ANAT SC 2500 - Cells and Tissues II

North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2015

Cells and Tissues II considers the structure and function of cells and tissues of the mammalian body. Study of ultrastructural characteristics of the typical mammalian cell is followed by consideration of the structure of tissues, organs and systems. The features of the cells, their arrangement and their intercellular products are considered with emphasis on the relationship between microscopic structure and function. Human examples are mainly used with some material from other mammalian species. Routine techniques used for the study of cells and tissues at the light and electron microscopic levels as well as the principles of microscopy are presented early in the course. Practicals have a problem-solving approach and illustrate topics covered in lectures. Tutorials form a large component of the continuous assessment and give students ongoing feedback information on their progress in the course. Students also participate in an oral presentation and written, referenced summary on a topic in structural cell biology.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code ANAT SC 2500
    Course Cells and Tissues II
    Coordinating Unit Anatomy and Pathology
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 6 hours per week
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y
    Assumed Knowledge BIOLOGY 1101 & BIOLOGY 1201 or 1202
    Assessment Mid-semester test, tutorial papers, seminars, slide description 40%, final written & practical exams 60% - details provided at commencement of course
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Dr Julie Haynes

    Course Coordinator: Dr Julie Haynes
    Phone: +61 8 8313 5769
    Location: Room N127, Level 1, Medical School North

    Lecturer: Dr Eleanor Peirce
    Phone: +61 8 8313 5192
    Location: Room N131b, Level 1, Medical School North

    School Office
    Phone: +61 8 8313 1066
    Location: Level 4, Medical School South
    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function relationships of cells, tissues, and selected components of the body systems
    2 Demonstrate a knowledge of routine tissue processing and causes of artefacts, recognise and interpret the normal appearance and functional status of cells and tissues at the light and electron microscopic levels, and inter-relate two-dimensional histological sections with three-dimensional body structure.
    3 Demonstrate competency in using scientific electronic data bases to collect, process and analyse scientific information
    4 Demonstrate competency in compiling scientific information for delivering an oral presentation and writing a scientific summary on a histopathological topic
    5 Demonstrate competency in engaging in group work activities
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1-2
    The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 2-5
    An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 1-5
    Skills of a high order in interpersonal understanding, teamwork and communication. 3-5
    A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 2-4
    A commitment to continuous learning and the capacity to maintain intellectual curiosity throughout life. 3-4
    An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1, 4, 5
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    Cells and Tissues Manual
    Students are provided with a hard copy of the Cells and Tissues manual in the first practical session. A pdf version is also available on MyUni. The manual has essential information relating to the course and notes for all the practical and tutorial sessions.

    Essential Textbook
    Equal First Choices

    Pawlina, W; Ross, MH. (2015) Histology: A text and Atlas 7 ed LW, Baltimore. ISBN 9781451187427


    Mescher, AL (2013) Junqueira's Basic Histology 13 ed McGraw Hill, New York. ISBN 9780071780339

    (Recent, earlier editions of both books are also suitable)

    Recommended Resources
    Histology Text

    Kerr, JB. (2010) Functional histology, 2nd ed. Mosby Elsevier, Sydney

    Young B, Woodford P, O’Dowd G. (2014) Wheater’s Functional Histology, 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, London.

    Kierszenbaum AL, Tres L. (2012) Histology and Cell Biology, 3rd ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia


    Other Reference Textbooks and Sources

    Textbooks on Cellular Biology (eg. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts et al)

    Anatomy and Physiology texts (eg. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Tortora and Derrickson)

    Physiology texts (eg. Human Physiology, Sherwood) etc. will also be very helpful BUT will not be a complete replacement for the recommended texts.


    It is assumed that students will also obtain information from scientific journals and specialised books online or from the Barr Smith Library.

    Online Learning
    All the learning and teaching resources for lectures, practicals and tutorials are available on MyUni, as well as assignments, assignment coversheets, additional images for each practical, answers to tutorials and practical questions, and question papers for past exams and mid-semester tests. Recordings of lectures are also available for most lectures on MyUni.
  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    Lectures, tutorials, practicals, and workshops are the formats through which the course is presented.
    Attendance at practicals and tutorials is compulsory and both require prior preparation. During practicals, students have access to ‘virtual microscopes’ to examine nanozoomed images of histological slides on computers as well as digital images, scanned microscopic images, copies of diagrams, drawings, and micrographs. Practical notes with questions guide students in self-directed learning. Emphasis is placed on relationships between microstructure and function. Some practicals are structured as workshops with students interacting with each other in small groups to complete set tasks.

