MUSSUPST 3110 - Music, Culture & Society 3A

North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2014

This course explores western music and music making in its historical, social, cultural and philosophical contexts from the late 18th century to the early 20th century. It highlights the many musical and non-musical factors and influences that shaped music during that period, and incorporates historical and critical musicology, reception history, analysis, and repertoire studies. The careers component prepares students for a variety of music industry career options, and provides guidance in job and grant applications, the preparation of resumes and self-promotion.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code MUSSUPST 3110
    Course Music, Culture & Society 3A
    Coordinating Unit Elder Conservatorium of Music
    Term Semester 1
    Level Undergraduate
    Location/s North Terrace Campus
    Units 3
    Contact Up to 3 hours
    Assumed Knowledge MUSSUPST 2120
    Course Description This course explores western music and music making in its historical, social, cultural and philosophical contexts from the late 18th century to the early 20th century. It highlights the many musical and non-musical factors and influences that shaped music during that period, and incorporates historical and critical musicology, reception history, analysis, and repertoire studies. The careers component prepares students for a variety of music industry career options, and provides guidance in job and grant applications, the preparation of resumes and self-promotion.
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Dr Mark Carroll

    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes

    At the end of this course students will be able to demonstrate:

    1. a conceptual understanding of the key historical, aesthetic and philosophical trends in Western art music from mid-19th to early 20th centuries
    2. high level research and writing skills
    3. high level listening skills and repertoire knowledge
    4. knowledge of historical perspectives in Western art music
    5. skills in using online technologies to explore the history of Western art music.
    6. an awareness of career opportunities and pathways in the music industry
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Knowledge and understanding of the content and techniques of a chosen discipline at advanced levels that are internationally recognised. 1, 2, 3, 4
    The ability to locate, analyse, evaluate and synthesise information from a wide variety of sources in a planned and timely manner. 1, 2, 3, 5
    An ability to apply effective, creative and innovative solutions, both independently and cooperatively, to current and future problems. 2, 6
    Skills of a high order in interpersonal understanding, teamwork and communication. 2, 5, 6
    A proficiency in the appropriate use of contemporary technologies. 5
    A commitment to continuous learning and the capacity to maintain intellectual curiosity throughout life. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
    A commitment to the highest standards of professional endeavour and the ability to take a leadership role in the community. 2, 6
    An awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues within a global context and their importance in the exercise of professional skills and responsibilities. 1, 6
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources
    Weekly related readings (see below), are available either as a PDF on MyUni, online via the Elder Music Library, or external websites.
    Recommended Resources
    • Library
    The Music Library located in the Hartley building is an excellent source for music, literature and recordings: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/library/branch/eml/ 

    • Music Resources Guide
    The Music Resources Guide contains quick links to key music databases for scholarly research and online listening. It also contains links to websites of publicly available online scores, collected editions, and professional associations. Here, too, you can find a regularly updated list of new books, scores, CDs and DVDs available in the Elder Music Library: http://libguides.adelaide.edu.au/music

    Anon. Australasian music industry directory, 33rd ed. (Newtown: Immedia,
    2001).
    Anon. The rock pages: A guide for young musicians on how to get started in
    the S.A. music industry and keep going (North Adelaide: Carclew
    Youth Arts, c1995).
    Cook, Nicholas and Anthony Poole (eds). The Cambridge History of
    Twentieth-Century Music (Cambridge: CUP, 2004).
    Goldberg, Justin. The ultimate survival guide to the new music industry:
    Handbook for Hell (Los Angeles: Lone Eagle Pub., c2004).
    Hannan, Michael. The Australian guide to careers in music (Sydney:
    University of New South Wales, 2003).
    Hanning, Barbara Russo. Concise History of Western Music, 2nd ed. (New
    York: Norton, 2002).
    Harper-Scott, JPE and Jim Samson (eds). An Introduction to Music Studies
    (Cambridge: CUP, 2012).
    Holloway, Rowena. Making music: a continuous case study of marketing in
    the music industry (Frenchs Forest N.S.W. : Pearson, 2003).
    Jeffrey, Jackson and Stanley Pelkey (eds). Music and history: Bridging the
    disciplines Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005).
    Kramer, Lawrence. Musical Meaning: Toward a critical history (Berkeley:
    University of California Press, 2002).
    Latham, Alison (ed). The Oxford Companion to Music (Oxford: OUP, 2002).
    Latham, Christopher. Survival of the fittest: The artist versus the corporate
    world (Strawberry Hills: Currency House, 2004).
    Schulenberg, Richard. Legal aspects of the music industry: An insider’s view
    (New York: Billboard Books, 1999).
    Taruskin, Richard. The Oxford History of Western Music (Oxford: OUP, 2005).
    Weiss, Pedro and Richard Taruskin (eds). Music in the Western World: A
    History in Documents, 2nd ed. (Belmont, CA.: Schirmer, 2008).
    Online Learning
    • Online learning
    This Course Profile, along with learning materials and assessment details will be placed on MyUni – refer to http://myuni.adelaide.edu.au. Lecture summaries, reading and support materials will be available on MyUni and through electronic resources, including Grove online and Naxos music library.
  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    Conceptually, the course marks an historical continuation of Music, Culture and Society 2, in that it pursues a number of key themes set against a broad chronological framework. Those themes centre on the tension between form and content, or art and expression, as it applies to music. With that in mind the course maps changes to music and music making against the shifting intellectual and philosophical currents in Europe during the period under review; these include the religious, political and philosophical currents coursing through music and music-making from the late 18th to the early 20th centuries. The careers workshop hones professional skills at the practical, workplace level, and provides intensive guidance in career management, grant and job application, and business practices.
    Workload

