ANAT SC 2009 - Musculoskeletal Anatomy
North Terrace Campus - Semester 1 - 2017
General Course Information
Course Code ANAT SC 2009 Course Musculoskeletal Anatomy Coordinating Unit Health Sciences Faculty Office Term Semester 1 Level Undergraduate Location/s North Terrace Campus Units 3 Contact Up to 3.5 hours per week Available for Study Abroad and Exchange Prerequisites ANAT SC 1102 Incompatible ANAT SC 2200 Assumed Knowledge ANAT SC 1103 Course Description This course will provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the gross anatomy, function and integration of the neuro-musculoskeletal system, with an emphasis on clinical problem solving related to common injuries and movement dysfunction. Syllabus content will include advanced regional and sectional anatomy of the upper and lower limbs, vertebral column, diaphragm and abdominopelvic structures, and the head/neck with an emphasis on the musculoskeletal system (osteology and arthrology), relevant parts of the nervous system and vasculature. Students will learn how to recognise major neural plexuses and peripheral nerves and their innervation to muscle groups and skin, and consequently be able to identify the impact of injury on motor and sensory function. The effects of growth and development, maturation and ageing on the musculoskeletal system will also be studied. In addition, advanced functional aspects of joint anatomy and common pathological manifestations will be discussed for select anatomical regions. Teaching sessions will be delivered using a blended-learning approach; content delivered using a combination of didactic and online lectures, and contextualised learning enforced in weekly practical resource sessions, the latter using prosected human material, anatomical models and medical images (MSCT, MRI, conventional radiography and ultrasound) to promote deep learning.
Course Coordinator: Dr Nicolene Lottering
Course Co-ordinator: Dr. Nicolene Lottering
Location: Room N322, Level 3, Medical School North
Tel: +61 8 8313 5342
Lecturer: A/Prof Ian Johnson
Location: Room S519b, Level 5, Medical School South
Tel: +61 8 8313 5988
The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.
Course Learning Outcomes
1 Identify and annotate skeletal structures of the axial and appendicular skeleton, including landmarks of muscle attachment, and describe the type, structure and function of bones. 2 Describe the detailed anatomy of the muscular, nervous systems and vasculature of the upper and lower extremities, abdominopelvic region, vertebral column and head and neck, on human cadaveric specimens and cross-sectional images. 3 Relate the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, at the micro and macro levels of organisation, to human movement and mechanisms of injury and disease. 4 Differentiate types of joints and their macroscopic anatomy, including major ligaments, connective tissue structures and bursae; explain and recognise high-incidence joint injury and pathology on principal imaging modalities 5 Explain and demonstrate the concentric functions of limb muscles based on knowledge of its origin and insertion, the joint that it crosses and direction of fibres. 6 Summarize the regional and compartmental innervation of major nerve plexuses; and describe the causes, functional changes in movement and clinical assessment associated with lesions and plexopathies. 7 Predict the movements available in each vertebral column region and the describe the functions of the abdominal, pelvic and back muscles. 8 Name, identify and locate the muscles of facial expression, mastication, and the anatomy and function of the temporomandibular joint. 9 Discuss how skeletal, muscular and nervous system structures are affected by exercise, immobilisation, disease, growth and development and degenerative conditions. 10 Reduce a complex functional problem to basic principles and explain the mechanism of the problem in lay terms by working in small groups.
University Graduate Attributes
This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:
University Graduate Attribute Course Learning Outcome(s) Deep discipline knowledge
- informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
- acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
- accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
1-10 Critical thinking and problem solving
- steeped in research methods and rigor
- based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
- demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
3-7, 9-10 Teamwork and communication skills
- developed from, with, and via the SGDE
- honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
- encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
9,10 Career and leadership readiness
- technology savvy
- professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
- forward thinking and well informed
- tested and validated by work based experiences
1-10 Intercultural and ethical competency
- adept at operating in other cultures
- comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
- Able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
- demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
NA Self-awareness and emotional intelligence
- a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
- open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
- able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
Required Resources1. Atlas of Clinical Gross Anatomy, 2nd edition, 2005 by Kenneth Prakash Moses et al., published by Saunders (imprint of Elsevier). ISBN: 978-0-323-07779-8
2. Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System, 2012 by Margareta Nordin and Victor H. Frankel, published by Wolfer Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. ISBN: 978-1-6091-3335-1.
