TRADE 7005 - Agriculture and Food in International Trade
North Terrace Campus - Winter - 2015
General Course Information
Course Code TRADE 7005 Course Agriculture and Food in International Trade Coordinating Unit Institute for International Trade Term Winter Level Postgraduate Coursework Location/s North Terrace Campus Units 3 Contact 1 week intensive Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Y Quota A quota of 50 applies Course Description This intensive course is a core course for the Masters in International Trade and Development (MITD) and is also offered as an elective for students pursuing other degree paths at the University of Adelaide. The course is central to the MITD because no student can claim competence in the trade and development area without understanding fully the important area of agriculture and food's role in economic development and international trade. Understanding agricultural policy models, the role of intergovernmental organizations, how supply chains operate in concrete situations and the growing impact of new impediments to trade such as those manifested in private standards are all key to appreciating today's globalized market for agriculture and food. Finally, the food and agriculture area is one that has witnessed dramatic transformation in markets and methods in recent years with retailers gaining an ever greater influence over production and distribution decisions.
As with other core courses in the MITD program, this course is designed to give graduates an extra competitive edge by providing them with a practical and case study based background in global production and trade in food and agricultural products. Students' exposure in the course of the week to several different and practically experienced experts as lecturers helps to guarantee development of a strong in-depth background in the topic.
Course Coordinator: David Morfesi
The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.
Course Learning OutcomesInternational trade in agricultural goods and food involves a set of highly specialized business skills with a great deal of variability in expertise from one product to another. Varying from bulk transport of commodities to specialized high-value niche products, each product brings its own challenges and needs and the course looks at the full supply chain for different types of goods.
On successful completion of this intensive course, students will be able to:
1 Appreciate and explain different national models for agricultural production and trade and their implications for the trading system; 2 Understand and interpret special agricultural trade policies and policy instruments; 3 Explain how agriculture and reforms affect economic development and food security – with a special focus on the developing world; 4 Understand how global food processors and retailers manage the supply chain; 5 Understand how value chain analysis can be applied in specific sectoral contexts to help in the identification of export opportunities; 6 Appreciate changing global patterns of consumption and distribution of food and how market access is affected by private standards; 7 Gain an in-depth view into the operations and governance of global markets for food and agriculture; 8 Research the practical applicability of concepts addressed in the course to real life situations in international trade and investment
University Graduate Attributes
This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:
University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s) Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 4, 5, 6, 8 An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 8 Skills of a high order in interpersonal understanding, teamwork and communication. 6, 7 A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 A commitment to continuous learning and the capacity to maintain intellectual curiosity throughout life. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 A commitment to the highest standards of professional endeavour and the ability to take a leadership role in the community. 6 An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Required ResourcesThere are no textbooks for this course. Required readings are provided in the Course Reader
This course requires a considerable amount of reading if students wish to participate actively in class discussions. Because the course is taught in intensive mode and there will only be a limited amount of time for reading once the five-day course has started, students should make a start on this material as soon as possible.
Session One: Policy Models and Trade Consequences Lecturer(s):
Agricultural Policy Models
Europe’s Common Agricultural Policy
Agriculture in Australia
The first session of the course deals with the importance of agricultural policy and trade for sustainable economic development and examines different models and the evolution of these models over the past several decades.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Staff 2009, 'European Union', in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Staff, Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, Washington, pp. 116-148.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Staff 2009, ‘Australia', in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Staff, Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation, Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, Washington, pp. 116-148.
- Harris, David, 2004, Agricultural policy reform and industry adjustment: Some recent experiences in Australia
Session Two: Changing Patterns of Food Consumption and Global Distribution Lecturer:
A/Prof Wendy Umberger
The Role of Agricultural Trade in Emerging Economies
Trade Reforms and Poverty Impacts
Food Security and Trade
The Food Crisis and the Rise of State Corporate Farms<p/
In the second session of the course, we examine in greater detail the role of agricultural development in alleviating rural poverty and contributing to food security in developing countries where rising income levels and rapidly growing populations are changing historical patterns of production, trade and dietary requirements.
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2005, ‘Agricultural Trade and Poverty: Can Trade Work for the Poor? - Introduction and Overview’ in The State of Food and Agriculture 2005, FAO, Rome
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2005, ‘Trade and Food Security’, The State of Food and Agriculture 2005, FAO, Rome
- Anderson K. 2010, Globalization’s effects on world agricultural trade; 1960 – 2050., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol. 365 No. 1554., pp 3007-3021
- Anderson K, Cockburn J.& Martin W. 2011., Would Freeing Up World Trade Reduce Poverty and Inequality? The Vexed Role of Agricultural Distortions World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5603.