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    In addition to the required contact hours, students are expected to play an active role in the practice, refinement and consolidation of their knowledge and understanding. For each hour of this course students will need to spend on average an additional minimum of 3 - 4 hours per week on readings, practice, critical listening, self-initiated learning and research in order to pass the course.
    Learning Activities Summary
    The course structure and content will examine the areas below through the weekly seminar and workshop. This list is intended as a guide, and may change in response to needs arising during the semester. Further detail regarding weekly content can be found on MyUni.

    Seminar Topics (Wednesdays, 1-3, Schulz 1004)
    WEEK  MUSIC OF THE CLASSICAL AND ROMANTIC PERIODS
    (MOZART TO SCHOENBERG)
    READING
    Week 1
    (5/3)
    Mozart
    JP An examination of the career of Mozart, his contribution to the development of the key forms of Classicism (Sonata, Symphony and Opera), and the reflection of Enlightenment ideas in his work. Roger Scruton, ‘My Mozart,’ in Understanding Music: Philosophy and Interpretation, Continuum, 2009, pp. 85-95
    [Available Online]
    Week 2
    (12/3)
    Beethoven: Man and Myth
    GK In the tremendous popularity and achievements of his symphonies, concertos, sonatas and chamber music, Beethoven is an icon of music history. The propulsion of music from the Classical era to the Romantic came about both through his musical innovations and the mythology built around him. K.M. Knittel, ‘The Construction of Beethoven,’ in Jim Sansom (ed.), The Cambridge History of 19C Music, Cambridge University Press, 2003 [Available Online]
    Week 3
    (19/3)
    Music as Literature (Schubert-Berlioz-Liszt-Schumann)
    JK For many of the composers of the 19C, literature (in its various forms, but especially as poetry) provided the model for what music should do. This lecture explores the importance and range of 19C musical concepts and ideas inspired by literature. Julian Rushton, ‘Music and the poetic,’ in Jim Sansom (ed.), The Cambridge History of 19C Music, Cambridge University Press, 2003 [Available online]
    Week 4 (26/3) Music in Colonial Australia
    GK Transplanted Musical Culture of early Australia; the importance of the piano; Opera in 19C Australia www.graemeskinner.id.au/australharmony.html
    Week 5 (2/4) The Rise of the Public Concert, the Virtuoso
    MC This session examines some of the key ways in which the rise of the middle class led to innovations in concert presentation and encouraged new ‘commercial’ products to be offered. Derek Scott, ‘New Markets for Cultural Goods,’ Sounds of the Metropolis, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 38-57
    Week 6 (9/4) Concepts of Opera in the 19C
    JK Opera rose to prominence as a form of both entertainment and artistic expression in the 19C. This lecture explores the different, conflicting concepts of what opera could/ should do by looking at the genres treatment by Rossini, Verdi, Offenbach, Wagner and Debussy. Thomas Grey, ‘Opera and Music Drama,’ in The Cambridge History of 19C Music, Cambridge University Press, 2003 [Available online]
    MID SEMESTER BREAK
    Week 7 (30/4) Brahms v. Wagner
    JP In the later part of the 19C, the music of two German composers dominated the musical imagination of Europe. This session explores the contrast of their styles and aspirations as composers, and the meanings attached to them. Schoenberg, ‘Brahms the Progressive,’ in Style and Idea,
    Bozarth and Frisch, ‘Johannes Brahms,’ and Barry Millington et al, ‘Richard Wagner,’ in Grove Music Online
    (S) MC
    3/9
    Who Cares If You Listen?: The Radicalisation of avant-garde art music
    The concept of the avant-garde became potent in the years after WWII as part of a search for rebuilding the world. This session explores the concept and its enactment in European and American musical culture.
    David Osmond-Smith, ‘New Beginnings: the International Avant-Garde, 1945-1962,’ in The Cambridge History of 20C Music, Cambridge University Press, 2004 [Available online]