Supplementary Texts (Available on ClinicalKey Australia 2012)1. Manual of Structural Kinesiology, 19th edition, 2014 by RT Floyd and Clem Thompson, published by McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 13: 978-0-07336-929-7
2. Netter’s Introduction to Imaging, 2012 by LR Cochard, published by Saunders (imprint of Elsevier). ISBN: 978-1-4377-0759-5.
3. Imaging Skeletal Trauma, 2015 by LF Rogers, published by Saunders (imprint of Elsevier). ISBN: 978-1-4377-2779-1.
4. Netter’s Orthopaedic Clinical Examination: An Evidence-based Approach, 3rd edition, 2016 by JA Cleland, Shane Koppenhaver, Jonathan Su, published by Elsevier. ISBN: 978-0-323-34063-2
5. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of the Limbs and Back, 9th edition, 2009 by David Jenkins, published by Elsevier. ISBN: 987-1-4160-4980-7.
Online LearningThis course will use Canvas as an eLearning platform for the dissemination of lecture notes and recordings, tutorial activities, and deployment of summative quizzes. Course content will be subdivided into modules in Canvas; each with folders disseminating copies of the didactic lecture notes, articulate storyline lectures, anatomy resource session notes; as well as folders with formative and summative assessment tasks relevant to each module. This course will also encompass blended learning approaches using innovative teaching styles including lightboard technology and videoscribe conceptional multimedia. Canvas will be used as the primary platform for announcements, the integration of learning pathways and to deploy student update emails. A closed-group facebook page for the unit will be developed to encourage discussion, communication and resource sharing between students.
Learning & Teaching Activities
Learning & Teaching ModesThe course curriculum is segregated into introductory lectures and four content modules, divided by anatomical region. Specifically, students will be: introduced to the basic concepts of biomechanics, the macro and micro-structure of soft and hard tissues of the musculoskeletal system (MSK), followed by common radiological modalities and their radiographic interpretation associated MSK anatomy and pathology, including plain radiography, multi-slice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the introductory module. This will be followed by segregation of MSK regional anatomy, including the osteology, arthology, neural, muscular and vascular systems for the (1) upper and (2) lower limbs; (3) trunk (including the pectoral region, anterior and poster abdominal walls and vertebral column); and (4) head and neck. Each module will contain 4-5 content lectures, delivered using a blended learning approach (articulate storyline lectures: 20%, didactic lectures: 80%) and conclude with a “case presentation” which aims to stimulate discussion on common MSK fractures, soft tissue injuries (strains, sprains and dislocations), nerve impingements and emerging technologies, pertaining to each anatomical region. Articulate stimulate “wrap-up” lectures will be disseminated for each module to summarize the major content and provide interactive, formative learning activities to students to test their understanding and identify areas of difficulty. The curriculum associated with this unit is characteristic of a spiral curriculum, revisiting introductory topics (osteology and neuromuscular systems) covered in year 1 and extending towards topics covered in year 3 i.e. “Clinical Anatomy” which will cover sectional anatomy, radiological interpretation and clinical correlations. In the spiral curriculum, knowledge is presented in a logical sequence from simple to complex, evidenced through the integration of advanced anatomy themes i.e. cross-sectional and anatomical imaging.
The weekly anatomical resource sessions are designed in a form of team-based collaborative learning that incorporates small group activities at each content station and a summative assessment station. It is anticipated that students will have an enhanced learning experience through the use of team-based learning and peer teaching. The resource sessions are intended to extend and amplify student understanding of material presented in lectures in an interactive format, where they are given opportunities to seek clarification on any aspect of the topics covered, as well as to tackle concepts that might be difficult to grasp. Students will be exposed to cadaveric material, anatomical models, surface anatomy and medical images; combining a traditional “wet-laboratory” with interactive multimedia activities using the Ray Last Anatomy cameras, projectors and whole-class presentation system. Attendance and grading in each resource session will be electronically conducted using the SpeedGrader tool in Canvas.
Students will also be required to complete an online quiz at the conclusion of each module, designed both to test students understanding of the content and to reveal to them what information may need further revision. This assessment will encourage students to keep up with the material throughout the course, and provides an opportunity for continual feedback. Select questions from the online quizzes, formatted to include multiple choice, fill-in-the-blanks, hot spots and short response type questions, will be included in the End of Semester theory exam.
The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.Please refer to MyUni.
