ENTREP 7028OL - Managing Strategy & Growth

Online - Quadmester 4 - 2017

In this course we study the relationship between the entrepreneur, new venture growth and strategy. It provides students with an overview of the internal dynamics involved in growing a new venture including the many aspects that must be considered to ensure the business operates smoothly and meets the needs of its customers while keeping a focus on growth strategy. Intellectual Capital and the Resource Based View are the two main frameworks utilised to examine the dynamic relationships. The course adopts a design approach for an entrepreneur or an advisor to identify key resources that maximise the value creating potential of a fledgling firm.

  • General Course Information
    Course Details
    Course Code ENTREP 7028OL
    Course Managing Strategy & Growth
    Coordinating Unit Entrepreneurship, Commercialisation & Innov Centre
    Term Quadmester 4
    Level Postgraduate Coursework
    Location/s Online
    Units 3
    Contact Approx 4 hours per week over 10 weeks (interaction and preparation)
    Available for Study Abroad and Exchange
    Assumed Knowledge ENTREP 5016OL & ENTREP 5018OL
    Assessment Assignments, forum discussion
    Course Staff

    Course Coordinator: Professor Paul Steffens

    Program Director Contact Details:
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PG)
    Name: Prof Paul Steffens
    Phone: +61 8 8313 7512
    Email: paul.steffens@adelaide.edu.au

    Teaching staff

    Term 2 and Term 4 Online
    Name: Antonio Dottore

    Short Bio:
    Antonio joined the ECIC in January 2003 and was Acting Director between March 2004 and July 2006.

    Antonio previously taught in the School of Business Economics at Flinders University, at both under and post-graduate level. Most of his career has been outside of academia, having started in the Department of the Prime Minister & Cabinet, and then working in the financial sector: Citibank in Sydney, Fidelity Investments and Henderson Investors in London.

    Antonio's main qualifications include a BEc(Hons) from Flinders University, an MBA from INSEAD, and a Graduate Certificate in Online Learning (Higher Education).

    Following his MBA, Antonio worked at INSEAD for a year, in the Executive Education area, where he was also a participant in some Executive Development Programmes.
    Course Timetable

    The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

    Monday 9th October to Sunday 17th December 2017
  • Learning Outcomes
    Course Learning Outcomes

    On successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

    1 Gain an understanding of the strategy process and the role of the entrepreneur in maintaining stakeholder value while navigating growth
    2 Conduct a value analysis of a firm to illustrate the relationship between the intellectual capital of an organisation and its value creating logic
    3 Utilise resource based strategy theory to articulate the tangible and intangible resources necessary for a feasible new venture to capture and sustain competitive advantage
    4 Assess the changes in intangible resources that will be required assuming the growth of a new venture and predict the changing role of the entrepreneur within the firm’s management structure
    5 Prepare a set of design principles for a new venture that will guide the growth, acquisition, recruitment and deployment of intellectual capital resources for sustaining a competitive advantage
    University Graduate Attributes

    This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

    University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s)
    Deep discipline knowledge
    • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
    • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
    • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
    1, 2, 3
    Critical thinking and problem solving
    • steeped in research methods and rigor
    • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
    • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
    2, 3, 4
    Teamwork and communication skills
    • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
    • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
    • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
    3, 5
    Career and leadership readiness
    • technology savvy
    • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
    • forward thinking and well informed
    • tested and validated by work based experiences
    4, 5
    Self-awareness and emotional intelligence
    • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
    • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
    • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
  • Learning Resources
    Required Resources

    The University’s preferred textbook supplier is Unibooks: http://www.unibooks.com.au/ 

    Text book:

    Fredrick, Howard, O'Connor, Allan and Kuratko, Donald F. (2016). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process and Practice, 4th Edition. Cengage Learning.


    Alvarez, S.A. and Barney, J.B. (2005) ‘How do entrepreneurs organise firms under conditions of uncertainty?’ Journal of Management, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 776-793.

    Barney, Jay B., and William S. Hesterly (2010) Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage Concepts and Case, 3rd Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New

    Barron, J.N. & Hannan, M.T. (2002) ‘Organizational Blueprints for Success in High-Tech Start-ups: Lessons from the Stanford Project on Emerging Companies’, California Management Review, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 8-36.

    Chesborough, H. (2010) ‘Business Model Innovation: Opportunities and Barriers’, Long Range Planning, vol 43, pp. 354-363.

    Churchill, N.C. & Lewis, V.L. (1983) ‘The five stages of business growth’, Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp. 30-50.