Session Three: Trade Policy and Instruments Lecturer(s):
Tariff Rate Quotas
Safeguards and Special Safeguards
Standards (Marketing Orders)
CODEX Alimentarius & Quarantine
The Salmon Dispute
Export CreSdits and Export Subsidies
Session 3 is focused on the policy instruments deployed by governments to restrict access to their market for agricultural and food products as well as ways in which they operate agricultural policies on export markets. In addition, we examine the relationship between international standards and national policies designed to ensure food safety and plant and animal health.
- Echols, Marsha A. 2001, 'Risks and risk assessment', in Echols, Marsha A., Food safety and the WTO: the interplay of culture, science, and technology, Kluwer Law International, London, pp. 77-91.
- Hoekman, Bernard & Trachtman, Joel P. 2008, ‘Canada – Wheat : discrimination, non-commercial considerations, and the right to regulate through state trading enterprises’, World Trade Review, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 45-66
Session Four: Food Aid and Case Studies in Developing Countries Agriculture Lecturer(s):
Food Aid and Agricultural Trade Reform
Case Studies of Developing Countries in Agriculture
Session 4 takes a close look at food aid – a complex subject on the global agricultural scene. When is food aid effective at relieving hunger in countries which have a difficult time paying for their imported food needs and when is food aid a disguised subsidy? What could be the best practice for food aid in the early 21st Century? In the second part of the session, we look at agriculture policy development in Indonesia and Fiji in an effort to compare and contrast how agriculture policy interfaces with development.
- Finn, John. 2009, ‘Food Aid: commitments and oversight’, in Andrew Stoler, James Redden and Lee Ann Jackson. (eds),Trade and Poverty Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 227-251.
- Smith, Hamish & Lee Ann Jackson. 2009, ‘Samoan agricultural policy: graduating from LDC status’, in Andrew Stoler, James Redden and Lee Ann Jackson (eds)., Trade and Poverty Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 270-286.
- Irhamni, Milda and Chaikal Nuryakin. 2009, ‘The Rice Sector in West Java’, in Andrew Stoler, James Redden and Lee Ann Jackson. (eds), Trade and Poverty Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 306-324.
Session Five: Agricultural Trade in Emerging Economies Lecturer:
Drivers and governors of changing food marketing systems
Globalization of high value food chains
The role of consumers: dietary shifts and global food consumption patterns
The Precautionary Principle versus Sound Science
Traceability, Transparency and Assurance (TTA) Systems
Session 5 will provide an overview of the key drivers of changing food marketing systems, including globalization and changing consumer preferences as well as a discussion of various food policies impacting global food systems. Two general philosophies or approaches used internationally in the regulation of food production and distribution, the ‘Precautionary Principle’ and ‘Sound Science’, are presented. The relationship between food system changes and differences in food policies across countries has led to the need for traceability, transparency and assurance systems (TTA). The role and economic implications of TTA systems in food trade will be discussed.
- Anderson, Kym 2010, ‘Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960-2050’, Philosophical Transactions. Biological Sciences, vol. 365, no. 1554, pp. 3007-3021.
- Godfray, H. Charles J., Crute, Ian R., Haddad, Lawrence, Lawrence, David, Muir, James F., Nisbett, Nicholas & et al. 2010, ‘The future of the global food system’, Philosophical Transactions. Biological Sciences, vol. 365, no. 1554, pp. 2769-2777.
- Henson, Spencer & Caswell, Julie 1999, ‘Food safety regulation : an overview of contemporary issues’, Food Policy, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 589–603.
- Pingali, Prabhu 2006, ‘Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems : implications for research and policy’, Food Policy, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 281–298.
- Hobbs, Jill E. 2006, 'Liability and traceability in agri-food supply chains', in Ondersteijn, Christien J. M., Wijnands, Jo H. M., Huirne, Ruud B. M. & Van Kooten, Olaf (eds.), Quantifying the agri-food supply chain, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 87-102.
- Loureiro, Maria L. & Umberger, Wendy J. 2007, ‘A choice experiment model for beef: what US consumer responses tell us about relative preferences for food safety, country-of-origin labeling and traceability’, Food Policy, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 496–514.
