MECH ENG 3108 - Sports Materials

North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2014

A solid foundation of materials science and engineering is required to successfully design sports equipment and to understand its structural properties. Sports equipment covers the full range of traditional biological materials like wood to advanced spacecraft materials. The appropriate selection and design of sports materials enhances the performance of athletes and prevents injuries. This course introduces the fundamental concepts of material models including mathematical modelling, followed by specific properties and applications of materials for the design of sports equipment. One topic provides the design guide for protective equipment. The section on materials testing covers the fundamental concepts of experimental design and specific application to sports equipment according to rules and standards issued by governing sporting bodies and professional associations. The section on human biological materials covers the biomechanics of soft and hard tissues and their importance for sports injuries

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code MECH ENG 3108
    Course Sports Materials
    Coordinating Unit School of Mechanical Engineering
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 4.5 hours per week
    Assumed Knowledge CHEM ENG 1009, MECH ENG 2103 & MECH ENG 2002
    Restrictions BE (Mechanical & Sports)
    Course Description A solid foundation of materials science and engineering is required to successfully design sports equipment and to understand its structural properties. Sports equipment covers the full range of traditional biological materials like wood to advanced spacecraft materials. The appropriate selection and design of sports materials enhances the performance of athletes and prevents injuries.
    This course introduces the fundamental concepts of material models including mathematical modelling, followed by specific properties and applications of materials for the design of sports equipment. One topic provides the design guide for protective equipment. The section on materials testing covers the fundamental concepts of experimental design and specific application to sports equipment according to rules and standards issued by governing sporting bodies and professional associations. The section on human biological materials covers the biomechanics of soft and hard tissues and their importance for sports injuries
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Associate Professor Paul Grimshaw

    NameRoleBuilding/RoomEmail

    Dr Claire Jones

    Lecturer for Sports & Biological Materials and Composites 1-130-S (South Wing, IMVS Building, Frome Road) claire.jones@adelaide.edu.au
    A/Prof Andrei Kotousov Lecturer for for Solid Mechanics part Engineering South Building, S207 andrei.kotousov@adelaide.edu.au
    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes

    The primary aim of the course is to provide students with the basic skills and knowledge required to analyse displacement, stress, strain and failure in deformable solids and biological tissues using analytical solutions and the Finite Element Method. At the completion of the course, students should:

    1 Have a good understanding the theory, concepts, principles and governing equations of solid mechanics and bio-materials,
    2 Be gaining the physical intuition necessary to idealize a complicated practical problem,
    3 Possess the contemporary analytical, experimental and computational tools needed to solve the idealized problem,
    4 Have acquired the independent judgment required to interpret the results of these solutions,
    5 Further develop interpersonal understanding, teamwork and communication skills working on group assignments,
    6 Be able to learn independently new solutions, principles and methods, read and understand professional articles on the subject,
    7 Have an overview of specific materials used in the sports industry,
    8 Be capable of designing protective equipment,
    9 Understand the principles of human tissue mechanics,
    10 Be capable of understanding sports injuries.
    University Graduate Attributes

    No information currently available.

  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources

    You are required to have access to the following texts:

    1. Lecture notes in Solid Mechanics by A. Kotousov (for solid mechanics section)
    2. Additional required reading will be posted on the MyUni learning area for this course.
    Recommended Resources

    Please see the MyUni learning area for this course which is located at the following:

    https://myuni.adelaide.edu.au and type in the course name or code
    (Sports Materials – MECH ENG 3108).