    Most tutorials have set assignments that are submitted a few days prior to each tutorial and are part of the summative assessment. Tutorials include discussion of answers to set questions, presentation of short talks, and review of some practical components. The ongoing feed-back given to students in the assessment of tutorials assists their learning skills and understanding.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    Contact Hours



    Total Hours




    35 hours of lectures

    24hours of practicals

    11 hours of tutorials



    70 hours




    30 mins mid semester test

    150 mins theory exam

    30 mins practical exam



    3.5 hours

    Non Contact Hours




    independent reading & revision

    40 hours

    40 hours

    assessment tasks

    16 hours for seminar talk and written summary, slide description project

    20 hours for tutorial/ practical assessments




    36 hours

    Total workload for semester (12 teaching & 1 non-teaching weeks)


    149.5 hours

    Workload per week for 12 week-semester*


    12.4 hours/wk


    * Expected workload for 3-unit course is 12 hours per week.

    Learning Activities Summary
    Cells and Tissues II (ANAT SC 2500)

    Generic Timetable









    L1:Techniques & Microscopy


    L2:Cell Structure & Function 1


    L3:Cell Structure & Function 2


    P1: Microscopy, Tissue Preparation   

    No Tutorial




    L4: Basic Tissue Types & Epi-thelial Biology 1

    L5: Epithelial

    Biology 2


    L6:Epithelial Biol 3         

    Connective Tissue (CT) 1

    P2: Cells, Tissue Types


    T1: Introductory




    L7: CT Biology 2



    L8: CT Biology 3



    L9: Nervous Tissues 1


    P3: Epithelium



    T2: Microscopy, Cells, & Tissue Types


    L10: Nervous Tissues 2


    L11: Nervous Tissues 3


    L12:Muscle Microstructure


    P4: CT Structure & Function


    T3: Seminars:

    Part A Topics 1–6



    L13: Blood 1



    L14: Blood 2



    L15: Blood Vessels


    P5: Nervous Tissues, Muscle


    T4: Epithelium & Connective Tissue



    L16: Lymphoid Tissues 1


    L17: Lymphoid Tissues 2


    L18: Liver Microstructure


    P6: Blood      Workshop


    T5: Nervous & Muscle Tissues






    L19: Digestive System 1


    L20: Digestive System 2        

    P7:Vessels, Lymphoid  Workshop


    part B Topics 7 to 12


    L21: Digestive System 3


    L22: Respiratory System 1


    L23:Respiratory 2 & Renal Sys 1

    P8: Digestive System, Liver

    GIT Project

    T7: Seminars: Part C Topics 13–18


    L24: Renal System 2


    L25: Cartilage & Bone


    L26: Bone & Ossification


    P9: Resp. & Renal Systems


    T8:Blood,  Vessels  Lymph & Digestive Systems


    L27: Bone Growth & Skin 1


    L28: Skin 2



    L29: Endocrine Glands 1


    P10: Bone, Ossification


    T9: Respiratory System, Kidney,



    L30:  Endocrine Glands 2


    L31: Ovary: Follic-ular Dynamics

    L32: Uterus: Menstrual Cycle


    P11: Skin, Endocrines


    T10: Bone, Skin




    L33: Male Germ Cell Dynamics

    L34:Fertilization to Implantation

    No Lecture



    P12: Reproductive Systems

    No Tutorial




    L35: Course Summary; What’s next in Anatomy?







    Trial Prac Exam



    T11: Repro & Endo Systems



    JH: Dr Julie Haynes       JT: Dr Jeff Trahair       EP: Dr Eleanor Peirce

    Synopsis of Lectures for Cells and Tissues, 2013
    Histological Techniques and Basic Structure of Cells (3 lectures)
    Techniques of tissue preparation for light and electron microscopy. Principles of microscopy.
    Brief review of membrane structure. Distribution and significance of cellular membranes.
    Histological features of interphase, dying, and dividing nuclei.
    Relationship between nuclear appearance, cellular activity and cellular identity.
    Relationship between cytoplasmic ultrastructure and cellular function.