Session Six: Global Supply Chains: Governance of Supply Chains and Role of Standards Lecturer:
Overview of global food standards
The role of public versus private standards and mandatory versus voluntary
Implications of standards and certification requirements for developing and developed countries: challenges and opportunities
International case studies: the case of Global Gap
Session 6 takes a look at the increasingly important role that food standards play in global food systems. The number of food standards, both public and private, has increased dramatically in the last decade. These food quality and food safety standards play a central role in regulating agri-food trade. An overview of the various types of food quality and safety standards and certification programs will be provided. The role of public versus private standards will be discussed. Food standards can be both a challenge and an opportunity for agriculture and food producers in developing countries. The impact of various food standards on the competitiveness of developing countries in world trade will be discussed using case studies examining the impact of standards and certifications on agricultural producers and food industries in Asia and Africa.
- Dolan, Catherine & Humphrey, John 2000, Governance and trade in fresh vegetables : the impact of UK supermarkets on the African horticulture industry, Journal of Development Studies, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 147-176.
- Barno A, Ondanje B., and Ngwiri J., 2011, Dynamics of Horticultural Export to European Union Market: Challenges and Opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Henson, Spencer & Reardon, Thomas 2005, Private agri-food standards : implications for food policy and the agri-food system, Food Policy, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 241–253.
- Henson, Spencer & Jaffee, Steven 2008, Understanding developing country strategic responses to the enhancement of food safety standards, World Economy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 548–568.
- Henson, Spencer & Humphrey, John 2011, Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains as they impact developing countries, Journal of Development Studies, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1628-1646.
- Henson, Spencer, Masakure, Oliver & Cranfield, John 2011, Do fresh produce exporters in sub-Saharan Africa benefit from GlobalGAP certification?, World Development, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 375–386.
- Maertens, M. and Swinnen JFM. 2006. 'tandards As Barriers And Catalysts for Trade and Poverty Reduction', Paper presented at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economist, Queensland Australia
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Develpment (2007) Challenges and Opportunities Arising from private Standards on Food safety and Environment for Exporters of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables in Asia: Experiences of Malaysia, Thailand and Viet Nam, Geneva: United Nations.
Session Seven & Eight: Case Studies in Industry Wide Value Chain Development Lecturer:
Value Chain Thinking / Industry Wide Value Chain Analysis
National Case Study / Chain Mapping Exercise
National and International Case Study Examples
Industry Analysis Exercise
Session 7 & 8 will make use of case studies to demonstrate value chain analysis techniques across several very different industries and geographical situations. The approach which is described will highlight the development benefit to industries as well as some very practical and commercial benefits to the private sector partners.
- Department for International Development (DFID) and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). 2008, ‘3. Components of the M4P Intervention Process’ in The Operational Guide for the Making Markets Work for the Poor (M4P) Approach, DFID & SDC, UK and Switzerland, pp7-70
- Taylor, DH 2005, 'Value chain analysis: an approach to supply chain improvement in agri-food chains', International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 744-761
- Fearne A. 2009, Sustainable Food and Wine Value Chains (final report), Government of South Australia, Adelaide.
- FAO, 2010 Agriculture for Growth: learning from experience in the Pacific: Summary results of five country studies in Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, FAO, Rome.
Session Nine & Ten: Accessing Retail Channels in Asia and the Middle East Lecturer:
Practical approaches to exporting food and beverages in Asia and the Middle East
Developing in-market entry platforms for Australian exports
Creating new value chain models to access retail and food service markets
Export management (creating demand pull and supply push)
The Singapore Pavilions
Using Asia and the Middle East as the basis for examination of case studies, session 9 & 10 will look at the rapidly changing role of supermarkets in the developing world, how Australian exporters of high value food products have been able to successfully access these markets and the impact of changing patterns of consumption as income levels rise in the developing world.
- Beinhocker E.D., Farrell D. & Zainulbhai A.S. 2007.,’Tracking the growth of India’s Middle Class’, in The McKinsey Quarterly., Number 3, pp 51 --61
- Ernst & Young. 2006.,The Great Indian Retail Story, Ernst & Young, India
- Reardon T & Gulati A. 2008.,’The Rise of Supermarkets and their Development Implications: International Experience Relevant for India’: IFPRI Discussion Paper 00752, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington
- Rabobank. 2007., Strengthening the India-Australia Corridor in Select Food and Agribusiness Sectors
Session Ten: Wrap-up and Research Project Assignment Lecturer:
Review and Discussion of Main Course Themes
Project Options & Assessment Implications
Learning & Teaching Activities
Learning & Teaching Modes
The course will be presented by way of ten sessions of approximately three hours each and will include a review session at the end of the intensive week.
