Dr Carolyn Schultz

Dr Carolyn Schultz
 Position Visiting Research Fellow
 Org Unit Agricultural Science
 Email carolyn.schultz@adelaide.edu.au
 Telephone +61 8 8313 7342
 Location Floor/Room 1 ,  Plant Research Centre ,   Waite
  • Biography/ Background

    Dr Carolyn Schultz received a PhD from New York University in 1995 for studies on nitrogen metabolism in plants, under the supervision of Dr Gloria Coruzzi. From Jan 1995 - March 2001 she worked at the University of Melbourne, School of Botany for the CRC for Industrial Plant Biopolymers (now for the CRC for Bioproducts) with Prof Adrienne Clarke and Prof Tony Bacic. This work focused on using biotechnology to develop products for the food and pharmaceutical industries, using plant cells in suspension culture.

    She moved to The University of Adelaide in May 2001 where she continues to study the function and modification of proteoglycans in the plant cell wall. In Semester 2, 2007 Carolyn went on sabbatical to Dr Maria Harrison's Lab at Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research (affilliated with Cornell University), to investigate the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza-specific AGPs in the pasture legume Medicago truncatula. She is also involved with the Australian native food industry with projects on plant improvement and sensory evaluation of the Australia native berry muntries.

    In her spare time Carolyn takes part in coastal rehabilitation programs, such as the Cape Jervis Coastal Community Group.


    Indigenous Science Outreach - Yitpi Foundation curriculum project

    December 2016 was the official launch of two exciting teaching resources, thanks to a National Science Week grant.

    The project was part-funded by the Yitpi Foundation and developed by Carolyn Schultz and Fiona Ryan in collaboration with Verna Koolmatrie, Kevin Kropinyeri, Clyde Rigney and Derek Walker of Raukkan Community, and teachers Sarah McDonnell, Louise Jaensch and Meagan McDonnell.

    “Ngarrindjeri culture embedded in Year 10 Science” has 21 lessons covering 5 broad themes

    • Rushes and Plant Cell Walls
    • Plant Databases
    • Indigenous Land Management / Biodiversity
    • Seeds, Human Nutrition and Germination
    • Australian Native Foods: Feeding Australia Sustainably.

    A complementary Year 10 history resource “Weaving Ngarrindjeri History” includes

    • Ngarrindjeri Dreaming
    • All things are Connected
    • The Stolen Generations
    • Weaving: History and Gender
    • Waterflows

    Lessons are aligned to the Australian Curriculum and educators can share and adapt using Creative Commons share-alike. The science resources include a student activity booklet, a teachers’ handbook and are supported by e-resources such as excel© worksheets and posters. Suggestions are provided on how to adapt the material to other Aboriginal cultures.

    Special thanks to Camp Coorong for providing the weaving rushes and starters and Betty Sumner for sharing her weaving and cultural knowledge.

    Yitpi Year 10 Science and History teaching resources are available for download at dropbox



    AND at the end of this web page.

    Schultz C, Ryan F, Ryder M, McDonnell S, Koolmatrie V and Kropinyeri K. (2016) Ngarrindjeri culture embedded in Year 10 Science: Activity Booklet for Students.

    Schultz C, Ryan F, Ryder M, McDonnell S, Koolmatrie V and Kropinyeri K. (2016) Ngarrindjeri culture embedded in Year 10 Science: Teacher Handbook.   

    Ryan F, Jaensch L, Schultz C, Ryder M, McDonnell S, Koolmatrie V and Kropinyeri K. (2016) Weaving Ngarrindjeri History. Year 10 Activity Book (for students and teachers). Contact Fiona Ryan (ryderyan@chariot.net.au).

    These Indigenous teaching resources are released under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (BY,SA). You are allowed to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially).

  • Research Interests

    Plant Cell Surface Interactions and mycorrhizas


    Program 1.  Structure-function relationships of proteins at plant–fungal interfaces in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses.


