals developing material covered in lectures.
The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.
All lectures and Practical /Tutorials must be attended to gain the fullest knowledge in the subject. Pre-reading of the Lecture material from MyUni and recommended reference books will enable students to gain more depth of knowledge in the subject area of each lecture.
Learning Activities SummaryTopics to be treated in order of presentation:
General aspects of oil/gas production and water injection
Technical, economical and environmental aspects
Examples for water management: WESTERN SIBERIA, CAMPOS BASIN, NORTH SEA, GULF OF MEXICO, CASPIAN SEA
WATER MANAGEMENT IN OILFIELD EXPLOITATION
Water Management cycle
The need of rate maintenance
Oil recovery with waterflooding
Directions for waterflooding project
Estimates for waterflood project
Skin effect in injection and production wells
FORMATION DAMAGE OF INJECTORS: PHYSICAL MECHANISMS
Sea water injection: pore size exclusion, fine migration, molecular forces, salinity, bridging, segregation
Produced water re-injection: adsorption, capillary sorption, deformation and mobilisation of trapped particles
Aggregation of solid and liquid particles. Effects of wettability
Fines migration in oil and gas reservoirs: drag, electrostatic, adhesion and lifting forces. Other forces acting on particles in porous media
INJECTIVITY TESTS: COREFLOODING WITH FORMATION DAMAGE
Mathematical model for permeability impairment
Filtration coefficient and formation damage coefficient
Laboratory studies of deep bed filtration
Exercise: Filtration coefficient determination from laboratory measurements of outlet concentration
Exercise: Formation damage coefficient determination from laboratory measurements of pressure drop on a core
Simultaneous determination of both coefficients from pressure measurements in 3 core points
Results of laboratory tests treatment
WELL IMPAIRMENT WITH INJECTION OF WATER WITH SOLID PARTICLES
Prediction of well impairment based on laboratory test data
Direct recalculation of coreflood data to well impairment for the case of low filtration coefficient
Prediction of well impairment based on injection history
Exercise: predict injectivity decline based on coreflood data
Exercise: predict injectivity decline based on well data
Field case - already waterflooded field, Campos basin, Brazil
Field case - a young field, Campos basin, Brazil
EFFECTS OF PARTICLE AND PORE SIZES ON IMPAIRMENT
Mathematical model for deep bed filtration accounting for particle and pore size distributions
Calculation of flux reduction and accessibility factors
Analytical models for deep bed filtration for different particle and pore size distributions
Calculation of filtration coefficient for different particle and pore size distributions
Exercise: practical calculations for injected water filtering
EXTERNAL CAKE FORMATION DURING SEA WATER INJECTION
Mathematical model for external cake formation
Erosion of external filter cake. Mathematical model. Laboratory study.
Determination of cake permeability from routine coreflood data
Results of laboratory tests treatment
Exercise: extrapolate the injectivity index curve for a well
Field case - already waterflooded field, Campos basin
Exercise: explain the concave shape of injectivity index curve
Field case - a young field, Campos basin
WELL IMPAIRMENT WITH INJECTION OF OILY WATER (PRODUCED WATER REINJECTION)
Effects of remobilisation of oil droplets
Mathematical model for permeability impairment
Exercise: check whether oil drop would be mobilised at a given porous media and flow velocity
Laboratory studies of deep bed filtration for oily water
Results of laboratory tests treatment
Well impairment prediction, field examples
BACKFLOW IN INJECTORS
Removal of internal cake
Removal of external filter cake
IMPAIRMENT OF HORIZONTAL INJECTORS AND INJECTIVITY PROFILE CHANGE
Formation damage in horizontal injectors
How to use the formation damage in horizontal injectors in order to improve sweep efficiency
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CAKE FORMATION IN FRACTURED INJECTORS
PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL - TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS
Reinjection of produced water into aquifers - technological schemas
Injector impairment problems
Mathematical model for produced water disposal into aquifers
Prediction of oily drops propagation and of injectivity decline
Field case: produced water disposal into aquifer A (Campos Basin, Brazil)
DRILLING MUD INVASION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REMOVAL
Basic equations for internal and external cake formation during drilling
How to determine particle size distribution in drilling mud that would provide minimum formation damage
FINES MIGRATION IN OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Physics of fines migration
Effects of fines migration on formation damage
Fines production. Sand production control
Gravel packs. Sand screens
OILFIELD SCALING IN PRODUCTION WELLS – LABORATORY STUDY
Physics of sulphate scaling.