Teaching will be partly by way of lecture and partly on the basis of a discussion of case studies. Please ensure you bring your reading and reference materials to the classes, and use the classes to address any questions that you may have.
To successfully pass your course, you will need to allocate an appropriate time commitment to your study. In addition to the formal contact time required for each of your courses (e.g. intensive modules delivered by lectures, case studies and group work), you will need to allocate non-contact time.
Non-contact time will be required for a range of activities which may include, but are not limited to, assessment tasks, reading, researching, note-taking, revision, writing, consultation with staff, and informal discussions with other students.
The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.
Students in this course are expected to attend all classes throughout the intensive week-long course and to do extensive background reading from the course reader. Please refer to Access Adelaide for your timetable and enrolment details .
In addition to time spent in class and reading materials required for active participation in the class, students will be required to write an extensive take-home essay as the assessment project for this course. Overall, students in TRADE 7005 should expect to devote a minimum of 36 contact hours and 156 non contact hours to study in this course.
Learning Activities Summary
Taught as a one-week intensive course, each day will be split into 2 different sessions.
For course content, see Required Readings for details
Specific Course Requirements
Students in this course are expected to attend all classes throughout the intensive week-long course and to do extensive background reading from the course reader.
The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:
- Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
- Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
- Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
- Assessment must maintain academic standards.
Assessment Task Task Type Due Weighting Learning Outcome Four-part take home written assignment * Summative
TBC - Typically approx
3-4 weeks after the last day of class
* Assessment for this course is based 100 percent on the student's performance as measured through an intensive, four-part take home written assignment is designed to gauge the degree to which the student has successfully absorbed the range of material discussed during the intensive week of classes.
The take-home assignment given to students and/or uploaded onto MyUni after the class week.
The assignment is designed to gauge how well they have learned the material presented in the course of the intensive week of classes.
The assignment contains 4 broad questions that must be addressed through a written essay and appropriate charts and diagrams.
Assignments must be submitted two ways:
- Softcopy through Turnitin on MyUni; AND
- Hardcopy in the assignment drop-box. This is located on the ground floor of Nexus 10 (10 Pulteney St)
All assignments must be presented professionally with clear headings, appropriate referencing and using one and a half spacing.
Extensions are normally only granted on medical, compassionate and extenuating circumstances and are supported by appropriate documents. Requests for extensions, where possible, must be received in writing by the course coordinator at least 24 hours before the final due date. Late submissions will be penalised.
Your assignment must include the IIT assignment cover sheet which can be downloaded from MyUni under “Assignments”. Each page must be numbered with your student ID and name.
Please contact the course coordinator, preferably by email, at any time to make an appointment for assistance or guidance in relation to course work, assignments or any concerns that may arise. Assignments will normally be returned two weeks after they have been submitted.
Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:
M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme) Grade Mark Description FNS Fail No Submission F 1-49 Fail P 50-64 Pass C 65-74 Credit D 75-84 Distinction HD 85-100 High Distinction CN Continuing NFE No Formal Examination RP Result Pending
Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.
Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.
Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.
The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.
SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.
- Academic Integrity for Students
- Academic Support with Maths
- Academic Support with writing and study skills
- Careers Services
- International Student Support
- Library Services for Students
- LinkedIn Learning
- Student Life Counselling Support - Personal counselling for issues affecting study
- Students with a Disability - Alternative academic arrangements
- YouX Student Care - Advocacy, confidential counselling, welfare support and advice
Policies & Guidelines
This section contains links to relevant assessment-related policies and guidelines - all university policies.
- Academic Credit Arrangements Policy
- Academic Integrity Policy
- Academic Progress by Coursework Students Policy
- Assessment for Coursework Programs Policy
- Copyright Compliance Policy
- Coursework Academic Programs Policy
- Elder Conservatorium of Music Noise Management Plan
- Intellectual Property Policy
- IT Acceptable Use and Security Policy
- Modified Arrangements for Coursework Assessment Policy
- Reasonable Adjustments to Learning, Teaching & Assessment for Students with a Disability Policy
- Student Experience of Learning and Teaching Policy
- Student Grievance Resolution Process
Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.
The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.