ANAT SC 2500 - Cells and Tissues II

North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2017

In Cells and Tissues II the microscopic structure of mammalian cells and tissues and how they are organized into organs and systems is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the ability to recognize normal structure and to integrate normal structural features with their functions. Topics are presented using a variety of learning and teaching approaches and incorporate the use of virtual microscopy and exposure to high-resolution photographs and images of human and animal tissues. Opportunities are provided to expand basic knowledge and understanding through observational approaches and exploration of targeted research literature.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code ANAT SC 2500
    Course Cells and Tissues II
    Coordinating Unit Medical Sciences
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 6 hours per week
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y
    Incompatible ANAT SC 2109
    Assumed Knowledge BIOLOGY 1101 & BIOLOGY 1201 or 1202
    Assessment Progress test, slide analysis, oral presentation, topic reviews 50%; final theory and practical examinations 50%
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Dr Eleanor Peirce

    Course Coordinator: Dr Eleanor Peirce
    Phone: +61 8 8313 5191
    Location: Room N111d, Level 1, Medical School North

    Course Co-coordinator: Dr Kim Hynes
    Phone: +61 8 8313 2242
    Location: Room N127, Level 1, Medical School North

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function relationships of cells, tissues, and selected components of the body systems.
    2 Demonstrate a knowledge of routine tissue processing and causes of artefacts, recognise and interpret the normal appearance and functional status of cells and tissues at the light and electron microscopic levels, and inter-relate features in two-dimensional histological sections with three-dimensional body structure.
    3 Demonstrate competency in using scientific electronic databases to source scientific information.
    4 Demonstrate competency in processing, critically analysing, compiling and referencing scientific information for a variety of communication formats.
    5 Demonstrate competency in engaging in group work activities.
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Deep discipline knowledge
    • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
    • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
    • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
    1, 2
    Critical thinking and problem solving
    • steeped in research methods and rigor
    • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
    • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
    2, 3, 4
    Teamwork and communication skills
    • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
    • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
    • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
    4, 5
    Career and leadership readiness
    • technology savvy
    • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
    • forward thinking and well informed
    • tested and validated by work based experiences
    Intercultural and ethical competency
    • adept at operating in other cultures
    • comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
    • able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
    • demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
    Self-awareness and emotional intelligence
    • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
    • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
    • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    Essential Textbook

    Ready access to one of the essential textbooks (equal first choices) is required, as these textbooks provide the basic information and readings around which class activities are based.

    Ross, MH & Pawlina, W. (2016) Histology: A text and Atlas 7 Ed. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia. ISBN 978-1-4511-8742-7


    Mescher, AL (2013) Junqueira's Basic Histology 13 Ed. McGraw Hill, New York. ISBN 978-0-0717-8033-9

    (Recent, earlier editions of both books are also suitable.)

    Recommended Resources
    In addition to the essential textbook, we recommend that you access other resources about histology and cell biology online or via the Barr Smith Library, including texts, atlases of images, journal articles and online media. Examples of several suitable texts are provided below.

    Histology Text

    Kerr JB (2010) Functional Histology, 2nd Ed. Mosby Elsevier, Sydney
    Kierszenbaum AL & Tres L. (2012) Histology and Cell Biology, 3rd Ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia
    Young B, Woodford P & O'™Dowd G (2014) Wheater'™s Functional Histology, 6th Ed. Churchill Livingstone, London.

    Other Reference Textbooks and Sources

    • Textbooks on Cellular Biology (e.g. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts et al)
    • Anatomy and Physiology texts (e.g. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Tortora and Derrickson)
    • Physiology texts (eg. Human Physiology, Sherwood) etc. will also be very helpful BUT will not be a complete replacement for the recommended texts.

    Readings and links to online media for specific course topics are provided via MyUni.