    Alex Ross, Ch 11 ‘Brave New World’
    Week 8 (7/5) The Search for New Resources: Nationalism outside of Germany
    JK While Germany established a cultural hegemony in Western music of the 19C, composers outside of Germany sought their own musical individualism. This session looks at key examples: Czech - Dvorak, Smetana, Suk and Janacek; Russia - Tchaikovsky, Rimsky and Mussorgsky Richard Taruskin, ‘Nationalism,’ in Grove Music Online.
    Week 9 (14/5) The Search for New Resources: Exoticism and Orientalism
    SW The growing awareness of foreign cultures at the pinnacle of the colonialist era fed many artists with new ideas and aesthetic values, and inspired significant innovations in musical language. Derek Scott, ‘Orientalism & Musical Style,’ The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 2 (Summer, 1998), pp. 309-335, http://www.jstor.org/stable/742411
    MID SEMESTER BREAK
    Week 10 (21/5) The French Milieu and the Fin de Siecle
    SW This Lecture explores the richness of French avant-garde culture at the end of the 19th century, focusing on Symbolism and Impressionism and their reactions. The figures of Faure, Saint-Saens, Debussy and Satie provide the main points of contrast in the development of French composition. Francois Lesure, ‘Debussy,’ and Robert Orledge, ‘Satie,’ in Grove Music Online
    Week 11 (28/5) Tonality ‘Breaks Down’: Arnold Schoenberg’s Verklärte Nacht and
    The evolution of Expressionism
    MC As the 19C drew to a close, composers began to loosen the bonds of their music to the tonal ‘system’. This lecture traces Schoenberg’s role in ‘emancipating dissonance’ and taking music towards ‘atonality.’ Taruskin, Oxford History of Western Music, vol. 4, The Early Twentieth Century, Oxford University Press 2010, Ch. 4, 5, 6
    Alex Ross, Ch. 2 ‘Doctor Faust: Schoenberg, Debussy and Atonality’
    Week 12 (6/6) America: Music ‘s ‘New World’
    JK By the end of the 19C, America was beginning its rise to become a world power. This rise was associated with powerful and starkly contrasting developments in musical culture as well, which are summarized in this presentation. Michael Broyles, ‘Art Music from 1860 to 1920,’ in The Cambridge Companion to American Music, [Online]
    Careers Workshops (11-12 Tuesdays, Hughes Lecture Theatre)

    Week 1 (4 March)


    Course overview, followed by Survival Tactics for Artists: Institutional Support and how to apply for it (1) – Amanda Pepe (Helpmann Academy).
    Amanda Pepe is the CEO of the Helpmann Academy for the Visual and
Performing Arts.
The Helpmann Academy facilitates the transition of graduate and emerging
artists from a wide range of creative disciplines into professional
practice via grants, mentorships and other opportunities for access to
experienced artists in their chosen fields. Amanda is an experienced media
and communications professional and most recently was Editor of the
Adelaide Review newspaper. She has had a lifelong passion for the arts,
particularly music, and maintains close links to the arts community in
South Australia.

    Week 2 (11 March)
    Survival Tactics for Artists: Institutional support and how to apply for it (2) – Julia Moretti (Arts SA), Dale Durie
    (Carclew Youth Arts)
    Julia has been with Arts SA since 2005, when she was appointed as the Public art and design officer. She took up the position of Arts development officer in the Independent makers and presenters program in March 2008. Dale is the Funding Project officer for Carclew Youth Arts, which has a range of funding initiatives and professional development opportunities for young emerging artists. These include Project & Development Grants, Scholarships, Mentorships, Traineeships and career pathway advice.

    Week 3 (18 March)
    At the coalface – Daniel Randell
    Daniel is General Manager of Music SA (formerly Ausmusic SA) and co-director of JL Music Publishing in Adelaide. JL Music currently represents the catalogues of 34 songwriters and composers including 18 recording artists and 2 composers, and through my role i am directly involved with every area from A &R/scouting and contract negotiation through to Music Supervision, placement and licensing.