    Cells to Tissues, Epithelium (3 lectures)
    Characteristics of four basic tissues (epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous). Structural features of epithelial cells; lateral & free surface modifications, basal laminae. Epithelial types & functions.
    Relationship between epithelial ultrastructure & function: eg. absorption, transportation, secretion.
    Features of epithelial secretory cells. Relationship between type of secretion and cellular ultrastructure. Myoepithelial cells.

    Connective Tissues (3 lectures)
    Characteristics and function of the components of connective tissue.
    Characteristics and function of different connective tissue types.

    Nervous and Muscular Systems (4 lectures)
    Divisions of N.S.; neurones and support cells of the nervous system, myelination, structure of nerve fibres, nerves, ganglia, sensory & motor nerve endings.
    Introduction to the autonomic nervous system.
    Characteristics of contractile tissue, particularly skeletal muscle.

    Blood Cells (2 lectures)
    Life history of red blood cell, characteristics of anaemia
    Life history of leukocytes and platelets, characteristics of anaemia

    Vascular System (1 lecture)
    Functional histology of vascular tissue.

    Lymphoid System (2 lectures)
    Lymph circulation, structure-function relationships of lymph nodes.
    T and B lymphocytes, features of the thymus, structure-function relationships of the spleen.

    Digestive System (4 lectures)
    Generic structure of the gastrointestinal tract,
    Structural basis of digestion, absorption, barrier/immunity and the regulation and integration of these processes; cellular differentiation and division.
    Functional histology of the liver.

    Respiratory System (2 lectures)
    Microstructure and function of upper respiratory tract.
    Functional microstructure of lungs.

    Kidneys (1 lecture)
    Overview of regions of the kidney; microstructural basis of kidney function.

    Cartilage, Bones, Ossification (2 lectures)
    Microarchitecture of cartilage and bone
    Formation and growth of bones.

    Skin (2 lectures)
    The structure-function relationships of skin
    Skin colour

    Endocrine Cells (2 lectures)
    General structural biology of endocrines; immunocytochemical identification of endocrine cells.
    Characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pancreatic islets of Langerhans.

    Reproductive Systems (4 lectures)
    Spermatogenesis and oogenesis; reproductive hormones;
    Ovarian and menstrual cycles; fertilization.

    Small Group Discovery Experience
    In Cells and Tissues, the student seminar tutorials engage the students in preparing and presenting a short talk and associated written summary on a given medical sciences topic that has a focus on normal versus abnormal microstructure and function. Students gain confidence in delivering a short scientific presentation and further develop their research and scientific writing skills from first year. One of the unique aspects of the student seminars is to promote the importance of being an active audience member during seminar presentations and individual students are rewarded for asking questions about the topic at the end of each presentation.
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    Assessment Task Assessment Type Weighting Learning Outcome(s) being addressed
    Final theory exam Summative 40% 1-2
    Final practical exam Summative 8% 1-2
    Tutorial & practical assignments Formative and Summative 26% 1-3
    Mid-semester test Formative and Summative 6% 1-2
    Oral and written seminar presentations Formative and Summative 10% 1-5
    Slide description assignment Formative and Summative 10% 1-2
    Assessment Related Requirements
    NB. For a student to attain a pass in Cells and Tissues II:
    1. At least 45% must be attained for the combined theory and practical examinations.
    2.All components of the assessment must be attempted or else a grade of fail will be recorded.
    Student seminars, tutorials and practicals are compulsory. Students must attend all student seminar sessions and 90% of tutorials and practicals.
    Assessment Detail
    Final theory exam (40%) & Practical Exam (8%).

    This evaluates the individual student’s understanding and knowledge of the contents in the course and reflects the learning outcomes from continuous formative and summative assessment tasks during the semester.