    Online Learning
    The following items are available online via MyUni to all students enrolled in the course:
    • All learning and teaching resources for face-to-face classes, e.g. prepared notes, links to animations, video clips, external websites and databases, activity worksheets, additional images for practical and tutorial classes.
    • Recordings of all lecture classes. Discussions from practical and tutorial classes will not be recorded. Students are expected to attend and actively participate in these classes.
    • All materials related to course assessment, e.g. task instructions and marking guidelines,  topic review quizzes and worksheets, student seminar guidelines, slide analysis task.
    • Feedback on assessment, e.g. quiz answers, marking rubrics and writtenand/or audio comments on assignments.
    • Revision materials including answers to tutorials and practical questions, and question papers for previous year's final exams and progress tests.
    • Extension activities.

  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    Cells and Tissues II is presented as large class lectures, practicals/workshops, and small group tutorials. Attendance at practicals, workshops and tutorials is necessary in order to fully achieve the course learning outcomes and prior preparation is required both for these classes and for flipped classroom lectures.

    Some lectures will follow a standard presentation format where foundation knowledge and concepts will be introduced. Other lectures (where deemed appropriate), will implement the “flipped classroom” approach. Preparation for these sessions is necessary; pre-class foundation knowledge will be delivered online via narrated lectures, annotated notes, annotated readings and/or short videos or animations. Face-to-face class time will be spent clarifying difficult points and extending and applying knowledge using team-based learning.

    During practicals, students have access to a virtual microscope and slidebox of histological slides via computer, as well as static digital
    images, scanned microscopic images, diagrams, drawings, and micrographs. Slide descriptions that incorporate questions and tissue recognition activities guide students in self-directed learning, and students have the opportunity to discuss their findings with peers and staff. Emphasis is placed on investigating relationships between microstructure and function. Some practicals are structured as workshops where students interact with each other in small groups to investigate a topic and complete designated tasks. As part of the basic histology module, each student also prepares and presents an answer to an assigned question on cell or tissue biology.

    In addition to preparatory reading or review of lecture materials, tutorial classes require completion of a short task prior to the face-to-face session.  In-class tutorial activities include examination and analysis of micrographs, discussion of answers to set questions,  and review or extension of selected activities from lectures and practical classes. The ongoing feed-back provided to students in the assessment of tutorials assists their learning skills and understanding.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    Structured Learning Activities Number of Sessions Duration of Sessions (hrs) Total Hours
    Assessment Tasks & % Assessment Allocated Number of Sessions Expected Preparation Time/Session (hrs) Total Hours
    Progress Test (5%)
    Slide Analysis (10%)
    Oral Presentation (10%)
    Topic Reviews (25%)
    Practical Examination (10%)
    Theory Examination (40%)
    Non-contact Activities Number of Sessions Anticipated Time/Session (hrs) Total Hours
    Weekly reading & other study for lectures
    Preparation & Review - Tutorials
    Preparation & Review - Practicals/Workshops
    Total Hours for Course 148

    * Expected workload for 3-unit course is 12 hours per week, based on 12 teaching and 1 non-teaching weeks.

    Learning Activities Summary
    Topics covered in the Cells and Tissues course are outlined below. The sequence of topics may vary from year to year, according to timetabling and staff constraints.


    Part A: Basic Histology - 6 weeks

    1. Histological Techniques and Basic Structure of Cells

    Techniques of tissue preparation for light and electron microscopy. Principles of microscopy.
    Brief review of membrane structure. Distribution and significance of cellular membranes.
    Histological features of interphase, dying, and dividing nuclei.
    Relationship between nuclear appearance, cellular activity and cellular identity.
    Relationship between cytoplasmic ultrastructure and cellular function.

    2. Cells to Tissues, Epithelium
    Characteristics of the four basic tissues (epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous).
    Structural features of epithelial cells; lateral & free surface modifications, basal laminae.
    Epithelial types & functions.
    Relationship between epithelial ultrastructure & function: eg. absorption, transportation, secretion.
    Features of epithelial secretory cells. Relationship between type of secretion and cellular ultrastructure. Myoepithelial cells.

    3. Connective Tissues
    Characteristics and functions of the components of connective tissue.
    Characteristics and functions of different connective tissue types.

