ANAT SC 2109 - Biology and Development of Human Tissues

North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2016

Biology and Development of Human Tissues investigates the microscopic structure-function relationships of cells and tissues in the major organs and the development of gametes, fertilization, implantation, and early embryonic and placental development. The course builds upon knowledge of basic tissues gained in Human Biology I. Topics include blood and haemopoiesis, the respiratory, cardiovascular, lymphoid, renal, digestive, endocrine and reproductive systems. The course also considers the role of structural cell biology in biomedical research, including reproduction. Practical and tutorial sessions provide opportunities for visual investigation of material and expansion of concepts presented in the lectures as well as developing student skills in oral and written scientific presentations.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code ANAT SC 2109
    Course Biology and Development of Human Tissues
    Coordinating Unit Medical Sciences
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 6 hours per week
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y
    Incompatible ANAT SC 2500
    Assumed Knowledge ANAT SC 1102 & ANAT SC 1103
    Restrictions Available to B Health Sci, B Psych (Hons) & B Psych Sci students only
    Assessment Mid-semester test, tutorial papers, seminars, slide description 40%, final written & practical exams 60% - details provided at commencement of course
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Dr Viythia Katharesan

    Course Coodinator: Dr Eleanor Peirce
    Phone: +61 8 8313 5191
    Location: Room N131b, Level 1, Medical School North

    Lecturer & Co-coordinator: Ms Viythia katharesan
    Phone: +61 8 8313 4526
    Location: Room N131c, Level 1, Medical School North

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes
    1 Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function relationships of cells and tissues in myeloid and lymphoid tissues, and selected components of the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, renal, endocrine, and reproductive systems.
    2 Demonstrate a knowledge of how cells, tissues and organs are prepared for light and electron microscopy and how to recognise artefactual changes in histological preparations.
    3 Recognise and inter-relate the normal two dimensional appearance of cells and tissues at the light & electron microscopic levels with the in vivo three dimensional state
    4 Demonstrate an understanding that histological structure is interpreted from a series of still representations taken at different functioning stages of the organism.
    5 Demonstrate competency in using electronic data bases to collect, process & analyse scientific information.
    6 Demonstrate competency in compiling scientific information for delivering an oral presentation and writing a scientific summary on a histopathological topic.
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Deep discipline knowledge
    • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
    • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
    • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
    1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
    Critical thinking and problem solving
    • steeped in research methods and rigor
    • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
    • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
    2, 3, 4, 5 6
    Teamwork and communication skills
    • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
    • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
    • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
    2, 5, 6
    Career and leadership readiness
    • technology savvy
    • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
    • forward thinking and well informed
    • tested and validated by work based experiences
    5, 6
    Intercultural and ethical competency
    • adept at operating in other cultures
    • comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
    • able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
    • demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
    5, 6
    Self-awareness and emotional intelligence
    • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
    • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
    • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
    5, 6
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    Course Manual
    A pdf version of the Biology and Development of Human Tissues Course Manual is available on MyUni. This manual is a compilation of all of the essential information relating to the course.

    Essential Textbook
    Both textbooks are suitable; select according to readability and learning style. 

    Pawlina, W & Ross, MH (2016) Histology: A Text and Atlas 7th Ed. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia. ISBN 978-1-4511-8742-7
    Mescher, AL (2013) Junqueira's Basic Histology 13th Ed, McGraw Hill, New York. ISBN 978-0-0717-8033-9
    Recommended Resources

    Histology Texts

    Kerr, JB. (2010) Functional histology, 2nd ed. Mosby Elsevier, Sydney
    Young B, Woodford P, O’Dowd G. (2014) Wheater’s Functional Histology, 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, London.
    Kierszenbaum AL, Tres L. (2012) Histology and Cell Biology, 3rd ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia

    Other Reference Textbooks and Sources
    Textbooks on Cellular Biology (eg. Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts et al)
    Anatomy and Physiology texts (eg. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Tortora and Derrickson

    Physiology texts (eg. Human Physiology, Sherwood) etc. will also be very helpful BUT will not be a complete replacement for the recommended texts.

    It is assumed that students will also obtain information from scientific journals and specialised books online or from the Barr Smith Library.
    Online Learning
    All the learning and teaching resources for lectures, practicals and tutorials are available on MyUni, as well as assignments, assignment coversheets, additional images for each practical, answers to tutorials and practical questions, and question papers for past exams and mid-semester tests. Recordings of lectures are also available for most lectures on MyUni.

    The following items are available online via MyUni to all students enrolled in the course:

    All learning and teaching resources for face-to-face classes, e.g. prepared notes, links to animations, video clips, external websites and databases, activity worksheets, additional images for practicals.

