PETROENG 3026 - Formation Damage & Productivity Enhancement

North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2015

The course covers transport of colloids/suspensions in natural reservoirs and its applications to formation damage in injection and production wells, its prediction, mathematical and laboratory modelling, prevention and mitigation. The oil-production processes covered are injectivity decline, re-injection of produced water, invasion of drilling fluid, sand production, gravel pack, sand screens, fines migration, disposal of produced water, IOR. The physics phenomena caused damage include deep bed filtration, external filter cake formation, precipitation of salts, ashpaltenes and paraffin's, fines migration and liberation, rock deformation and compaction, two-phase flow of suspensions and colloids. Cases of vertical, horizontal, fractured and perforated wells are discussed. Techniques of damage removal and well stimulation are presented. The lectures are accompanied by numerous training exercises and field examples.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code PETROENG 3026
    Course Formation Damage & Productivity Enhancement
    Coordinating Unit Australian School of Petroleum
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 4 hours per week
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y
    Prerequisites MATHS 1012
    Assumed Knowledge MATHS 2201, MATHS 2104, PHYSICS 1100, PETROENG 2009, MECH ENG 2021, COMP SCI 1201
    Course Description The course covers transport of colloids/suspensions in natural reservoirs and its applications to formation damage in injection and production wells, its prediction, mathematical and laboratory modelling, prevention and mitigation. The oil-production processes covered are injectivity decline, re-injection of produced water, invasion of drilling fluid, sand production, gravel pack, sand screens, fines migration, disposal of produced water, IOR. The physics phenomena caused damage include deep bed filtration, external filter cake formation, precipitation of salts, ashpaltenes and paraffin's, fines migration and liberation, rock deformation and compaction, two-phase flow of suspensions and colloids. Cases of vertical, horizontal, fractured and perforated wells are discussed. Techniques of damage removal and well stimulation are presented.
    The lectures are accompanied by numerous training exercises and field examples.
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Professor Pavel Bedrikovetski

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 Understand key aspects of formation damage in different processes of oil production.
    2 Explain reservoir physics of main formation damage mechanisms.
    3 Describe the purpose of damage removal, prevention and mitigation, of well stimulation.
    4 Understand the concepts and equipment required for water management in onshore and offshore developments.
    5 Analysis of mathematical models for formation damage in different processes of oil production (waterflooding, pressure depletion, EOR).
    6 Describe the applicability of different mathematical models of formation damage.
    7 Explain the process and importance of injected water treatment.
    8 Utilise knowledge of formation damage reservoir physics in design of damage-free oil production technologies.
    9 Describe processes associated with formation damage in injection and production wells and its uses in exploration and production.
    10 Apply a critical-thinking and problem-solving approach towards the principles of damage-free oil production technologies.
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
    The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 1
    An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9
    A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
    A commitment to the highest standards of professional endeavour and the ability to take a leadership role in the community. 1, 9
    An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1, 9
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    The following two texts are an integral work book and reference for this course;

    1. Civan, F.: Reservoir Formation Damage (Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation), Gulf Professional Publishing, 2nd ed (2007). Approximate cost = 150 US $

    2. Tiab, D. and Donaldson, E.C., 2004, Petrophysics, Gulf Prof Publishing, 2nd Ed. Approximate cost = 160 US $
    Recommended Resources
    Useful Reference Books
    • Schechter, R., 1987, Well stimulation, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, Engleswood, NJ, NY.
    • Khilar, K. and Fogler, S., 1998: Migration of Fines in Porous Media, Kluwer Academic Publishers,   Dordrecht/London/Boston
    • Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1993, Mathematical Theory of Oil & Gas Recovery (With applications to ex-USSR oil & gas condensate fields), Kluwer Academic Publishers, London-Boston-Dordrecht, 600 p.
    • Bedrikovetsky P.G., 1999, Advanced Waterflooding, Textbook, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 450 p.
    Additional lecture notes will be provided during the lecture
    Online Learning
    PDF’s of lecture power points and additional material will be provided via MyUni
  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    The lectures provide an outline to formation damage and associated problems, which is supported by problem-solving tutorials and practicals developing material covered in lectures.
    Workload

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    All lectures and Practical /Tutorials must be attended to gain the fullest knowledge in the subject. Pre-reading of the Lecture material from MyUni and recommended reference books will enable students to gain more depth of knowledge in the subject area of each lecture.
    Learning Activities Summary
    Topics to be treated in order of presentation:

    INTRODUCTION:
    General aspects of oil/gas production and water injection
    Technical, economical and environmental aspects
    Examples for water management: WESTERN SIBERIA, CAMPOS BASIN, NORTH SEA, GULF OF MEXICO, CASPIAN SEA

    WATER MANAGEMENT IN OILFIELD EXPLOITATION
    Water Management cycle
    The need of rate maintenance
    Oil recovery with waterflooding
    Directions for waterflooding project
    Estimates for waterflood project
    Skin effect in injection and production wells

    FORMATION DAMAGE OF INJECTORS: PHYSICAL MECHANISMS
    Sea water injection: pore size exclusion, fine migration, molecular forces, salinity, bridging, segregation
    Produced water re-injection: adsorption, capillary sorption, deformation and mobilisation of trapped particles
    Aggregation of solid and liquid particles. Effects of wettability
    Fines migration in oil and gas reservoirs: drag, electrostatic, adhesion and lifting forces. Other forces acting on particles in porous media


    INJECTIVITY TESTS: COREFLOODING WITH FORMATION DAMAGE
    Mathematical model for permeability impairment
    Filtration coefficient and formation damage coefficient
    Laboratory studies of deep bed filtration
    Exercise: Filtration coefficient determination from laboratory measurements of outlet concentration
    Exercise: Formation damage coefficient determination from laboratory measurements of pressure drop on a core
    Simultaneous determination of both coefficients from pressure measurements in 3 core points
    Results of laboratory tests treatment

    WELL IMPAIRMENT WITH INJECTION OF WATER WITH SOLID PARTICLES
    Prediction of well impairment based on laboratory test data
    Direct recalculation of coreflood data to well impairment for the case of low filtration coefficient
    Prediction of well impairment based on injection history
    Exercise: predict injectivity decline based on coreflood data
    Exercise: predict injectivity decline based on well data
    Field case - already waterflooded field, Campos basin, Brazil
    Field case - a young field, Campos basin, Brazil

    EFFECTS OF PARTICLE AND PORE SIZES ON IMPAIRMENT
    Mathematical model for deep bed filtration accounting for particle and pore size distributions
    Calculation of flux reduction and accessibility factors
    Analytical models for deep bed filtration for different particle and pore size distributions
    Calculation of filtration coefficient for different particle and pore size distributions
    Exercise: practical calculations for injected water filtering

    EXTERNAL CAKE FORMATION DURING SEA WATER INJECTION
    Mathematical model for external cake formation
    Erosion of external filter cake. Mathematical model. Laboratory study.
    Determination of cake permeability from routine coreflood data
    Results of laboratory tests treatment
    Exercise: extrapolate the injectivity index curve for a well
    Field case - already waterflooded field, Campos basin
    Exercise: explain the concave shape of injectivity index curve
    Field case - a young field, Campos basin

    WELL IMPAIRMENT WITH INJECTION OF OILY WATER (PRODUCED WATER REINJECTION)
    Effects of remobilisation of oil droplets
    Mathematical model for permeability impairment
    Exercise: check whether oil drop would be mobilised at a given porous media and flow velocity
    Laboratory studies of deep bed filtration for oily water
    Results of laboratory tests treatment
    Well impairment prediction, field examples

    BACKFLOW IN INJECTORS
    Removal of internal cake
    Removal of external filter cake

    IMPAIRMENT OF HORIZONTAL INJECTORS AND INJECTIVITY PROFILE CHANGE
    Formation damage in horizontal injectors
    How to use the formation damage in horizontal injectors in order to improve sweep efficiency

    INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CAKE FORMATION IN FRACTURED INJECTORS
    PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL - TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS
    Reinjection of produced water into aquifers - technological schemas
    Injector impairment problems
    Environmental concerns
    Mathematical model for produced water disposal into aquifers
    Prediction of oily drops propagation and of injectivity decline
    Field case: produced water disposal into aquifer A (Campos Basin, Brazil)

    DRILLING MUD INVASION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REMOVAL
    Basic equations for internal and external cake formation during drilling
    Analytical models
    How to determine particle size distribution in drilling mud that would provide minimum formation damage

    FINES MIGRATION IN OIL AND GAS FIELDS
    Physics of fines migration
    Effects of fines migration on formation damage
    Fines production. Sand production control
    Gravel packs. Sand screens