    Recommended texts for Sports & Biological Materials:
    1. Bartel et al. Orthopaedic Biomechanics: mechanics and design in musculoskeletal systems. Pearson Prentice Hall Bioengineering, 2006. ISBN 0-13008-9095
    2. Margareta Nordin, Victor H. Frankel [editors]. Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.
    3. Mow & Huiskes [editors].Basic orthopaedic biomechanics & mechano-biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, c2005.
    4. Nigg and Herzog (Editor), Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System, Wiley, 2007.
    5. Jenkins M: Materials in Sports Equipment, Vol. 1. CRC Press / Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2003.
    6. Subic A. Materials in Sports Equipment, Vol. 2. CRC Press / Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2007.
    7. Gibson LJ, Ashby MF. Cellular Solids. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997
    8. Mills N: Polymer Foams Handbook. Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier, Oxford, 2007.
    9. Hong Y, editor. International Research in Sports Biomechanics. Routledge Publishers, New York, 2002. ISBN – 0415262302.
    10. Subic A J and Haake S J, editors. The Engineering of Sport: research, development and innovation. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK, 2000. ISBN – 0-632-055634.
    Recommended Reading for Solid Mechanics part:
    1. Ugural, A.C. and Fenster, S.K. Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, Pearson Education Inc. 1995.
    2. Cook, R.D. and Young, W.C., Advanced Mechanics of Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1999.
    3. Bower, A.F., Advanced Mechanics of Solids at Brown University, US (web-based lecture notes) http://www.engin.brown.edu/courses/en175/.
    4. Bickford, W.B. Advanced Mechanics of Materials, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1988.
    5. Curtis, H.D. Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
    6. Moaveni, S. Finite element analysis: theory and application with ANSYS, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.
    7. Timoshenko, S.P. and Goodier, J.N. Theory of Elasticity, 1981 (Well written, and contains lots of useful solutions to elastic boundary value problems, but the book does not cover plasticity or finite element analysis).
    8. Lai W., Rubin D. and Krempl, E. An Introduction to Continuum Mechanics, 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995.
    9. Gould, P.L. Introduction to Linear Elasticity, Springer-Verlag New York Inc, 1983.
    10. Budynas, R.G. Advanced Strength and Applied Stress Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1999.
    11. Den Hartog, J.P. Advanced Strength of Materials, Dover Publishing, 1996.
    12. Barber, J.R., Elasticity, (A modern and well-written introduction to linear elasticity).
    13. Saada, A.S. Elasticity Theory and Applications, Pergamon Press Inc, 1974.
    14. Malvern, L.E. Introduction to the Mechanics of Continuous Media, (recommended for advanced students only).
    Recommended texts for Composites:
    1. Askeland D.R. The Science and Engineering of Materials 3rd SI Edition, Chapman and Hall 1999.
    2. Callister W.D., Materials Science and Engineering, an Introduction, 7ed, Wiley, 2007.
    3. Ashby M.F., Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 3ed, Elsevier, 2005.
    4. Kalpakjian S. and Schmid S.R., Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 6ed, Pearson Ed, 2010.
    5. Hull, D., An introduction to Composite Materials, Cambridge University Press, 1st ed, 1981
    6. Chawla. K. K., Composite Materials-Science and Engineering, Springer, 2nd ed, 1998
    7. Clyne T.W. and Withers P.J., An Introduction to Metal Matrix Composites, Cambridge University Press, 1st ed, 1993
  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes

    As per university recommendations: it is expected that students spend 48 hrs/week during teaching periods, and that a 3 unit course has a minimum workload of 156 hours. Additional time may need to be spent acquiring assumed knowledge, working on assessment during non-teaching periods, and preparing for and attending examinations.

    Workload

    No information currently available.

    Learning Activities Summary

    Sport Materials & Composites (50%):

    Sports and Biological Materials

    • Polymers, properties and applications (golf balls, cover and core)
    • Rubbers, properties and applications (infills, artificial turf, rubber tracks, rubber balls)
    • Polymer and rubber foams, principles of cellular solids, energy absorption, properties and applications (cushions, sandwich panels, protective equipment)
    • Design of protective equipment with foams
    • Natural materials (leather, wood, cork; cork balls, wooden bats, racquets and sticks)
    • Metals and alloys, properties and applications (clubs, racquets, bats, climbing equipment) IB
    • Tennis strings and climbing ropes
    • Composite materials, carbon fibres and MMC, properties and applications (racquets, vaulting poles, bicycles, wheelchairs, skis and snowboards)
    • Piezoelectric materials, properties and vibration control (racquets, bats, skis, snowboards)

    Human Biological Materials

    • Tendons, properties, energy storage and return
    • Bone tissues, properties and fracture mechanics
    • Cartilage tissues, properties and injuries
    • Non-linear visco-elastic modelling
    • Load transfer between tissues
    • Overuse/overstrain syndromes and injury management

    Composites

    • Fibre reinforced composites
    • Principles of reinforcement
    • Mechanical properties
    • Manufacturing routes
    • Other composites
    • Applications

    Solid Mechanics (50%):

    1. INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW (5%)

    1. Course organization and policies
    2. Prerequisites
    3. Finite Element Project

    2. CONCEPT OF STRESS (5%)

    1. Stress at a point
    2. Principal stresses and principal directions
    3. Equilibrium equations
    4. Stress transformation equations

    3. CONCEPT OF STRAIN (5%)

    1. Strain-displacement equations
    2. Normal, shear and volumetric strain
    3. Compatibility equations

    4. BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIALS (5%)

    1. Stress-Strain curve
    2. Strain hardening, plasticity and visco-elasticity
    3. Generalized Hooke's law
    4. Interpretation of elastic constants
    5. Solid Mechanics in Engineering Design
    6. Examples

    5. ELEMENTARY SOLUTIONS OF THE THEORY OF ELASTICITY (10%)

    1. Fundamental principles of analysis
    2. General solution for axisymmetric problems
    3. Shrink-fit theory and compound cylinders
    4. Spinning disks

    6. PLASTICITY (10 %)

    1. Elementary models of the theory of plasticity
    2. Plasticity action in pressurized cylinder
    3. Residual stresses
    4. Fracture-Safe design concept

    OTHER ADVANCED TOPICS (Time permitting)

    CATCHUP AND REVISION (Time permitting)

    Specific Course Requirements

    None

  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary

    The Sports Materials module is worth 50% of the course assessment and the Solid Mechanics module is worth 50% of the course assessment.