    Sustainable farming systems rely on symbiotic interactions between plaints and soil microogainisms, such as rhizobia and arbuscular-mycorrhiza (AM).  Initiation of these interactions requires complex signalling events that lead to extensive changes to plant membranes and walls.  We are working with the legume Medicago truncatula to identify key genes at the interface between the plant and fungus in this important symbiosis. 


    We recently discovered a new class of fungal genes in Glomus intraradices (Schultz & Harrison, 2008). AGL proteins encoded by two AGL genes from G. intraradices (GiAGLs) represent a new structural class of proteins not found in non-AM fungi or plants. Structural modelling shows that GiAGL1 can form an amphipathic polyproline II helix with separate positively and negatively charged faces. Proteins that form amphipathic polyproline II helices can have cell penetrating activity in mammalian cells. The unique structural properties of the newly discovered AGLs suggests they could assist the formation of symbiotic interfaces through self-assembly and interactions with plant cell surfaces.




    Program 2.  Plant improvement and sensory evaluation of the Australian spicy apple, “SA berry”, muntries   (currently unfunded)


    Our long term objective is to provide research to assist muntries growers and the Australian food industry to achieve economic growth through the successful development of an economic and environmentally viable muntries industry.  Our current research includes sensory evaluation, product development, GC-MS analysis of aroma compounds and development of molecular markers (AFLP and gene-specific markers).


    In the wild the muntries plant, Kunzea pomifera, occurs as a ground cover along the southern coast of Australia from Portland in Victoria to the Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island in South Australia. It produces clusters of berries, green in colour with a red to purplish tinge at maturity, up to 1 cm or more in diameter, with a spicy-apple flavour. The fruit can be used fresh in desserts and fruit salads, or ooked in pies, chutneys, jams and sweet or savoury sauces.

    link to http://www.ausbushfoods.com/oldmag/Downloads/pirsamuntries.pdf


    Collaborators on the muntries project:

    University of Adelaide, Chi Do (PhD student), Dr Sue Bastian, Dr Trent Johnson and  Dr Maarten Rdyer.

  • Publications

    Schultz CJ, Goonetilleke SN, Liang JP, Lahnstein J, Levin KA, Bianco-Miotto T, Burton RA, Mather DE, Chalmers KJ (2021) Analysis of genetic diversity in the traditional Chinese medicine plant 'kushen'  (Sophora flavescens Ait.). Frontiers in Plant Science 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.704201
    Schultz CJ, Lim WL, Khor SF, Neumann KA, Schulz JM, Ansari O, Skewes MA, Burton RA. (2020) Consumer and health-related traits of seed from selected commercial and breeding lines of industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa L. J Agric Food Res, 2, 100025. Click here to download pdf
    Do CM, Delaporte KL, Pagay V, Schultz CJ (2018) Salinity tolerance of muntries (Kunzea pomifera, F.Muell.), a native food crop in Australia. HortScience, 53, 1562-1569 Click here to download pdf
    Juranic M, Tucker MR, Schultz CJ, Shirley NJ, Taylor JM, Spriggs A, Johnson SD, Bulone V and Koltunow AM (2018) Asexual female gametogenesis in Hieracium involves contact with a sexually-fated cell. Plant Physiology 177, 1027-1049.

    Do CM, Panakera-Thorpe LC, Delaporte K, Croxford AE and Schultz CJ (2018) Genic simple sequence repeat markers for measuring genetic diversity in a native food crop: a case study of Australian Kunzea pomifera F.Muell. (muntries). Genetics Resources and Crop Evolution. 65, 917–937. 

    Johnson KL, Cassin AM, Lonsdale A, Bacic A, Doblin MS, Schultz CJ (2017) A motif and amino acid bias bioinformatics pipeline to identify hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Plant Physiology, 174, 904-921.