    Eisenhardt, K.M. & Martin, J.A. (2000) ‘Dynamic Capabilities: What are they?’ Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, iss. 10/11, pp. 1105-1121.

    Greiner, L.E. (1972) ‘Evolution and revolution as organizations grow’, Harvard Business Review, July-August, pp. 37-46.

    Hunter, I. (2005) ‘Risk, persistence and focus: a life cycle of the entrepreneur’, Australian Economic History Review, vol 45, no. 3, pp. 244-272.

    Lichtenstein, G.A. & Lyons, T.S. (2008) ‘Revisiting the business life-cycle’, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 241-250.

    Ma, H. (1999) ‘Creation and Preemption for Competitive Advantage’ Management Decision, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 259-266.

    Martin, Roger L. 2010. 'The Execution Trap', Harvard Business Review, vol. 88, Iss. 7/8, pp. 64-71.

    McKaskill, T. (2007) Fast Forward Acquisition Strategies for Entrepreneurs, Wilkinson Publishing, Melbourne, Australia. Chapter 5: pp. 51-64.

    O’Connor, A. (2001) “Valuation of Technology Businesses‟, Commercialise 2001 Conference, October, Marysville, Australia.

    O’Connor, A. & Roos, G. (2006) ‘Developing a Conceptual Schematic to Evaluate Organizational Innovative Capacity’ International R&D Management Conference 2006, Innovation and Entrepreneurship in R&D Management, Taipei & Hsinchu, Taiwan.

    O’Connor A. & Yamin, S. (2011) ‘Innovation & Entrepreneurship: Managing the Paradox of Purpose in Business Model Innovation’, International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 239-255.

    Penrose, E. (1995) The Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 31-42.

    Peppard, J. & Rylander, A. (2001) ‘Using an Intellectual Capital Perspective to Design and Implement a Growth Strategy: The Case of Apion’, European Management Journal, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 510-525.

    Sarasvathy, S.D. (2005) ‘What makes Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurial?’ Darden Business Publishing, Virginia, Social Science Research Network, UVA-ENT-0065, available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=909038&download=yes 

    Stabell, C.B. & Fjeldstad, Ø.D. (1998) ‘Configuring Value for Competitive Advantage: On Chains, Shops and Networks’, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19, pp. 413-437.

    Roos, Göran, Pike, Stephen & Fernström, Lisa 2005, 'Putting the intellectual capital resources to value-creating use' in Roos, Göran, Pike, Stephen & Fernström, Lisa, Managing intellectual capital in practice, Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, pp. 109-225.

    Recommended Resources

    Library Resources
    The University of Adelaide’s Barr Smith Library provides a range of learning resources including texts, journals, periodicals, magazines, and access to online databases and information services. It also offers a virtual library which is accessible via the University’s website. Access to the Library's electronic resources.

    Online Learning

    LEARN is the University of Adelaide’s platform for dedicated online delivery. LEARN is a customised version of Moodle, and houses all course requirements including the course profile, announcements, additional course materials (beyond the prescribed text), assessment items, discussion forums, grading, feedback, links to various university and course resources, an internal website email system, a technical assistance facility, etc. LEARN is only accessible once the URL and a password have been provided to the student on enrolment. Students are given access to the course prior to the start date to familiarise themselves with the operational aspects and functionality of the website. 

  • Learning & Teaching Activities
    Learning & Teaching Modes
    This course is offered in online mode.

    The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

    As a guide, a 3 unit course comprises a total of 156 hours.
    Learning Activities Summary
    Week Content Readings/Activities
    1 A. Introduction Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 5

    Penrose (1995 [1959])
    Sarasvathy (2005)
    1 B. The entrepreneur and strategy Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 9

    Alvarez & Barney (2005)
    2 C. The entrepreneur and growth of the firm Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 2

    Churchill & Lewis (1983)
    Greiner (1972)
    Hunter (2005)
    Lichtenstein & Lyons (2008)
    2 D. Firm Design and the Business Model Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 11

    O’Connor & Yamin (2011)
    Chesborough (2010)
    3 E. Resource Based View Strategy Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 10

    Barney & Hesterly (2010) Ch 3
    3 F. The Intellectual Capital Perspective Roos et al. (1997) Ch 2
    4 G. Creating, Managing & Driving Strategic Value Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 14

    O’Connor, A. (2001)
    Roos, Pike & Fernstrom (2005) Ch 1
    Stabell & Fjeldstad (1998)
    5 H. The Entrepreneur, Strategy, and Organising Frederick, O’Connor & Kuratko Ch 8