    4. Nervous Tissue and Muscle
    Organisation of the nervous system and composition of nervous tissue.
    Nerve fibres, Schwann cells and myelination in the peripheral nervous system, structure of nerves and nerve bundles.
    Overview of external structure and internal appearance of the brain, ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid.
    Distribution and histology of white and grey matter, neuroglial cells and myelination in CNS.
    Protection of brain & spinal cord; meninges.
    Introduction to the autonomic nervous system.
    Muscle terminology.
    Characteristics of muscle types, with emphasis on skeletal muscle.
    Muscle-connective tissue, and muscle-nerve relationships.
    Hypertrophy & hyperplasia in muscle tissue.

    5. Cartilage, Bones, Ossification
    Microarchitecture of cartilage and bone.
    Formation and growth of bones.

    6. Skin
    Structure-function relationships within skin.
    Skin colour.

    Part B: Systems Histology - 6 weeks

    7. Blood and Vascular System
    Life history of red blood cell, characteristics of anaemia.
    Life history of leukocytes and platelets, characteristics of anaemia.
    Functional histology of vessels and heart.

    8. Lymphoid System
    Lymph circulation, structure-function relationships of lymph nodes.
    T and B lymphocytes, features of the thymus, structure-function relationships of the spleen.

    9. Digestive System
    Generic structure of the gastrointestinal tract.
    Structural basis of digestion, absorption, barrier/immunity.
    Regulation and integration of digestive processes.
    Cellular differentiation and division.
    Functional histology of the liver.

    9. Respiratory System
    Microstructure and function of upper respiratory tract.
    Functional microstructure of lungs.

    10. Renal System
    Overview of regions of the kidney; microstructural basis of kidney function.
    General structure and function of ureters and bladder.

    11. Endocrine System
    General structural biology of endocrines; immunocytochemical identification of endocrine cells.
    Characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pancreatic islets of Langerhans.

    12. Reproductive Systems
    Spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
    Reproductive hormones and control of reproduction.
    Ovarian and menstrual cycles.

    Specific Course Requirements
    There are no specific requirements.
    Small Group Discovery Experience
    There is no official SGDE in Cells and Tissues, however several opportunities exist in tutorials  and workshops whereby students interact in small groups to undertake research or communicate research findings.
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    Assessment Task Task Type Weighting Course Learning Outcomes
    Oral presentation Formative & Summative 10% 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
    Progress test Formative & Summative 5% 1, 2
    Slide Analysis Formative & Summative 10% 1, 2
    Topic Reviews Formative & Summative 25% 1, 2, 3
    Final Practical Examination Summative 10% 1, 2
    Final Theory Examination Summative 40% 1, 2

    For assessment tasks where the assessment type is shown as formative and summative, students have an opportunity to resubmit unsatisfactory work. In the case of the progress test, the assessment is redeemable via the final theory exam.
    Assessment Related Requirements
    Students must meet the following requirements to be awarded a pass grade in Cells and Tissues II:
    1. A  mark of at least 40% (i.e. 20/50) must be attained for the combined theory and practical examinations.
    2. Students must attend 90% of tutorial and practical/workshop classes (except in cases where valid medical/compassionate documentation for absences is supplied). Attendance at these classes is recorded and active participation in class activities is required. Failure to attend or participate will compromise ability to achieve the course learning outcomes.
    Students are strongly encouraged to attempt all components of the assessment (exams, topic review assignments/quizzes, slide analysis and oral presentation) in order to maximise their course grade.

    Assessment Detail
    Oral Presentation (10%)
    This task has summative and formative components and aims to develop competence in (i) researching a topic that extends the core course content, and (ii) orally communicating findings using appropriate discipline specific terminology. Students are provided with detailed instructions, guidelines, and copies of the assessment criteria prior to the task, as well as video clips illustrating pitfalls commonly seen in student presentations. Students have an opportunity to discuss these videos, the attributes of stimulating oral presentations and strategies for producing them, and each student also participates in assessment of their peers. Verbal and/or written feedback on presentation strengths and weakness are provided to each student following the presentation.

    Progress Test (5%)

    The progress test evaluates each student’s individual learning and understanding of the basic histology topics and provides feedback on how a student is tracking. It raises awareness of the expected level of knowledge needed to achieve a pass grade, and enables timely implementation of  a remediation strategy for a student, should it be required.