Learning Activities SummaryTeaching sessions include two didactic lectures per week; while in some weeks an additional online articulate storyline lecture will be disseminated to students, depending on the availability of guest lecturers (university affiliates, clinicians etc.). The online lectures will be regularly available for flexible access by students, posted on Canvas each Monday afternoon, while the didactic lectures will be timetabled, recorded and disseminated using Echo360. A blended learning approach to didactic lectures will be implemented using live polling in-class via. Mobile, ipad and laptops. Students will also be required to attend a 1.5-hour laboratory session each week, which presents an opportunity to develop and test their understanding using models, human cadaveric prosections, skeletal material and medical images (conventional radiographs, MSCT, MRI), in the Ray Last Anatomy Laboratory. In order to implement active learning clinical presentation (CP) based curriculum in the laboratory sessions, students will be divided into small groups, each of which will rotate through a number of anatomy stations, designed with reference to the module/theme of the week, to address gross anatomy, procedural anatomy, functional anatomy and anatomical-radiological correlation components. For this to run successfully, each laboratory session will be capped at 60 students; mandating that the cohort be subdivided into three learning groups, to run three repeat laboratory sessions. Access to the multimedia management system in the laboratory is essential for utility of the inbuilt cameras, projectors and HDMI link to the monitors for small group demonstrations and activities. A demonstrating team with advanced gross anatomical knowledge and imaging experience (including PhD and MBBS students, clinicians) will facilitate and work alongside students in these sessions under the cognitive apprenticeship model. Students will be required to complete four online multiple-choice tests using the Canvas learning platform at the conclusion of each module. Formative assessment will also be conducted within the anatomy practical sessions using cadaveric specimens, medical images and clinical examinations, with attendance and grades uploaded via SpeedGrader in Canvas.
Specific Course RequirementsN/A
Small Group Discovery ExperienceSGDE will feature through summative group learning activities integrated in the Anatomy Resource Sessions each week and an “Anatomical Dialogue” Group project. At the commencement of this course students will be divided into three laboratory groups and each laboratory group subdivided into six teams, each consisting of ten students. Each team will have a mixture of abilities and backgrounds. The aim of this teaching approach is to enhance the learning experience through the use of individual and team quizzes and peer teaching and discussions. In each laboratory session, students will be required to complete a quiz constituting spotter and problem-based learning questions as a team, and submit their consensus answers to their demonstrator. The demonstrator will guide students through the answers, encourage discussion and provide clarifications regarding of the challenging questions and concepts. Some of the laboratory sessions will have additional tasks to be completed on a worksheet in your course manual (made available on Canvas prior to the session). These in-class quizzes, which are dependent upon student attendance, will contribute to 10% of the final grade.
Further, students will be required to work in groups of five (self-allocated) to complete a multimedia “Anatomical Dialogue” group project, which aims to explain the regional and functional anatomy of a nominated injury or medical condition of the musculoskeletal system disseminated in the modern media/sports broadcasting. Students will be required to critically evaluate anatomical dialogue used or lack thereof, in the original voice-over of the commentator/presenter explaining the potential injury; and provide alternative dialogue to better explain the injury to a layperson and medical professional, in the form of a video submission. As part of the submission, students will be required to provide a confidential peer-assessment of each group member’s contribution to this project using Canvas, for normalisation of individual grades.
The University's policy on Assessment for Coursework Programs is based on the following four principles:
- Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
- Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
- Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
- Assessment must maintain academic standards.
Assessment Task Task Type Due Weighting Learning Outcome SAQ Quiz (online) Summative
Sunday, Week 6
5% LO1-9 In-Semester Practical Examinations Summative Weeks 4 and 9 Prac Sessions 20% LO1-9 Anatomical Dialogue Group Project Summative Friday, Week 11 15% LO3-7, 9-10 EOS Theory Examination Summative Central Examination Period 35% LO1-9 EOS Practical Examination Summative Central Examination Period 25% LO1-9
Assessment Related Requirements
Attendance and active participation in the Anatomy Resource Laboratory each week is compulsory and collectively accounts for 10% of the total grade, if the student attends all workshops. Medical certificates or statutory declarations, providing a legitimate excuse for absence, are required for a student not to be penalised for non-attendance.
SAQ Quiz (Online)
Upon the conclusion of the Upper and Lower limb modules, students will complete an online short-answer response style quiz, under the ‘Quizzes’ tab on the MSK Canvas site which comprises of TWO clinical stem questions with multiple parts, consistent with the formatting of the EOS Theory Examination – 5% weighting.