    Johnson KL, Cassin AM, Lonsdale A, Wong GKS, Soltis DE, Miles NW, Melkonian M, Melkonian B, Deyholos MK, Leebens-Mack J, Rothfels CJ, Stevenson DW, Graham SW, Wang X, Wu S, Pires JC, Edger PP, Carpenter EJ,  Bacic B, Doblin MS, Schultz CJ (2017) Insights into the evolution of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins from 1000 plant pranscriptome. Plant Physiology 2017, 174, 904-921.

    Do CM, Delaporte KL, Schultz CJ (2017) Benchmarking study of quality parameters of Rivoli Bay selection of Kunzea pomifera (muntries): A new Indigenous crop from Australia. Scientia Horticulturae. 219, 287–293

    Byrt CS, Zhao M, Kourghi M, Bose J, Henderson SW, Qiu J, Gilliham M, Schultz C, Schwarz M, Ramesh SA, Yool A, Tyerman S (2017) Non-selective cation channel activity of aquaporin AtPIP2;1 regulated by Ca2+ and pH. Plant, Cell & Environment. 40, 802-815.

    Do CM, Panakera-Thorpe LL, Delaporte K and Schultz CJ (2016) Kunzea pomifera (muntries): Selection, validation and evaluation of important horticultural traits. In: Finn CE, Mezzetti B (Ed.), XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes, pp. 31-37. 

    Creasey R, Voelcker NH and Schultz CJ (2012) Investigation of self-assembling proline- and glycine-rich recombinant proteins and peptides inspired by proteins from a symbiotic fungus using atomic force microscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins & Proteomics. 1824, 711-722.

    Johnson KL, Kibble NAJ, Bacic A and Schultz CJ (2011) A Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration. PLOS ONE, 6, e25154.

    Aizat WM, Preuss JM, Johnson AAT, Tester MA and Schultz CJ (2011) Investigation of a His-rich arabinogalactan-protein for micronutrient biofortification of cereal grain. Physiologia Plantarum, 143, 271-286.

    Ellis M, Egelund J, Schultz CJ and Bacic A (2010) Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs): Key regulators at the cell surface? Plant Physiology, 153, 403–419.

    Schultz CJ, Kochian LV and Harrison MJ (2010) Genetic variation for root architecture, nutrient uptake and mycorrhizal colonisation in Medicago truncatula accessions. Plant & Soil, 336, 113–128

    Kibble NAJ, Sohani MM, Shirley N, Byrt C, Roessner U, Bacic A, Schmidt O and Schultz CJ (2009). Phylogenetic analysis and functional characterisation of strictosidine synthase-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.Functional Plant Biology, 36, 1098-1109.

    Sohani MM, Schenk PM, Schultz CJ, Schmidt O. (2009) Phylogenetic and transcriptional analysis of a strictosidine synthase-like gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals involvement in plant defence responses. Plant Biology, 11, 105-117.  

    Schultz CJ, Apps DJ, Johnson TE, Bastian SEP (2009) Testing consumer acceptability of new crops: an integrated sensory and marketing approach using muntries, an Australian native berry. Food Australia, 61, 335-341.for pdf see files at end of web page.

    Schultz CJ, Harrison MJ. (2008) Novel plant and fungal arabinogalactan-like proteins in the Medicago truncatula – Glomus intraradices arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  Mycorrhiza. 18, 403-412.

    Qu Y, Egelund J, Gilson PR, Houghton F, Gleeson PA, Schultz CJ, Bacic A (2008) Identification of a novel group of putative Arabidopsis thaliana b-(1,3)-galactosyltransferases. Plant Molecular Biology 68,43–59.

    March TJ, Able JA, Willsmore K, Schultz CJ, Able AJ (2008) Comparative mapping of a QTL controlling black point formation in barley. Functional Plant Biology, 35, 427-437. http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/FP08089.htm

    Bahraminejad S, Asenstorfer RE, Williams KJ, Hayasaka K, Zwer PK, Riley IT, Schultz CJ (2008) Metabolites correlated with cereal cyst nematode resistance in oats (Avena sativa) identified using single seed descent lines. Nematologia Mediterranea. 36, 145-152.