    Assessment Related Requirements

    Assignments, project, quizzes, laboratory reports 30%

    Final Exam 70%

    The Final exam will be scheduled in the University exam weeks.

    All assignments are due by 5pm on the due date. Details of each task are tabulated below. Please note that while every effort has been made to ensure that this information reflects an accurate plan, the coordinate and lecturers have the right to make changes that ensure the continual improvement of the course. Any such changes will be mad clear during the lectures and via MyUni.

    Assessment task Weighting % Description Due Learning objectives
    (See 2.1 above)
    Solid Mechanics
    Assignment 1 3 Stress-Strain Friday, week 5 1-5
    Assignment 2 3 Elasticity Friday, week 9 1-5
    Assignment 3 3 Plasticity and FE Friday, week 11 1-5
    FE Tutorials 1 Report Friday, week 12 3
    Lab Classes 1 Report Friday, week 12 3
    Quizzes 4 Test on all parts Weeks 1 – 12 1-5
    Final Exam 35 Open book Exam period 1-7
    Sports/biological materials, & composites
    Laboratory 7.5 Materials testing Week 9 (TBC)
    Tutorial 1.5 Knee dissection Week 10 (TBC)
    Project 6 Group project Week 12 (TBC)
    Final exam 35 Open book Exam period
    Assessment Detail
    Sports/Biological Materials

    Sport Materials Laboratory 1: Materials testing

    This laboratory will involve materials testing (sports or biological). You will be required to submit a formal laboratory report for assessment and this will be 15% in the assessment of the Sports/Biological/Composite Materials part of this course (7.5% of total course). This laboratory class will likely take place within Week 3-6 and the report will be submitted 2 weeks from the date of the laboratory. Attendance is mandatory.

    Sport Materials Tutorial: Knee dissection

    This tutorial will involve the systematic dissection of a pig knee to determine the function, structure and qualitative properties of the tissues of the knee. This tutorial will be carried out at UniSA. You will be required to submit a short report for assessment and this will be 3% of the assessment in the Sports/Biological Materials part of this course (1.5% of total course). This tutorial class will likely take place within Week 1 of the mid-semester break and the report will be submitted 2 weeks from the date of the laboratory. Attendance is mandatory.

    Sport Materials Project

    There will be a group project based on the applications of composite materials in sports equipment and/or biological materials. Further details will be provided at the beginning of semester. This assessment will be 12% of the assessment in the Sports/Biological Materials part of this course (6% of total course). The report will likely be due Friday Week 12, this will be confirmed at the beginning of semester.

    Solid Mechanics

    Assignments 1 – 3

    There are problem-solving exercises. These problems will be discussed in class in detail before the due date. Example problems with full worked solutions will be considered in class and the solutions of the assignment’s problem will be available on MyUni.

    FE Tutorials Report

    This is an individually written assignment on the FE modelling part of the course and will involve problem-solving exercises. The timetable of FE tutorials will be available on MyUni in the beginning of semester.

    Lab Classes Report

    This is a group assignment on the experimental study part of the course. The timetable for the lab classes will be available on MyUni in the beginning of semester.

    Quizzes

    Quizzes are individual in-class assignments and this includes problem-solving exercises to be completed in 45 min with full worked solutions to be available on MyUni.

    Submission

    Solid Mechanics Quizzes will be collected at the end of tutorial.

    All other Solid Mechanics assignments and reports must be submitted as a hard copy accompanied by an assessment cover sheet. These must be placed in the labelled box located on level 2 of Engineering South Building.

    All Sports/Biological Materials and Composites assessments must be submitted in hard-copy, accompanied by an assessment cover sheet, to the “Sports Materials” box located on level 2 of Engineering South Building AND must be submitted electronically in PDF format via email to claire.jones@adelaide.edu.au

    Late assessments will be penalised 10% per day. Extensions for assignments and reports will only be given in exceptional circumstances and a case for this with supporting documentation can be made in writing after a lecture or via email. Hard copy assignments will be assessed and returned in 2 weeks of the due date. There will be no opportunities for re-submission of work of unacceptable standard.

    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

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