    OILFIELD SCALING IN PRODUCTION WELLS – LABORATORY STUDY
    Physics of sulphate scaling.
    Mathematical modelling. Analytical models for 1-D linear waterflood with sulphate scaling.
    Laboratory modelling of barium and strontium scaling. Laboratory set-up. A new method for determination of chemical kinetics in porous media.
    Exercise: calculate barium and strontium sulphate precipitation in a core
    Exercise: calculate sulphate deposition kinetics from outlet concentration
    Exercise: calculate permeability reduction from pressure drop history
    Results of lab data treatment

    OILFIELD SCALING IN PRODUCTION WELLS – MODELLING, FIELD STUDIES
    Analytical model for BaSO4 scaling in axi symmetric geometry. Productivity index reduction and skin factor due to scaling
    Exercise: predict productivity decline based on lab test
    Exercise: predict productivity decline based on well data
    CaSO3 oilfield scaling. Thermodynamic conditions for productivity reduction.
    BaSO4 scaling prevention. Inhibitors. Solvents.
    Field cases: Alba (North Sea), B (Brazil, Campos Basin)

    OILFIELD SCALING IN INJECTION WELLS
    Sulphate scaling and injectivity decline during reinjection of produced water
    Analytical model for produced water reinjection and injectivity impairment

    INJECTION AND PRODUCTION WELL STIMULATION AND FORMATION DAMAGE REMOVAL

    TAKING ADVANTAGE OF FORMATION DAMAGE TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION AND RECOVERY
    Sweep efficiency increase due to distributed skin along the horizontal injector
    Using fines migration to improve sweep during waterflooding

    PRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT
    Summary and Review Session
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    1. Home assignments (15%)
    2. Design Group Project (25%)
    3. Class participation including quizzes (10%)
    4. Final examination – closed book (50%)
    Assessment Related Requirements
    Attendance is compulsory at Practicals, Tutorials, Assignment, Project presentation and Final Exam.

    Attendance at Lectures is highly advisable.

    There will be two in-term tests that count towards the final assessment. Dates and times will be advised through MyUni in advance. Alternative test dates for students who cannot be present on the date of the test on medical and compassionate grounds can be requested through the Course Coordinator.
    Assessment Detail
    Individual assessment is based on marks awarded to tests and the final examination.
    Group assessment is based on a group design report and assignment.
    Submission
    Submission of Work for Assessment
    The assessment should be submitted with a completed copy of the assessment coversheet that is available from the school office. This should be signed to indicate you have read the above university policy statement on plagiarism, collusion and related forms of cheating.

    Extensions for Assessment Tasks
    Extensions of deadlines for the assessment task may be allowed for reasonable causes. Such situations would include compassionate and medical grounds of the severity that would justify the awarding of a supplementary examination. Evidence for the grounds must be provided when an extension is requested. Students are required to apply for an extension to the Course Co-ordinator before the assessment task is due. Extensions will not be provided on the grounds of poor prioritising of time.

    Penalty for Late Submission of Assessment Tasks
    The assessment task must be submitted by the stated deadlines. There will be a penalty for late submission of assessment tasks. The submitted work will be marked ‘without prejudice’ and 10% of the obtained mark will be deducted for each working day (or part of a day) that an assessment task is late, up to a maximum penalty of 50% of the mark attained. An examiner may elect not to accept any assessment task that a student wants to submit after that task has been marked and feedback provided to the rest of the class.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

    Provision of Feedback to Students
    The assessment will be returned to students within two weeks of their submission. The detailed analysis of exercises will follow each test.

    Communication
    It is important that all students maintain active communication channels throughout the year. The primary communication channels to students in this course are as follows.

    MyUni: Students should regularly check the MyUni website (http://myuni.adelaide.edu.au/).

    Email: Each student should regularly check his or her University-provided email account (firstname.lastname@student.adelaide.edu.au) for information from members of the academic staff concerning course work matters and other announcements as they arise. Make sure you clean up your Inbox regularly as if it is full you will not receive our email! We will regard an email message being sent to your student email address or an announcement posted on the MyUni site as our having communicated with each member of the class. Not reading one’s University provided email or MyUni announcements will not be a valid excuse for missing important deadlines
  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
  • Fraud Awareness

    Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.