Mathematical modelling. Analytical models for 1-D linear waterflood with sulphate scaling.
Laboratory modelling of barium and strontium scaling. Laboratory set-up. A new method for determination of chemical kinetics in porous media.
Exercise: calculate barium and strontium sulphate precipitation in a core
Exercise: calculate sulphate deposition kinetics from outlet concentration
Exercise: calculate permeability reduction from pressure drop history
Results of lab data treatment
OILFIELD SCALING IN PRODUCTION WELLS – MODELLING, FIELD STUDIES
Analytical model for BaSO4 scaling in axi symmetric geometry. Productivity index reduction and skin factor due to scaling
Exercise: predict productivity decline based on lab test
Exercise: predict productivity decline based on well data
CaSO3 oilfield scaling. Thermodynamic conditions for productivity reduction.
BaSO4 scaling prevention. Inhibitors. Solvents.
Field cases: Alba (North Sea), B (Brazil, Campos Basin)
OILFIELD SCALING IN INJECTION WELLS
Sulphate scaling and injectivity decline during reinjection of produced water
Analytical model for produced water reinjection and injectivity impairment
INJECTION AND PRODUCTION WELL STIMULATION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REMOVAL
TAKING ADVANTAGE OF FORMATION DAMAGE TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION AND RECOVERY
Sweep efficiency increase due to distributed skin along the horizontal injector
Using fines migration to improve sweep during waterflooding
PRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT
Summary and Review Session
The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:
- Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
- Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
- Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
- Assessment must maintain academic standards.
- Home assignments (15%)
- Design Group Project (25%)
- Class participation including quizzes (10%)
- Final examination – closed book (50%)
Assessment Related RequirementsAttendance is compulsory at Practicals, Tutorials, Assignment, Project presentation and Final Exam.
Attendance at Lectures is highly advisable.
There will be two in-term tests that count towards the final assessment. Dates and times will be advised through MyUni in advance. Alternative test dates for students who cannot be present on the date of the test on medical and compassionate grounds can be requested through the Course Coordinator.
Assessment DetailIndividual assessment is based on marks awarded to tests and the final examination.
Group assessment is based on a group design report and assignment.
SubmissionSubmission of Work for Assessment
The assessment should be submitted with a completed copy of the assessment coversheet that is available from the school office. This should be signed to indicate you have read the above university policy statement on plagiarism, collusion and related forms of cheating.
Extensions for Assessment Tasks
Extensions of deadlines for the assessment task may be allowed for reasonable causes. Such situations would include compassionate and medical grounds of the severity that would justify the awarding of a supplementary examination. Evidence for the grounds must be provided when an extension is requested. Students are required to apply for an extension to the Course Co-ordinator before the assessment task is due. Extensions will not be provided on the grounds of poor prioritising of time.
Penalty for Late Submission of Assessment Tasks
The assessment task must be submitted by the stated deadlines. There will be a penalty for late submission of assessment tasks. The submitted work will be marked ‘without prejudice’ and 10% of the obtained mark will be deducted for each working day (or part of a day) that an assessment task is late, up to a maximum penalty of 50% of the mark attained. An examiner may elect not to accept any assessment task that a student wants to submit after that task has been marked and feedback provided to the rest of the class.
Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:
M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme) Grade Mark Description FNS Fail No Submission F 1-49 Fail P 50-64 Pass C 65-74 Credit D 75-84 Distinction HD 85-100 High Distinction CN Continuing NFE No Formal Examination RP Result Pending
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The assessment will be returned to students within two weeks of their submission. The detailed analysis of exercises will follow each test.
It is important that all students maintain active communication channels throughout the year. The primary communication channels to students in this course are as follows.
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