    Slide Analysis (10%)
    The slide analysis assignment assesses the student’s skills in examining and interpreting a histological section. It involves the application of theoretical knowledge gained from lectures to a particular specimen. Students must identify components in their section and distinguish between what cells and structures are theoretically present in the tissues and/or organ and those that are actually identifiable in the given histological section. Students who achieve low grades in this assessment have the opportunity to repeat the assignment and consolidate their skills.

    Topic Review Assignments/Quizzes (25%)
    These onlne review tasks occur at intervals throughout the semester and encourage continual learning processes, so that students can master basic principles, understand content introduced early in the course, and progressively incorporate this basic knowledge into more complex contexts as the course progresses. The face-to-face classes (tutorials, practicals/workshops) support student learning and provide extensive opportunities for formative assessment; students can reflect on the effectiveness of their learning styles and become aware of other successful methods in responding to assignment questions and problems.

    Final theory exam (40%) & Practical Exam (10%)
    The theory and practical examinations evaluate the individual student’s understanding and knowledge of course content and their ability to apply it in previously encountered and new contexts.  Achievement in the examinations frequently reflects the level of engagement with the learning outcomes and the continuous formative and summative assessment tasks during the semester.
    Submission Process

    Topic Review activities  (e.g. quiz and short answer questions, workshop assignments), and the Slide Analysis must be submitted online and received by the advertised due date. Late submissions will be marked, however penalties (a deduction of 10% of the mark allocated for the assessment/per day or part therof from the submission deadline) will be applied up until 7 days post-deadline, after which an automatic 0 will apply.

    Submission Deadlines

    All submission deadlines are prominently displayed in MyUni at the commencement of the course and appear on the online submission dropbox for the task.

    Requests for an Extension of Assessment Deadline

    Assessment extensions may be granted in line with the University's "Modified arrangements for coursework policy", clause 3, Assessment Extensions.  Requests for assessment tasks scheduled during the semester must be submitted in writing (email is acceptable) to the course coordinator prior to the submission deadline. Extension requests received after the submission deadline will not be considered unless there are exceptional circumstances and applications are accompanied by appropriate supporting documentation.

    Marking of Assessment Tasks and Provision of Feedback

    Student achievement scores for automatically marked tasks are made available immediately on submission. Feedback on correct and incorrect responses is released 7 days after the submission deadline to allow for completion by students with legitimate extensions of submission.

    The anticipated turn-around for feedback and return of staff marked assessment tasks is 2 weeks from the submission deadline for the activity. While every endeavour is made to achieve this, delays may occur due to staff workload, or late submission by students.

    Verbal feedback will be provided by staff at the completion of each group of student oral presentations.

    A progress test review and feedback session is scheduled for week 7 of semester.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

    Primary Examinations

    Semester 1 primary exams are held from late June to early July. The exam timetable is available mid May from the Examinations website.
    For Cells and Tissues the practical exam is held in Swot Week in the computer suites, Barr Smith South, (Rooms 1059, 1060 and 1063).
    The theory exam is held at the Adelaide Showgrounds, Wayville during the official examination period.

    Semester 1 Replacement/Additional Assessment

    Details on replacement/additional assessment can be found at:

    Semester 1 replacement/ additional assessments will be held in the last week of the mid-year break.  For Cells and Tissues, the replacement/additional assessment theory exam is held in the morning and the practical exam is held in the afternoon of the same day, unless otherwise advised.

    NB: PLEASE BE AWARE THAT THE REPLACEMENT/ ADDITIONAL ASSESSMENT WILL NOT BE OFFERED AT A VENUE OUTSIDE THE NORTH TERRACE CAMPUS, UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE, OR ON A DIFFERENT DAY. If you are planning holidays or journeys interstate or overseas, ensure you have returned to Adelaide ten days before the start of semester 2.


  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy ( course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

    In response to students’ comments given in SELT surveys, lectures are now recorded and available on MyUni. Images and answers from tutorial and practical assignments are now made available on MyUni. Many practicals have also been revamped in response to students’ suggestions.
  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
  • Fraud Awareness

    Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

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