    Barron & Hannon (2002)
    Ma (1999)
    McKaskill (2007)
     6 I. Resource, Capability and Capacity Planning Eisenhardt & Martin (2000)
    O’Connor & Roos (2006)
    7 J. Resource Deployment Principles Martin (2010)
    Peppard & Rylander (2001)
    8 K. Designing and Constructing an IC Navigator Roos, Pike & Fernstrom (2005) Ch 3.
    9 L. Managing Strategic Design Roos, Pike & Fernstrom (2005) Ch 3.
    10 M. Assignment Week
    Specific Course Requirements
    To successfully complete this course, candidates will need to demonstrate as a minimum:

    · A comprehensive understanding of how an entrepreneur affects and influences the growth of a firm.
    · A comprehensive understanding of resource based strategy and value creation in the context of a growing firm.
    · The ability to recognise growth resource needs and barriers for a new firm and provide options for an entrepreneur to realise new firm value creation pathways.
  • Assessment

    The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:

    1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
    2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
    3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
    4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.

    Assessment Summary
    An overview of the course assessment appears in the following Table. Details appear in the following section:
    #Assessment TaskTask TypeLengthWeightDue Date/WeekLearning Outcomes
    1 The Entrepreneur and Ecosystems Individual 1500 words 15% Day 7 of week 3 1
    2 Internal analysis of growth firms Group 3500 words 20% Days 7 of week 7 2 & 3
    3 Young Firm Growth Case Application Individual 3000 words 30% Days 7 of week 10 4 & 5
    4 Discussion Forums Individual see below 16% Day 3-7 of weeks 1-8 1
    5 Journal Activities Individual see below 19% Day 7 of weeks 1,2,4,5,7,8,9 1-3
    Total 100%
    Assessment Detail
    Assessment 1: The Entrepreneur and Ecosystems - Individual assessment item
    Weighting: 15%
    Due Date: Day 7 of week 3
    Submission Details: Via Drop Box in LEARN

    “The opportunities provided by the internet for an entrepreneur to create value and grow a firm in the current day is vastly different to those that were available before the internet in the mid to late 1900s. Accordingly, the theories of firm growth for an entrepreneur are now obsolete and largely irrelevant”.

    This assignment requires you to critique the statement above and provide an argument that demonstrates relevance or otherwise of firm growth theories for an entrepreneur in the current day. You are required to use both academic and general media to support your position with citations and examples. A better assignment will use reference materials beyond that which is provided as part of this course.

    At the completion of the essay, assemble no more than five Powerpoint slides to convey the key points of your argument. Post your presentation to the week 4 discussion forum for others to view and critique. The discussion forum will only be available at the beginning of week four. The discussion forum during week 4 will focus on the key arguments presented and provide course participants the opportunity to develop an understanding of the changing dynamics that influence a new firm’s growth.

    This assignment will assess your understanding of the course topics A to C.

    Length and Presentation:
    Presentation will be in an essay format which should convince your reader of the merits of your argument. The typical length will be up to a maximum 1,500 words.

    Criteria by which your assignment will be marked:
    The document should reflect academic standards worthy of a Master level student. The assignment will be assessed on the basis of completeness, presentation and clarity of the arguments and should include clear aims; a well defined rationale; and justifiable research that supports your argument.
    The assignment will need to demonstrate appropriate use of references. (Use the Harvard referencing system. Guidelines can be found at http://www.adelaide.edu.au/library/guide/gen/harvard.html).

    Assessment 2: Value analysis of growth firms – Team assessment item
    Weighting: 20%
    Due Date: Day 7 of week 7
    Submission Details: Via Drop Box in LEARN.

    This assignment will require you to work in a team of no more than four and select two firms, each from a different industry sector (for example internet and software) from the 2010 Australian Deloitte Technology Fast 50 report available at http://www2.deloitte.com/au/en/pages/technology-media-and-telecommunications/articles/deloitte-technology-fast-50.html

    The team will need to analyse each chosen business and the respective competitive environments to provide:
    § A background and overview of each business and the competitive environments
    § A reasoned determination of the customer value creating logic of each firm
    § An assessment of the critical tangible and intangible resources and capabilities each firm must have to fulfil its determined value creating logic
    § A report that characterises the relative importance of the resource stocks available to each firm (as prescribed by the determined customer value creating logic), the type of advantage the resources/capabilities provide to each firm and the extent to which these resources are defensible in each firms competitive environment
    § A comparative analysis of the strategy that underpins the growth of the two firms that describes how and explains why there should or should not be differences between the business models of the two firms
    § A discussion that synthesises the analysis and concludes how a firm’s industry and competitive environment relates to or influences business model design for competitive advantage.