    Week 4 (25 March)
    Networking, Publicity, and Book-keeping : ‘Lines, circles
    and spikes’ – Edwin Relf
    Edwin assists organisations with management planning, marketing and financial administration. Edwin has held CEO positions with arts organisations in different parts of Australia including; Performing Arts Centres (City of Ballarat); The Brisbane Community Arts Centre; Jigsaw Theatre Company (Canberra); The Association of Community Theatres (Adelaide).

    Week 5 (1 April)
    Edwin Relf (cont)

    Week 6 (8 April) Job Hunting Tips: Resume, Cover Letter and the Interview – Sue Hervey
    Sue is Manager of the Careers Service at the University and is responsible for assisting students in their transition from the University into suitable graduate employment. The Careers Service offers a range of services for students including employment skills workshops, a drop in service, a resume checking service and a careers web page << www.adelaide.edu.au/student/careers >>

    MID SEMESTER BREAK
    Week 7 (29 April)
    Artistic Direction and Economic Realities – James
    Koehne
    Jim is active as a music commentator and administrator. Following three years as Music Co-ordinator at the Arts Council in Canberra, he was Music Executive with the Victorian Ministry for the Arts for eight years. As Policy Adviser to Symphony Australia in Sydney, James managed the corporatisation of the symphony orchestras. He has also worked with contemporary music ensembles as an administrator and programmer, and was Music Adviser to the 1990 Adelaide Festival. From 1997 to 2009 James was Artistic Administrator of the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra. He is a member of the national artistic advisory panels of Musica Viva and the Australian Youth Orchestra.

    Week 8 (6 May)
    Careers in music education – Jenny Rosevear
    Jenny Rosevear is Head of the Bachelor of Music Education program which is geared towards preparing students for secondary school classroom music teaching. She is an active member of the Australian Society for Music Education (ASME) and has been a long-standing member of the SSABSA Music Subject Advisory Committee. Research interests include the role of playing by ear and improvisation in music education, and relationships between academic achievement and musical involvement.

    Week 9 (13 May)
    The music retail and wholesale industries – Keith
    Huxtable
    Keith is the Managing Director of Music EDnet and has been in the music industry, both wholesale/distribution and retail, for over 30 years. He has held senior positions with Yamaha and Roland, is a past Vice President of the Australian Music Association and has a genuine passion for promoting music in education. Having established a unique Roland Music Learning Centre in Sydney with the collaboration of the NSW Conservatorium, Keith moved to Adelaide in 1991 to establish what is now known as Music EDnet (previously Future Music). Music EDnet is by far the leading source for music technology in SA schools and educational institutions and has a growing presence in other states.

    Week 10 (20 May)
    Using the Web as an employment resource – Sebastian
    Tomczak
    Seb is a music technologist and holds a PhD from the University of Adelaide. He has an interest in hardware and software development, including physical interfacing and chip music. Seb has presented, performed and exhibited with his technology and music in Melbourne, Sydney, Los Angeles, New York, Mumbai and Belfast.
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    • Summative Assessments

    The assessments are staggered throughout the semester. Three short tests relating to lecture content and materials will take place in Weeks 4, 8 and 12. A research essay on topics negotiated with the course coordinator will fall due in weeks 9-11. A written exam will likewise test knowledge of the musical topics discussed in the seminar. The careers component is assessed via a summary of the workshop content over the course of the semester, and a mock job or grant application, both of which will fall due in week 10.

    The assessments are staggered throughout the semester. Four short exams relating to lecture content and materials will take place in Weeks 3, 6, 9 and 12. A research essay on topics negotiated with the course coordinator will fall due in weeks 9-11. A repertoire listening test will likewise examine knowledge of the music itself discussed in the lecture/workshop.

    Title Due % Learning
    Outcomes
    Seminar Test (1) 10 1,4
    Seminar Test (2) 10 1,4
    Seminar Test (3) 10 1,4
    Research Essay 35 1,2,4,5
    Careers Assignment 12 noon, Friday of Week 11. 15 2,6
    Written exam To be held during Examination period. 20 1,3,4
    Formative Assessment
    Classes will contain embedded formative assessment that may include tasks such as quizzes, in-class exercises and homework that will enable students to engage with the practical and theoretical concepts presented in order to complete their summative assessments.
    Assessment Related Requirements
    Expectation & Penalty
    As per Conservatorium policy, active and positive participation in 100% of classes is expected. Any student who attends less than 100% of required classes without approved leave may result in a 5 (five) mark penalty for each unapproved absence. The penalties will be applied to the final total percentage mark for the year for the relevant component i.e. after all other assessments have been completed and calculated. Arrival after the scheduled starting time or departure before the scheduled finishing time may, at the lecturer or Co-ordinator’s discretion, be regarded as an unapproved absence.