    Mymedia recordings of most lectures. Discussions from practical and tutorial classes will not be recorded.
    Students are expected to attend and actively participate in these classes.

    Assessment items, e.g. quizzes, student seminar guidelines, slide description task. Feedback on assessment, e.g. quiz answers, marking rubrics and written comments on assignments.

    Revision materials including answers to tutorials and practical questions, and question papers for previous year's exams and mid-semester tests.

  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    Biology and Development of Human Tissues is presented via lecture, tutorial, practical class, and workshop formats. Attendance at practicals, workshops and tutorials is compulsory and these classes require prior preparation. During practicals, students have access to ‘virtual microscopes’ to examine nanozoomed images of histological slides on computers as well as digital images, scanned microscopic images, copies of diagrams, drawings, and micrographs. Practical notes with questions guide students in self-directed learning, and students have the opportunity to discuss their findings with peers and staff. Emphasis is placed on investigating relationships between microstructure and function. Some practicals are structured as workshops with students interacting with each other in small groups to complete set tasks. Most tutorials require completion of quiz and short answers questions that are submitted online a few days prior to the class and are part of the summative assessment. Tutorial activities include examination and analysis of micrographs, discussion of answers to set questions, presentation of short talks, and review or extension of selected activities from practical classes. The ongoing feed-back provided to students in the assessment of tutorials assists their learning skills and understanding.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    Contact Hours Activity Hours Total Hours

    29 hours
    22 hours
    8 hours

    59 hours
    Exams, tests 30 minute mid-semester test
    150 minute theory exam
    30 minute practical exam
    3.5 hours
    Total Contact Hours 62.5 hours
    Non-Contact Hours Activity Hours Total hours
    Independent reading & revision   42 hours
    Assessment tasks 12 hours preparation for tutorials
    9 hours preparation for practicals
    20 hours preparation for seminars, slide description, tutorial & practical assigments
    41 hours
    Total Non-Contact Hours 83 hours
    Total Workload Hours/Semester
    145.5 hours
    12.1 hours
    *Expected workload for 3-unit courses is 12 hours per week.
    Learning Activities Summary
    A detailed weekly timetable for lectures, tutorials and practicals is in the Course Manual available on MyUni a pdf in late February.

    Synopsis of Lectures for Biology and Development of Human Tissues

    Cardiovascular System (2 lectures)
    Functional histology of blood vessels, capillaries & microcirculation.
    Functional histology of the heart

    Blood Cells (2 lectures)
    Life history of red blood cells.
    Life history of leukocytes and platelets.

    Lymphoid System (2 lectures)
    Lymph circulation, structure-function relationships of lymph nodes.
    T and B lymphocytes, features of the thymus, structure-function relationships of the spleen.

    Endocrine Cells (2 lectures)
    General structural biology of endocrines; immunocytochemical identification of endocrine cells.
    Characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pancreatic islets of Langerhans.

    Digestive System (4 lectures)
    Generic structure of the gastrointestinal tract,
    Structural basis of digestion, absorption, barrier/immunity and the regulation and integration of these processes; cellular differentiation and division.
    Functional histology of the liver.

    Reproductive Systems (4 lectures)
    Exocrine and endocrine functions of the testis
    Follicular dynamics of the ovary.
    Structure and functional changes of the uterus in the menstrual cycle
    Prostate and breast in health and disease

    Reproductive Biology, Early Embryology (7 lectures)
    Early embryology
    Sex determination and differentiation
    Causes and treatment of infertility

    Respiratory System (2 lectures)
    Microstructure and function of upper respiratory tract.
    Functional microstructure of lungs.

    Kidneys (1 lecture)
    Overview of regions of the kidney; microstructural basis of kidney function.
    Small Group Discovery Experience
    There is no official SGDE in Biology and Development of Human Tissues, however several opportunities exist whereby students interact in small groups to undertake research or communicate research findings. An example is the student seminar tutorials, for which each student prepares and presents a short talk and associated written summary on a given medical sciences topic that has a focus on normal versus abnormal microstructure and function. Students gain confidence in delivering a short scientific presentation and further develop their research and scientific writing skills from first year. A unique aspect of the student seminars is to promote the importance of being an active, engaged audience member during seminar presentations. Engaged audience members are rewarded for asking questions about the topic at the end of each presentation.
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary

    Assessment Task Assessment Type Weighting Learning Outcome(s) being addressed
    Final theory exam Summative 40% 1
    Final practical exam Summative 8% 1-4
    Tutorial & practical assignments Formative and Summative 26% 1-6
    Mid-semester test Formative and Summative 6% 1-4
    Oral and written seminar presentations Formative and Summative 10% 1, 2, 5, 6
    Slide description assignment Formative and Summative 10% 1-4
    Assessment Related Requirements
    Students must meet the following requirements to be awarded a pass grade in Biology and Development of Human Tissues:

    1. A mark of at least 45% (i.e. 21.5/48) must be attained for the combined theory and practical examinations.

    2. Students must attend all student seminar sessions and 90% of tutorial and practical classes, except in cases based on medical/compassionate grounds that have been notified to staff via  Attendance at and participation in these classes are compulsory.