    This assignment will assess your understanding of the course topics A to H.

    Length and Presentation:
    Presentation will be in report format. The typical length will be a maximum of 3500 words plus appendices as deemed necessary.

    Criteria by which your assignment will be marked:
    · The level of detail provided that demonstrates understanding of the key issues and techniques involved in analysing a firm’s value logic and competitive position.
    · Evidence of critical analysis of the issues and concepts.
    · Demonstration of an understanding of; the relative importance of resource stocks, how these stocks relate to the firm’s business model and the extent to which they contribute to competitive advantage.
    · Clarity of expression and good use of language.
    · Logical planning, structure and sequence of presenting your findings.
    · Overall presentation including correct grammar, spelling, punctuation and referencing.

    Assessment 3: Young Firm Growth Case Application – Individual assessment item.
    Weighting: 30%
    Due Date: Day 7 of week 10
    Submission Details: Via Drop Box in LEARN

    This assessment item is an individual assignment that focuses on the application of the business model design tools presented in this course to the context of a firm’s resource based strategic growth plan. Complemented by your own research, you are required to consider a growth venture proposition using the intellectual capital and resource based strategy perspectives covered in this course. You are required to:
    § Describe the venture detailing its background, the core business and the entrepreneur’s aspirations for the venture
    § Define an appropriate customer value logic for the venture
    § Design and document the intellectual capital resources required to ground the growth proposition for the venture
    § Articulate the intellectual capital resources currently available to the venture and those that are yet to be acquired
    § Using resource based theory, assess the potential competitive advantage position of the venture and recommend an intellectual capital resource based strategy that will enhance the chance of success of the venture
    § Develop a set of principles that will guide the entrepreneur in managing the acquisition and growth of key intellectual capital resources to form the basis of a three year plan
    § Propose a long term resource based strategy for the venture describing the growth of core assets that will be critical for the venture to maintain a unique proposition and competitive advantage in preparation for acquisition.

    This assignment will assess your understanding of the course topics I to P.

    Length and Presentation:
    Presentation will be in report format. The typical length will be a maximum of 3000 words plus appendices as deemed necessary.

    Criteria by which your assignment will be marked:
    The report will be judged on its structure, presentation, content, integration and synthesis of course materials. Please note that the academic assessment can only make judgement on the educational validity and not the actual business or project strategy. The mark will reflect your learning and will not be an indicator of the merit of the strategy.
    The standards by which the assignment will be assessed include:
    · The level of detail provided that demonstrates understanding of the key issues and techniques involved in developing a new firm’s value logic and competitive position.
    · Evidence of critical analysis of the issues and concepts.
    · Demonstration of an understanding of; the relative importance of resource stocks, how these stocks relate to the firm’s competitive position and the extent to which they contribute to competitive advantage.
    · Clear articulation of a set of guiding principles for the entrepreneur that support the development of the proposed competitive position and advantage.
    · The extent to which the entrepreneur’s exit strategy has integrity and legitimacy with the proposed strategic position and advantage.
    · Clarity of expression and good use of language.
    · Logical planning, structure and sequence of presenting your findings.
    · Overall presentation including correct grammar, spelling, punctuation and referencing.

    Assessment 4: Discussion Forum Contribution
    Weighting: 16%
    Due Date: Day 3-7 of weeks 1-8
    Submission Details: Via Forum in LEARN in left hand navigation menu

    Successful online learning requires active discussion area participation.

    Respond to the discussion prompts and questions by the due dates outlined in the weekly assignment tasks on the LEARN site. You should post an initial response to the questions and then follow up inputs to the posts of your classmates and teaching staff during days 3 to 7 in each week with a discussion forum.

    Substantive contribution is measured by recording the posting date on which a student makes a substantive posting in the classroom. Examples of substantive contribution do not include posting of assignments or a question you might have for the facilitator or the group. Substantive participation does include responses to discussion questions and discourse between students related to the subject matter. Substantive responses must be based upon the course content, theory or personal experiences, not mere opinion. A simple "I agree" will not count.

    Substantive responses should also include appropriate documentation/citation where appropriate.

    This assignment will assess your understanding of progressive components of the course.