    Leave
    The Conservatorium recognises that extenuating circumstances may occasionally affect a student’s ability to participate in a rehearsal, workshop, class, lecture, tutorial or performance. In such cases leave may, upon application using the leave form (available from the Music Office Hartley Building G05), be approved by the relevant staff member.
    Assessment Detail
    Work submitted after the due date will not be accepted unless accompanied by a valid leave certificate.

    • Seminar short tests (3 x 10% of total mark for semester)

    Dates: Week 4 ( ); Week 8 (…..); Week 12 (…..)

    During the first 30 minutes of seminars on the dates listed above, students will be asked to complete a short test, comprising short answers and multiple choice questions. The questions will cover key concepts and repertoire covered in the preceding 3-4 weeks’ seminars. The tests are intended to 1) provide continual reinforcement of the seminar content; 2) afford students and lecturers the opportunity to track learning outcomes; and 3) ensure regular attendance at seminars.

    • Essay (35% of total mark for semester)

    Due date: 12 noon, Friday XXX (submit to Elder Conservatorium Schulz office, sign in using coversheet provided by the office)
    Word count: 2000 words (NOT including bibliography and references)

    Essay topics will be supplied at the beginning of the semester. You are free to choose a topic outside of those listed, AS LONG as it is relevant to the musical genres and time-frame covered in the seminars. If you do so, YOU MUST obtain the approval of Mark Carroll.

    Bibliography and references are to be cited according to either MLA or Harvard styles, as described in the Elder Conservatorium Bibliographic Style Guide at
    http://libguides.adelaide.edu.au/musicreferencing

    • Written exam (20% of total mark for semester)

    Students will be required to provided four single paragraph answers to questions extracted from a list of ten supplied earlier in the semester. The exam will be held during the examination period.

    • Careers Assignment
    Due date: 12 noon, Friday 23 May (submit to Elder Conservatorium Schulz office, sign in using coversheet provided by the office)

    Assessment is in two parts, with a pass required in both. Each part is worth 50% of the mark for the Careers component.

    PLEASE SUMBIT BOTH PARTS AS ONE DOCUMENT, WITH ONE COVERSHEET

    NB The assessments together comprise 15% of the total mark for MUSCORE 3004
    Assessment 1 – Students are to provide a summary of the lecture series. The summary (600 words max) should incorporate specific points raised by the guest lectures (ie, no waffle). You should conclude by reflecting briefly on what the series tells you about your own career prospects.

    Assessment 2 – EITHER submit a mock (or real) job application OR a mock grant application, both of which are to contain a detailed CV. As per the advice of lecturers, the grant application should include a rough budget.

    • MOCK JOB APPLICATION
    You may choose to create a job application for your ideal job, or you may choose to respond to an actual job advertisement. You may also choose to update an earlier job application. For assistance/checking of job application and CV consult Sue Hervey, Manager of the Careers Service at the University. The Careers Service offers a range of services for students including employment skills workshops, a drop in service, a resume checking service and a careers web page << www.adelaide.edu.au/student/careers >>

    • MOCK GRANT APPLICATION
    Alison Dunn will be using as an example a Helpmann Academy Application for Project Support form. This form can serve as a mock grant application for assessment purposes. Note that it also requires an up-to-date CV (see the Careers Centre for help compiling this). The Helpmann form can be downloaded from http://www.helpmann.sa.edu.au/grantforms.pdf
    Submission
    Assessments and Exams
    Students must be available during the identified University teaching, academic and examination periods. Students are not entitled to sit an examination or submit an assessment at another time, nor are they entitled to any other concessions if an examination or assessment conflicts with a planned vacation or special event. Results from assessments and examinations are usually sent to students via email and/or myUni.

    Late Submission
    Assignments which are submitted after the due date and time will incur a 5% penalty (from the assignment total of 100%) per day (24 hour period) for a maximum of 4 days (weekend days included). After this time the assignment will not be marked for assessment or feedback. Note – this does not apply to assessments where the assessment is conducted at a fixed time and location, such as an exam, practical test, performance or presentation.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
  • Fraud Awareness

    Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.