    Students are strongly encouraged to attempt all assessments (exams, tutorial and practical assignments/quizzes, slide description and student seminar) to maximise their grades.

    Assessment Detail
    Final Theory exam (40%) & Practical Exam (8%). This evaluates the individual student’s understanding and knowledge of the contents in the course and reflects the learning outcomes from the continuous formative and summative assessment tasks during the semester.

    Tutorial and Practical Assignments (26%) These frequent tasks form half of the semester continuous assessment score. All but the worst assignment contribute to this summative component of the assessment. The assignments encourage the students’ continual learning processes, so that they can understand basic principles, introduced early in the course, and progressively incorporate this basic knowledge into more complex concepts as the course progresses. The almost weekly tutorials provide extensive opportunities for formative assessment where students can reflect on the effectiveness of their learning styles and become aware that there are several successful methods in responding to problems and questions in assignments. This is also achieved when students self-assess or peer-assess assignments.

    Mid-semester test (6%) This evaluates student’s individual learning and understanding of the first half of the course and makes them aware of the expected level of knowledge associated with the course.

    Scientific oral and written presentation (10%) This assignment has summative and formative assessment. Students are provided with detailed instructions, guidelines, and copies of the assessment sheet for this task. Before the assignment, students analyse examples of very poor and very good written presentations and discuss strategies for producing stimulating oral presentations. The completed assessment sheet with comments is returned to the student.

    Slide description assignment (10%) This assesses the student’s skills in examining a histological section, identifying its components and distinguishing between what cells and structures are theoretically present in a section of an organ and what are actually identifiable in a given histological section. Students who achieve low grades in this assessment have the opportunity to repeat the assignment and consolidate their skills.
    Submission Process
    Submission of tutorial and practical assessment activities (e.g. quiz and short answer questions, workshop assignments) is online via MyUni and must be received by the advertised due date. Late submissions will be marked, however penalties (a deduction of 10% of the mark allocated for the assessment/per day) will be applied up until 7 days post-deadline where an automatic 0 will apply.

    The Written Summary associated with the Student Seminar Oral Presentation must be submitted online via MyUni in the appropriate Assignment box for the topic group by 4.00pm Sunday of the same week as the in-class presentation.

    The completed worksheet and the microscope slide from the Slide Description Project must be submitted for assessment in person via the Biology and Development of Human Tissues box, level 1, Medical School North, by the advertised due date.  [Note: The assignment box is situated on the right hand side of the main east-west corridor, just around the corner from the lifts].

    Submission Deadlines
    All submission deadlines will be prominently displayed in MyUni - Course Information, at the commencement of the course.
    Provision of Feedback/Return of Assignments Pre-tutorial quizzes and short answer questions will be marked prior to the class -
    hence it is imperative that answers are submitted on time. Verbal feedback will be provided at the class and additional comments and/or sample answers will be posted on MyUni during the week following the class.The anticipated turn-around for feedback and return of other tutorial and practical activities, and the slide description is 2 weeks from the submission deadline for the activity. While every endeavour will be made to achieve this, delays may occur due to staff workload. Written comments on the Student Seminar task will only be available after all students have given their seminar and submitted their written summary. There will however be an opportuity to receive informal feedback following each group of seminar presentations.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

    Semester 1 primary exams will be held from late June to early July. The exam timetable is available mid May.
    For Biology and Development of Human Tissues the practical exam will be held during Swot Vac in the computer suites,
    Barr Smith South, Rooms 1059, 1060, 1063.

    The theory exam will be held at the Adelaide Showgrounds, Wayville during the examination period.

    Details on replacement/ additional assessment can be found at:

    Semester 1 replacement/ additional assessments will be held in the last week of the mid-year break.
    For Biology and Development of Human Tissues, the replacement/additional assessment theory exam is held in the morning in the Bonython Hall, North Tce Campus, University of Adelaide and the practical exam is held in the afternoon of the same day in Barr Smith South, Room 1063, unless otherwise advised.


  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy ( course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

    In response to students’ comments given in SELT surveys, lectures are now recorded and available on MyUni. Images and answers from tutorial and practical assignments are now made available on MyUni. Many practicals have also been revamped in response to students’ suggestions.
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  • Policies & Guidelines
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