In-Semester Practical Examinations
Two in-semester practical examinations will be held during the allocated laboratory session in the Ray Last Anatomy Laboratory (SB02), which will cover a combination of lecture material, laboratory material and supplied onlineresources/readings. The format of the exams will contain approximately 30-35 stations, with 75-second rotations between each; these exams are designed to determine students’ ability to identify osteological, arthological, nervous and vasculature structures of the anatomical regions covered over the course of the semester, and their respective function. These examinations will be scheduled for weeks 4 and 9 of semester, which allows students to test their understanding, identify knowledge gaps and seek continuous feedback on their performance, under ‘spotter-format’ examination conditions. Students will be given a total of 45 minutes to complete each exam – 20% combined weighting
Anatomical Dialogue Group Project General Objective: Demonstrate higher processing skills in the areas of synthesis and evaluation through an analysis of how anatomy is used and represented in our personal lives and future profession
Description: Since sporting injuries are frequently discussed in modern media broadcasting and sports coverage, in groups of five, students will be required to source video footage relating to an injury or medical condition relating to the musculoskeletal system. Using this footage students will (a) reflect and critique the anatomical dialogue used or lack thereof, in the original voice-over of the commentator/presenter explaining the potential injury (i.e. comment on the accuracy, intended target audience, depth of the explanation); and (b) provide alternative dialogue to better explain the injury to a layperson with no anatomical training. In the second part of this project, students are required to provide an advanced overview of the regional anatomy i.e. muscle/nerve innervation/ vasculature likely to be affected with the injury and discuss the functional implications, targeted at medical professionals or anatomists.
Part B: As part of the group submission, students will be required to provide a confidential peer-assessment of each group member’s contribution to this project using Canvas grading. Specifically, students will rate each member’s contribution on a scale of 0 – 5 for each of three to six criteria; scores will be normalized to give a final group contribution weighting between 0-1, which will then be multiplied by the product/overall mark of the group - 15% individual weighting
EOS Theory Examination The 2-hour written examination is aimed at ascertaining each student’s understanding and knowledge of the principles and core course content presented during all modules and will be held during the university’s official examination period. The format of the comprehensive exam will include:
- Key style MCQ
- Short answer questions (selective questions sourced from weekly practical notes)
- Extended response/Essay questions
EOS Practical Examination The practical examination will be held in the central university examination block, in the Ray Last Anatomy Laboratory (SB02), which will cover a combination of lecture material, laboratory material and supplied online resources/readings. The exam is designed to determine students’ ability to identify osteological, arthological, nervous and vasculature structures of the anatomical regions covered over the course of the semester, and their respective function. The format of the exam will contain approximately 45 stations, with 75-second rotations between each; you will be required to answer short response questions using an amalgamation of cadaveric prosections, anatomical models and medical images. These questions may include identifying structures, explaining the function(s) of particular structures, labelling or drawing diagrams. Students will be given a total of 60 minutes to complete the exam – 25% weighting
Submission Guidelines for the Anatomical Dialogue Group Project:To be saved and submitted as a digital file (mp4 format or equivalent) with accompanying script. The maximum presentation time for each group should not exceed 15 minutes. File size should not exceed 500MB. To be submitted under the ‘Assessment’ in Canvas AND emailed to email@example.com by the due date. Group contribution peer grading will be conducted online, individually and confidentially in Canvas – 15% weighting (individual).
NOTE: We encourage creativity and originality with this task! Note that the marking criteria will include the ‘use of creative writing style’ so it is important that students write in a manner that makes their story interesting to read/watch/listen to.
Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:
M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme) Grade Mark Description FNS Fail No Submission F 1-49 Fail P 50-64 Pass C 65-74 Credit D 75-84 Distinction HD 85-100 High Distinction CN Continuing NFE No Formal Examination RP Result Pending
Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.
Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.
Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.
The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.
SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.
- Academic Support with Maths
- Academic Support with writing and speaking skills
- Student Life Counselling Support - Personal counselling for issues affecting study
- International Student Support
- AUU Student Care - Advocacy, confidential counselling, welfare support and advice
- Students with a Disability - Alternative academic arrangements
- Reasonable Adjustments to Teaching & Assessment for Students with a Disability Policy
Policies & Guidelines
This section contains links to relevant assessment-related policies and guidelines - all university policies.
- Academic Credit Arrangement Policy
- Academic Honesty Policy
- Academic Progress by Coursework Students Policy
- Assessment for Coursework Programs
- Copyright Compliance Policy
- Coursework Academic Programs Policy
- Elder Conservatorium of Music Noise Management Plan
- Intellectual Property Policy
- IT Acceptable Use and Security Policy
- Modified Arrangements for Coursework Assessment
- Student Experience of Learning and Teaching Policy
- Student Grievance Resolution Process
Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.
The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.