    Tran M, Schultz CJ, Baumann U. (2008) Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants. BMC Genomics.

    Bahraminejad, S, Asenstorfer RE, Riley IT, Schultz CJ (2008) Analysis of the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids and saponins isolated from the shoots of oats (Avena sativa L.)"  Journal of Phytopathology. 156, 1-7.    

    March TJ, Able JA, Schultz CJ and Able AJ (2007) A novel late embryogenesis abundant protein and peroxidase associated with black point in barley grains. Proteomics. 7, 3800-3808.

    Schultz CJ
    , Ferguson KL, Lahnstein J, Bacic A. (2004) Post-translational modifications of arabinogalactan-peptides of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endoplasmic reticulum and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor signal cleavage sites and hydroxylation of proline. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 45503-45511

    Gaspar YM, Nam J, Schultz CJ, Lee YL, Gilson PR, Gelvin SB and Bacic A (2004).  Characterization of the Arabidopsis lysine-rich arabinogalactan-protein AtAGP17 mutant (rat1) that results in a decreased efficiency of agrobacterium transformation. Plant Physiology 135, 2162-2171.

    Johnson KL, Jones BJ, Schultz CJ and Bacic A (2003).  The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs) of Arabidopsis thaliana.  A novel multigene family of putative cell adhesion molecules.  Plant Physiology 133, 1911-25.

    Eisenhaber E, Wildpaner M, Schultz CJ, Borner GHH, Dupree P and Eisenhaber F (2003) Glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchoring of plant proteins: Sensitive prediction from sequence and genome-wide studies for Arabidopsis and rice. Plant Physiology 133, 1691-1701

    Schultz CJ
    , Rumsewicz MR, Johnson KL, Jones BJ Gaspar Y, Bacic A (2002). Using genomic resources to guide research directions:  The arabinogalactan-protein gene family as a test case.  Plant Physiol. 129, 1448-1463. I was awarded Plant Physiology’s Young Scientist’s Best Paper Award 2002 for this paper

    Schultz CJ (2001). Oh what a wonderful weed (review).  Today’s Life Science 13, 48-52.

    Gaspar Y, Johnson KL, McKenna J, Bacic A, Schultz CJ (2001). The complex structures of arabinogalactan-proteins and the journey towards a function (review). Plant Molecular Biology 47, 161-176

    Poon S, Clarke AE, Schultz CJ (2001). A protein engineering approach for determining the influence of a-helices on the emulsifying properties of proteins. Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry. 65, 1713-1723.

    Poon S, Clarke AE, Schultz CJ (2001).  The effect of denaturants on the emulsifying activity of proteins. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 49, 281-286.

    Schultz CJ, Johnson KL, Currie G, Bacic A (2000) The classical arabinogalactan protein gene family of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12, 1751-1767

    Poon SP, Clarke AE, Schultz CJ (1999) Structure-function analysis of the emulsifying and interfacial properties of apomyoglobin and derived peptides.  Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 213, 193-203.

    Schultz CJ, Hsu M, Miesak B, Coruzzi GM. (1998) Arabidopsis mutants define the in vivo role for aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in plant nitrogen metabolism. Genetics 149, 491-499.

    Schultz CJ, Hauser K, Lind JL, Atkinson AH, Pu Z-H, Anderson MA, Clarke AE  (1997) Molecular characterisation of a cDNA sequence encoding the backbone of a style-specific 120kDa glycoprotein which has features of both extensins and arabinogalactan proteins.  Plant Molecular Biology 35, 833-845.

    Schultz CJ, Coruzzi GM (1995) The aspartate aminotransferase gene family of Arabidopsis encodes isoenzymes localized to three distinct subcellular compartments. Plant Journal 7, 61-75.

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Entry last updated: Thursday, 12 Jan 2023

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