    Length and Presentation:
    Students must contribute to the class discussion in a substantive way each week. As a general rule of thumb, students need to post at least 2-3 substantive responses each week beyond the posting of assignments. However, students should not be limited in the number of discussion postings that they contribute each week. Quantity is considered important, but the quality of the responses is even more important.

    Posting assignments or emails to students and/or teaching staff outside of classroom threads does not count as discussion contribution.

    Participation in the discussion area must be completed before 11:59:59 pm ACST/ACDT. For participation to count for grades or assignments, they must be submitted within this time period and by the specified due day.

    Criteria by which your assignment will be marked:
    Students are expected to read all discussion area postings. The quality of the student responses will be graded. Students will earn weekly participation grades based upon the quality of their responses to weekly assignments, including discussion questions.
    Discussion Contribution Grading Criteria Maximum Points (Cumulative)
    Discussion 60
    Response demonstrates critical thinking and insight.
    Response indicates you understand the assignment and the underlying concepts.
    Student response to question met minimum substantive expectations.
    Demonstrated appropriate writing style and language choice.
    Participation 40
    Posted required subsequent responses to posts of your classmates, or to responses to your initial post—responses are substantive in nature (at least 100 words).
    Responses indicate critical thinking and constructive feedback and meaningful inputs to the discussion.
    Demonstrated quality of writing and concise language choice.
    Cumulative Total 100

    Assessment 5: Journal Activities and Submission
    Weighting: 19%
    Due Date: Day 7 of weeks 1,2,4,5,7,8,9.
    Submission Details: Via LEARN site

    In weeks 1,2,4,5,7,8 & 9, guided journal activities are detailed on the LEARN site. The activities are designed to prompt reflection and progress toward preparation of Assessment 3. Review each activity and complete the tasks to progressively submit your journal in the nominated weeks.

    This assignment will assess your understanding of progressive components of the course.

    Length and Presentation:
    Guidelines on length and presentation are provided with each Journal activity.

    Criteria by which your assignment will be marked:
    · Submissions and completion in accordance with the recommended schedule
    · Connects the journal tasks and concepts studied in the reading/s and course materials with the issues of the Project Firm
    · Provision of personal insights and key learning
    · A well-defined and sound perspective that demonstrates understanding.

    All text based assignments must be submitted via Drop Box in LEARN
    There are a few points to note about the submission of assignments:

    • Assignment Submission: Assignments should be lodged via Drop Box in the LEARN system. Please refer to individual assignment tasks for specific submission details relevant to each task. Note that assignments may be processed via TURNITIN, which is an online plagiarism prevention tool.
    • Cover Sheet: As part of your assignment, please add the completed University of Adelaide Assessment Cover Sheet to your assignment, providing details of yourself and your team members (if applicable), your assignment, the course, date submitted, etc. as well as the declaration signed by you that this is your (your team’s) work. Note that the declaration on any electronically submitted assignment will be deemed to have the same authority as a signed declaration. Where applicable, also include the word count excluding title pages and references.
    • Backup Copy of Assignments: You are advised to keep a copy of your assignments in case the submitted copy goes missing. Please ensure that all assignment pages are numbered. If your assignment contains confidential information, you should discuss any concerns with the Course Lecturer prior to submission.
    • Extensions of Time: Any request for an extension of time for the submission of an assignment should be made well before the due date of the assignment to the Course Lecturer. Normally, extensions will only be granted for a maximum of two weeks from the original assignment submission date. Extensions will only be granted in cases of genuine extenuating circumstances and proof, such as a doctor’s certificate, may be required.
    • Failure to submit an assignment on time or by the agreed extension deadline may result in penalties and may incur a fail grade. Note that a late penalty of 5% of the total available marks for that assessment item will be incurred each day an assignment is handed in late (Unless otherwise stated in 'Assessment Related Requirements' or 'Assessment Detail' above). Assignments handed in after 14 days from the due submission date will fail even if a 100% mark is granted for the work.

    Resubmission & Remarking

    Resubmission of an assignment for remarking after reworking it to obtain a better mark will not normally be accepted.  Approval for resubmission will only be granted on medical or compassionate grounds.
    Course Grading

    Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

    M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
    Grade Mark Description
    FNS   Fail No Submission
    F 1-49 Fail
    P 50-64 Pass
    C 65-74 Credit
    D 75-84 Distinction
    HD 85-100 High Distinction
    CN   Continuing
    NFE   No Formal Examination
    RP   Result Pending

    Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

    Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

    Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

  • Student Feedback

    The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

    SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

  • Student Support
  • Policies & Guidelines
  • Fraud Awareness

    Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

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