    Tutorial and Practical Assignments (26%)

    These frequent tasks form almost half of the semester continuous assessment score. All but the worst assignment contribute to this summative component of the assessment. The assignments encourage the students’ continual learning processes, so that they can understand basic principles, introduced early in the course, and progressively incorporate this basic knowledge into more complex concepts as the course progresses. The almost weekly tutorials provide extensive opportunities for formative assessment where students can reflect on the effectiveness of their learning styles and become aware of other successful methods in responding to problems and questions in assignments. This is also achieved when students self-assess or peer assess assignments.


    Mid-semester test (6%)

    This evaluates student’s individual learning and understanding of the first half of the course and makes them aware of the expected level of knowledge associated with the course.


    Student Seminar, scientific oral and written presentations (10%)

    This assignment has summative and formative assessment. Students are provided with detailed instructions, guidelines, and copies of the assessment sheet for this component of the assessment. Before the assignment, students analyse examples of very poor and very good written presentations and discuss strategies for producing stimulating oral presentations. The completed assessment sheet with comments is returned to the student.


    Slide description assignment (10%).

    This assesses the student’s skills in examining a histological section, identifying its components and distinguishing between what cells and structures are theoretically present in a section of an organ and what is actually identifiable in a given histological section. Students who achieve low grades in this assessment have the opportunity to repeat the assignment and consolidate their skills.

    Answers to most tutorial assignments must be submitted for assessment in the Cells and Tissues Assignment box that is located on the right side of the corridor, first floor, Medical School North, just around the corner from the lifts and office. by the due date specified on the question paper. For most tutorial assignments, the due date is the Thursday, 4 days prior to the Tuesday tutorial. Cover sheets that must be read, completed, signed, and stapled to each assignment are available next to the assignment box or can be downloaded from MyUni. Practical assignments need to be written on the assignment sheets available on MyUni and completed before the start of the relevant practical sessions whereby they can be submitted for assessment. Turn-around time for assessment of tutorial assignments is less than a week. The assessment of Student Seminars and the Slide Description assignments will be completed and returned to students by the last week of the semester, at the latest.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.


    Semester 1 primary exams will be held from late June to early July. The exam timetable is available mid May.

    For Cells and Tissues the practical exam will be held on the Thursday of Swot Vac in the computer suites, Barr Smith South, Room 1063.

    The theory exam will be held at the Adelaide Showgrounds, Wayville during the examination period.



    Details on replacement/ additional assessment can be found at: 

    Students will be advised by email immediately their results are finalised if they become eligible for a replacement/ additional assessment which are offered:

          1. On medical grounds, if a doctor’s certificate, produced within a week of the examination is deemed to indicate genuine disability at the time of the final examination.

          2.  On compassionate grounds for special circumstances with supporting documentation

          3.  On academic grounds to students who fail, yet obtain at least 40% in the combined theory   and practical examination.


    The replacement/ additional assessment application form is available at Students who wish to apply for a replacement/ additional assessment on medical or compassionate grounds must apply through the School of Medical Sciences within 7 days of the occurrence of the condition or circumstances. Where the occurrence falls on the day of the primary exam, students must apply within 5 working days of that date.

    Semester 1 replacement/ additional assessments will be held in the last week of the mid-year break.

    For Cells and Tissues, the replacement/ additional assessment theory exam is held in the morning in the Bonython Hall, North Tce Campus, University of Adelaide and the practical exam is held in the afternoon of the same day in Barr Smith South, Room 1063, unless otherwise advised.


    NB: PLEASE BE AWARE THAT THE REPLACEMENT/ ADDITIONAL ASSESSMENT WILL NOT BE OFFERED AT A VENUE OUTSIDE THE NORTH TERRACE CAMPUS, UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE, OR ON A DIFFERENT DAY. If you are planning holidays or journeys interstate or overseas, ensure you have returned to Adelaide ten days before the start of second semester.


    Academic replacement/ additional assessment theory and practical exams will count 54%.

    Marks for continuous assessment are not redeemable and will count 46%.

    NB.    Results of medical and compassionate replacement/ additional assessments replace final exam results, even if supplementary results are worse than the final exam results.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy ( course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

    In response to students’ comments given in SELT surveys, lectures are now recorded and available on MyUni. Images and answers from tutorial and practical assignments are now made available on MyUni. Many practicals have also been revamped in response to students’ suggestions.
  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
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